Human destiny reflected in uncle tom’s cabin (harriet beecher stowe) and the miserable (victor hugo) through reader-response criticism

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CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT HUMAN DESTINY REFLECTED IN UNCLE TOM’S CABIN (HARRIET BEECHER STOWE) AND THE MISERABLE (VICTOR HUGO) THROUGH READER-RESPONSE CRITICISM B.A. Thesis Supervisor: Hồ Phương Thùy, M.A. Researcher: Trần Thị Nhi Code: 7106999 Class: NN1054A3 Course: 36 Can Tho, May 2014 DECLARATION I hereby declare that “Human Destiny Reflected in Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe) and The Miserable (Victor Hugo) through Readerresponse Criticism” is the result of my original work and all sources have been quoted and acknowledged by means of complete references. This thesis has not been published and is not concurrently submitted to any other degrees. May, 2014 Supervisor Researcher Ho Phuong Thuy Tran Thi Nhi i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express my deepest thank to my supervisorMs Ho Phuong Thuy who is wonderful in both her immense knowledge and her great character. I totally appreciate her literature’s understanding, which is applied to ‘civilize’ my awareness and to sharp on my ideas more deeply whenever I have opportunities to discuss and work with her. She always maintains her kindness and encouragement to solve my problems when I am in troubles. Her patience and enthusiasm strongly motivate me and help me to never give up. She not only provides me with many useful sources but also keeps inspiring me to complete my thesis. I am possibly affected by her advice and guidance that help me to succeed in both my work and my future life. Therefore, I am so grateful to have her power and ambition in my work. Secondly, I am so thankful to attend Ms Truong Thi Kim Lien’s literary classes. She is the first teacher who has taught me about Uncle Tom and how poor destiny that he has to suffer. From that point, I am really attracted and it lays the foