Human resources - blackwell publishing (2005) the blackwell handbook of personnel selection

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T B H  P S Handbooks in Management Donald L. Sexton and Hans Landström The Blackwell Handbook of Entrepreneurship Edwin A. Locke The Blackwell Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior Martin J. Gannon and Karen L. Newman The Blackwell Handbook of Cross-Cultural Management Michael A. Hitt, R. Edward Freeman and Jeffrey S. Harrison The Blackwell Handbook of Strategic Management Mark Easterby-Smith and Marjorie A. Lyles The Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management Henry W. Lane, Martha L. Maznevski, Mark Mendenhall, and Jeanne McNett The Blackwell Handbook of Global Management Arne Evers, Neil Anderson, and Olga Voskuijl The Blackwell Handbook of Personnel Selection T B H  P S Edited by A E, N A,  O V © 2005 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd except for editorial material and organization © 2005 by Arne Evers, Neil Anderson, and Olga Voskuijl BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Arne Evers, Neil Anderson, and Olga Voskuijl to be identified as the Authors of the Editorial Material in this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2005 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd 1 2005 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Blackwell handbook of personnel selection / edited by Arne Evers, Neil Anderson, and Olga Voskuijl. p. cm. — (Handbooks in management) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978–1–4051–1702–9 (hard cover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1–4051–1702–8 (hard cover : alk. paper) 1. Employee selection. 2. Employee screening. 3. Employment tests. 4. Employees— Recruiting. I. Evers, Arne. II. Anderson, Neil, 1961– III. Voskuijl, Olga. IV. Series. HF5549.5.S38B55 2005 658.3¢112—dc22 2005006582 A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10 on 12 pt Baskerville by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd, Hong Kong Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellpublishing.com Contents List of Contributors viii Notes on the Editors xii Notes on the Contributors xiii Preface xxi 1 Relationships between Practice and Research in Personnel Selection: Does the Left Hand Know What the Right Is Doing? N A P I P  S 1 25 2 Job Analysis: Current and Future Perspectives O F. V 27 3 The Impracticality of Recruitment Research A M. S 47 4 The Design of Selection Systems: Context, Principles, Issues R A. R 73 5 Is the Obvious Obvious? Considerations About Ethical Issues in Personnel Selection O F. V, A E,  S G P II D   U  D K  P 6 The Selection/Recruitment Interview: Core Processes and Contexts R L. D 98 119 121  vi 7 Cognitive Ability in Personnel Selection Decisions D S. O, C V,  S D 143 8 Personality in Personnel Selection J F. S  F  F 174 9 Emotional Factors as Selection Criteria C W 199 10 Situational Judgment Tests D C  N S 219 11 Assessment Centers: Recent Developments in Practice and Research F L  G C. T III 243 P III D   C 12 Decision Making in Selection M P. B  D S 13 Relevance and Rigor in Research on the Applicant’s Perspective: In Pursuit of Pragmatic Science A L. I  A M R 14 267 291 Ethnic Bias and Fairness in Personnel Selection: Evidence and Consequences 306 A E, J  N,  H   F P IV C M 15 265 The Prediction of Typical and Maximum Performance in Employee Selection U-C K  N A 329 331 16 Job Performance: Assessment Issues in Personnel Selection C V  D S. O 354 17 The Prediction of Contextual Performance L M. P  W C. B 376 P V E T  A  C 18 Computer-Based Testing and the Internet D B 19 A Review of Person–Environment Fit Research: Prospects for Personnel Selection A E. M. V V 20 Selection of Leaders in Global Organizations N C-S  D W 397 399 419 440  vii 21 Expatriate Selection: A Process Approach A E. M. V V, I E. D P,  P M. C 458 22 Selection for Teams N J. A  M A. W 476 23 Multilevel Selection and Prediction: Theories, Methods, and Models R E. P  B S 495 Author Index 517 Subject Index 541 Contributors Natalie J. Allen Department of Psychology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, CANADA N6A 5C2 E-mail: nallen@uwo.ca Neil Anderson Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: N.R.Anderson@uva.nl Dave Bartram SHL Group plc, The Pavilion, 1 Atwell Place, Thames Ditton, Surrey KT7 0NE, UNITED KINGDOM E-mail: dave.Bartram@shlgroup.com Walter C. Borman Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Inc., 100 South Ashley Drive, Suite 375, Tampa FL 33602, USA E-mail: wally.borman@pdri.com Marise Ph. Born Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, FSW, Instituut Psychologie, Postbus 1738 (kamer W J505), 3000 DR Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: born@fsw.eur.nl Paula M. Caligiuri Human Resource Management Department, Rutgers University, 94 Rockafeller Road, 200B Levin Building, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA Email: caligiuri@smlr.rutgers.edu David Chan Department of Social Work and Psychology, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE E-mail: davidchan@nus.edu.sg    Nicole Cunningham-Snell Shell Centre, PSSL-LD, York Road, London SE1 7NA, UNITED KINGDOM E-mail: N.Cunningham-Snell@shell-com Filip de Fruyt Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, Gent 9000, BELGIUM E-mail: filip.defruyt@rug.ac.be Irene E. de Pater Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: I.E.dePater@uva.nl Stephan Dilchert University of Minnesota, Department of Psychology, 75 E River Road, Minneapolis MN 55455-0344, USA E-mail: Dilc0002@umn.edu Robert L. Dipboye Rice University, PO Box 1892, Houston TX 77251-1892, USA E-mail: dipboye@rice.edu Arne Evers Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: a.v.a.m.evers@uva.nl Sacha Geerlings Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: sacha.geerlings@xs4all.nl Anna L. Imus Department of Psychology, 340C Psychology Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 488241116, USA E-mail: schne248@msu.edu Ute-Christine Klehe Psychologisches Institut, Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, Universität Zürich, Rämistrasse 62, CH-8001 Zürich, SWITZERLAND E-mail: u.klehe@psychologie.unizh.ch Filip Lievens Department of Personnel Management and Work and Organizational Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, BELGIUM E-mail: filip.lievens@ugent.be ix x    Deniz S. Ones University of Minnesota, N218 Elliott Hall, 75 E River Road, Minneapolis MN 55455-0344, USA E-mail: Deniz.S.Ones-1@tc.umn.edu Lisa M. Penney Department of Psychology, 126 Heyne Building, University of Houston, Houston TX 77204-5022, USA E-mail: lisa.penney@mail.uh.edu Robert E. Ployhart Department of Management, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, Columbia SC 29208, USA E-mail: ployhart@moore.sc.edu Robert A. Roe Universiteit Maastricht, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: r.roe@os.unimaas.nl Ann Marie Ryan Department of Psychology, 333 Psychology Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1116, USA E-mail: ryanan@msu.edu Alan M. Saks Division of Management, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, and Centre for Industrial Relations, University of Toronto, 105 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA M5S 3E6 E-mail: saks@utsc.utoronto.ca Jesús F. Salgado Departamento de Psicología Social, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, SPAIN E-mail: psjesal@usc.es Neal Schmitt Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1116, USA E-mail: schmitt@msu.edu Benjamin Schneider Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742, USA E-mail: ben@psyc.umd.edu Dora Scholarios Dept. of Human Resource Management, University of Strathclyde, 50 Richmond St. Glasgow G1 1XU, UNITED KINGDOM E-mail: d.scholarios@strath.ac.uk    Jan te Nijenhuis Open Universiteit, Postbus 2960, 6401 DL Heerlen, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: Jan.teNijenhuis@ou.nl George C. Thornton III Colorado State University, Department of Psychology, Fort Collins, Collorado 80523-52323, USA E-mail: thornton@lamar.colostate.edu Henk van der Flier Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: h.van.der.flier@psy.vu.nl Annelies E. M. van Vianen Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: A.E.M.vanVianen@uva.nl Chockalingam Viswesvaran Dep. of Psychology, Florida International University, University Park, Miami FL 33199, USA E-mail: Vish@fiu.edu Olga F. Voskuijl Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Roetersstraat 15, 1018 WB Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS E-mail: Ovoskuijl@fmg.uva.nl Michael A. West University of Aston, Birmingham B4 7ET, UNITED KINGDOM E-mail: m.a.west@aston.ac.uk David Wigfield Shell Centre, PSSL-LD, York Road, London SE1 7NA, UNITED KINGDOM E-mail: David.wigfield@shell.com Charles Woodruffe 19 Dunraven Street, London W1Y 4JR, UNITED KINGDOM E-mail: charles.woodruffe@humanassets.co.uk xi Notes on the Editors Arne Evers is Associate Professor in Work and Organizational Psychology at the University of Amsterdam. His research interests include personnel selection, discrimination in selection, test and scale construction, organizational diagnosis, and work stress. He has published chapters or articles on these issues in Journal of Organizational Behavior, International Journal of Testing, European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Educational Psychology, and the Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology (Psychology Press, UK). Arne is a member of the Committee on Testing of the Dutch Association of Psychologists (COTAN) and of the standing Committee on Tests and Testing of the European Federation of Psychological Associations. Neil Anderson is Professor of Organizational Psychology at the University of Amsterdam. His research interests include recruitment and selection, organizational and work group socialization, innovation at work, and organizational climate. Neil has relevant ongoing research projects, either collaboratively or alone, into interviewer and applicant decision making in assessment interviews, the structure and properties of popular “Big Five” measures of personality, and the practitioner–researcher divide in Work and Organizational Psychology. He has co-authored and edited a number of books, including the Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology (Sage, UK) and the International Handbook of Selection (Wiley, UK) and his work has appeared in several scholarly journals including Journal of Applied Psychology, Human Relations, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, and International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Neil has been Visiting Professor to the University of Minnesota (USA) and the Free University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands). Neil is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Olga Voskuijl is Assistant Professor in Work and Organizational Psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Her research interests concern personnel selection; theory, modeling, and measurement of job performance; job analysis; measurement and analysis of ability, personality, and vocational development. She has published on these topics in journals such as International Journal of Selection and Assessment, International Journal of Human Resource Management, and European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Notes on the Contributors Natalie J. Allen is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at The University of Western Ontario in Canada. Much of her research deals with the conceptualization and measurement of employee commitment to organizations, the development of employee commitment, and its behavioral consequences. She is the co-author, with John Meyer, of an award-winning book entitled Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research and Application (Sage, 1997). More recent research focuses on psychological issues associated with teams. Dr. Allen’s work appears in various journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Group Dynamics, Human Resource Management Review, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and the Academy of Management Journal. Dr. Allen is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association, an Associate Editor of the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, and has been a visiting scholar at universities in The Netherlands, Australia, and the UK. Dave Bartram is Research Director of the SHL Group plc. Prior to joining SHL in 1998, he was Dean of the Faculty of Science and the Environment, and Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hull. He is a Chartered Occupational Psychologist, Fellow of the British Psychological Society (BPS), and a Fellow of the Ergonomics Society. He is Past-President and a Council member of the International Test Commission (ITC), a member of the British Psychological Society’s Steering Committee on Test Standards and of the European Federation of Psychologists Association’s Standing Committee on Tests and Testing. He is President-Elect of the International Association of Applied Psychology’s Division 2 (Measurement and Assessment). He is the author of several hundred scientific journal articles, papers in conference proceedings, and book chapters in a range of areas relating to occupational assessment, especially in relation to computer-based testing. Walter C. Borman is CEO of Personnel Decisions Research Institutes and is Professor of Industrial-Organizational Psychology at the University of South Florida. He is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and in 1994–95 served as xiv     President of the Society. Borman has written more than 300 books, book chapters, journal articles, and conference papers. He recently co-edited the I/O volume of the Handbook of Psychology (Borman, Ilgen, & Klimoski, 2003), and, with two PDRI colleagues, wrote the Personnel Selection chapter for the 1997 Annual Review of Psychology. He also has served on the editorial boards of several journals in the I/O field. He was the recipient of SIOP’s Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award for 2003. Dr. Borman’s main areas of interest are performance measurement, personnel selection, job analysis, and assessment centers. Marise Ph. Born is Associate Professor in Industrial/Organizational Psychology at the Department of Psychology of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Marise’s research interests are in the areas of personnel selection, job search and choice, personality and individual differences, cross-cultural research, and test development. She is currently on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment and European Journal of Personality. She is also council member of the International Test Commission and serves on the Committee on Testing of the Dutch Association of Psychologists (COTAN). Paula M. Caligiuri is the Director of the Center for Human Resource Strategy (CHRS) and she is Associate Professor of Human Resources Management at Rutgers University in the School of Management and Labor Relations. Paula is also a Visiting Professor at Università Bocconi business school in Milan, Italy. Paula researches, publishes, and consults in three primary areas: strategic human resource management in multinational organizations, global leadership development, and global assignee management. Her academic publications include several articles in the International Journal of Human Resource Management, Journal of World Business, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Her book (with Allan Bird and Mark Mendenhall), Global Dimensions of HRM: Managing the Global Workforce, is due out in 2005. She is on several editorial boards and is an Associate Editor for Human Resource Management Journal. David Chan is Associate Professor at the National University of Singapore and Scientific Advisor to the Center for Testing and Assessment in Singapore. His research includes areas in personnel selection, longitudinal modeling, and adaptation to changes at work. He has published numerous journal articles, authored several Handbook chapters, and co-authored a textbook in personnel selection. He has received several scholarly awards, including the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology’s Distinguished Early Career Contributions Award, William Owens Scholarly Achievement Award, Edwin Ghiselli Award for Innovative Research Design, the American Psychological Association’s Dissertation Research Award, and the Michigan State University Social Science College Award. He currently serves on six editorial boards and regularly reviews for over ten journals. He is currently a consultant to the Prime Minister’s Office in Singapore, the Ministry of Community Development and Sports, the Singapore Police Force, and the Singapore Prison Service. Nicole Cunningham-Snell is a Senior Consultant with Shell International’s leadership development team and is based in London. She has worked as an Occupational Psychol-     xv ogist with Shell for seven years and currently manages the design and delivery of Shell’s suite of leadership assessment and development programs globally. Nicole’s work also involves competencies, appraisal systems, multi-rater feedback systems, selection methods, assessor training, team-building, and she has facilitated learning events globally. She obtained her Ph.D. in 1999 from Goldsmiths College, University of London, and is a member of the British Psychological Society. Filip de Fruyt obtained a Master’s in Biomedical Sciences and a Ph.D. in Psychology. He is appointed as Professor in Differential Psychology and Personality Assessment at the Ghent University in Belgium. His research spans a broad area, including adaptive and maladaptive individual differences, their structure and development, and applied personality psychology. He has been a member and secretary of the Executive Board of the European Association of Personality Psychology for six years, and is currently associate editor of the European Journal of Personality and consulting editor for the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Irene E. de Pater is a Ph.D. student in work and organizational psychology at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Her current research interests include career development, managerial development, personality, and gender and work. She has coauthored publications with Tim Judge, Erin Johnson, and Annelies van Vianen. Stephan Dilchert is a doctoral student of industrial and organizational psychology at the University of Minnesota. His research interests lie in the domains of cognitive ability and personality as predictors in personnel decisions. He has published and presented over a dozen papers on the organizational consequences of using cognitive ability measures in personnel selection as well as on group differences on personality traits and their implications for adverse impact. He has also reviewed tests for the Mental Measurements Yearbook. He is currently investigating the merits of newly proposed intelligence constructs for personnel selection. He has recently completed a meta-analysis of the practical intelligence literature, assessing the utility of the construct in comparison to general mental ability and other specific cognitive abilities. Robert L. Dipboye is chair of the psychology department at the University of Central Florida. Previous to this he was the Herbert S. Autrey Professor at Rice University. He has published widely on the topic of selection. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), and the American Psychological Society and a member of the Society of Organizational Behavior. He was on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Review, the Journal of Organizational Behavior, and the SIOP Frontier Series and was Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology. Sacha Geerlings is a graduate student in Work and Organizational Psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Her Master’s thesis concerned the attitudes on ethical matters of selection psychologists. Furthermore, she compared the ethical guidelines of individual European countries with the European Meta-Code. Her research interests include fairness in selection and the ethics of selection. xvi     Anna L. Imus is a graduate student in Industrial and Organizational Psychology at Michigan State University. She obtained her B.S. from George Mason University where she was given the Outstanding Undergraduate Researcher award. Her current research interests include understanding well-being as it relates to preferential selection, applicant perceptions of the hiring process, and other selection-related issues. Ute-Christine Klehe is a junior faculty member at the Institute of Work- and Organizational Psychology at Zürich University, Switzerland. After obtaining her Master’s degree in psychology at the University of Marburg, Germany, in fall 2000, she completed her Ph.D. with Gary Latham at the Rotman School of Management, University in Toronto, Canada, in 2003, followed by a one-year post-doctoral scholarship with Neil Anderson at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Her main interests of research include typical versus maximum performance as well as selected areas from personnel selection, such as structured selection interviews and the adoption of selection procedures by organizations. So far her work has been chosen for the SIOP Flanagan award and has appeared in the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Filip Lievens is Associate Professor at the Department of Personnel Management and Work and Organizational Psychology at Ghent University, Belgium. His current research interests focus on alternative selection procedures (e.g., assessment centers, situational judgment tests, web-based assessment) and organizational attractiveness. He is the author of over 30 articles and has published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Applied Psychology: An international Review, and International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Deniz S. Ones is the Hellervik Professor of Industrial Psychology at the University of Minnesota. Her research focuses on personnel selection and on personality, integrity, and cognitive ability assessment for decision making. She received multiple awards for her work in these areas: the 1994 Wallace best dissertation and the 1998 McCormick early career distinguished scientific contributions awards from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), and the 2003 Cattell early career award from the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology. She is a Fellow of both Divisions 5 (Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics) and 14 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. She has served or continues to serve on the editorial boards of six journals. She is the current editor in chief of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. In 2001 and 2002, she co-edited the two-volume Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology, a special issue of the journal Human Performance on use of cognitive ability tests, and an issue of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment on counterproductive work behaviors. Lisa M. Penney received her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology at the University of South Florida in November of 2003. She is currently a Research Associate at Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Inc. Dr. Penney’s research has been presented in several scholarly publications and conferences. Moreover, her work on the effects of     xvii incivility in the workplace and counterproductive work behavior has been the subject of numerous stories in media outlets, including Newsweek Japan, the Orlando Sentinel, and the Arizona Republic. Dr. Penney’s primary areas of interest are counterproductive work behavior, job stress, and leadership. Robert E. Ployhart is an Associate Professor at George Mason University. His primary program of research focuses on understanding staffing within the context of forces shaping contemporary Human Resources (e.g., developing multilevel staffing models, enhancing the effectiveness and acceptability of recruitment and staffing procedures, identifying cultural/subgroup influences on staffing processes, merging technology with assessment). His second program of research focuses on applied statistical/measurement models and research methods, such as structural equation modeling, multilevel modeling, and longitudinal modeling. Rob has published over 40 articles and chapters on these topics. He is an active member of both the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the Academy of Management, and has won awards from both organizations. Rob serves on several editorial boards and has consulted on a number of projects in the private and public sectors. Robert A. Roe is Professor of Organization Theory and Organizational Behavior at the University of Maastricht. Previously, he taught at the universities of Amsterdam, Delft, Tilburg, and Nijmegen. Robert has been Director of the Netherlands Aeromedical Institute, and has worked with numerous companies and public organizations as a consultant. He was founding director of the Work & Organization Research Center (Tilburg), and founding president of the European Association of Work & Organizational Psychology. He received a special award for initiating the bi-annual European Congress of W&O Psychology and for promoting European integration in this field. Robert has served on several editorial boards. He has published over 300 journal articles and book chapters, as well as some books, covering personnel selection and appraisal, performance, motivation, competence, organizational assessment, and other issues. Robert has a strong interest in conceptual and methodological issues, including the application of design methodology. Ann Marie Ryan is a Professor of Industrial-Organizational Psychology at Michigan State University. Her primary area of expertise is employee selection, with a particular focus on issues of fairness and hiring processes, applicant perceptions and recruiting, and diversity in organizations. She has co-authored numerous articles and book chapters. She recently served as president of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and currently serves as editor of Personnel Psychology. Alan M. Saks is a Professor of Organizational Behaviour and Human Resources Management at the University of Toronto where he holds a joint appointment and teaches in the Division of Management, the Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, and the Centre for Industrial Relations. His major research interests are in the areas of recruitment, job search, the transfer of training, and the socialization of new employees. He is the author of Research, Measurement, and Evaluation of Human Resources, and co-author of Organizational Behaviour: Understanding and Managing Life at Work, and Managing Performance xviii     through Training & Development. He currently serves on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Vocational Behavior. Jesús F. Salgado is Professor of Work and Organizational Psychology and Human Resources in the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. He has been visiting fellow at the Goldsmiths College of the University of London (1999, 2000). He has authored over 70 articles published in leading psychology and management journals, including Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Human Performance, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Applied Psychology: An International Journal, Journal of Organizational Behavior, European Journal of Personality, and European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. He also has authored two books and a number of chapters in international handbooks. His research is mainly on the criterion validity and the international validity generalization of personnel selection procedures. Currently, he is co-editor of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment and he is on the editorial board of six journals. Jesús is a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Neal Schmitt is University Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Management at Michigan State University. He was editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology from 1988–94 and has served on ten editorial boards. He has also been a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology. He has received the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology’s Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award (1999) and Distinguished Contributions Award (1998). He served as the Society’s President in 1989–90. He has co-authored three textbooks, Staffing Organizations with Ben Schneider, Research Methods in Human Resource Management with Richard Klimoski, Personnel Selection with David Chan, co-edited Personnel Selection in Organizations with Walter Borman and Measurement and Data Analysis with Fritz Drasgow, and published approximately 150 articles. His current research centers on the effectiveness and outcomes of organizations’ selection procedures, particularly as they relate to subgroup employment and applicant reactions and behavior. Benjamin Schneider is Professor of Psychology at the University of Maryland and a Senior Research Fellow with Personnel Research Associates, Inc. In addition to Maryland, Ben has taught at Michigan State University and Yale University and for shorter periods of time at Dartmouth College (Tuck School), Bar-Ilan University (Israel, on a Fulbright), University of Aix-Marseilles (France), and Peking University (PRC). He has published more than 125 professional journal articles and book chapters, as well as eight books. Ben’s interests concern service quality, organizational climate and culture, staffing issues, and the role of personality in organizational life. Ben was awarded the Year 2000 Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In addition to his academic work, Ben over the years has consulted with numerous companies including Citicorp, AT&T, Allstate, Sotheby’s, the Metropolitan Opera, Prudential, GEICO, IBM, American Express, Giant Eagle, and MeadWestvaco.     xix Dora Scholarios is a Reader in Organizational Behaviour at the Department of Human Resource Management in the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. She received her Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from The George Washington University in Washington, DC (1990). Dora’s research interests are in the areas of personnel selection and classification, social process perspectives of selection, and the effects of emerging forms of work on career patterns and employee well being. She has been involved in several large research projects funded by the US Army Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences, the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council, and the European Union. Jan te Nijenhuis is employed at the Dutch Open University. Previously, he worked as Assistant Professor and Postdoc at the University of Amsterdam and Leiden University. He won a prize for talented young researchers for his Master’s thesis on test training. His Ph.D. project at the Department of Work and Organizational Psychology of the Free University on the assessment of immigrants was carried out at and paid for by Dutch Railways and won a prize for the best dissertation on applied psychology. Jan is interested in applied and fundamental research into personality and individual differences, with a focus on personnel psychology, and has published many professional journal articles and book chapters. He is a member of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and the International Society for Intelligence Research. George C. Thornton III is Professor of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Colorado State University. His current research interests include the effectiveness of developmental assessment centers for managers and students, the role of industrial psychology in employment discrimination litigation, and the cross-cultural study of achievement motivation to work. He is the author of three books, several chapters, and numerous articles and conference presentations on assessment center methods. He has helped both public and private organizations develop assessment centers. He has lectured on the assessment center method in numerous countries in Europe and Asia. Henk van der Flier is Professor and Head of the Department of Work and Organizational Psychology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He was Head of the Department of Industrial Psychology of the Dutch Railways until 1990 and Manager Product Development and Quality of the Arbo Management Group until 1998. His research interests and publications are in the fields of working conditions, safety, personnel selection, psychometrics, and cross-cultural psychology. Annelies E. M. van Vianen is Associate Professor in Work and Organizational Psychology at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Her research interests include person environment fit, expatriation, organizational culture, career development, personnel selection, and gender and work. She is the author of 50 Dutch and 30 international scientific journal articles, such as in the Academy of Management Journal, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Personnel Psychology, and International Journal of Selection and Assessment. For several years, she was the editor of the Dutch scientific journal Gedrag en
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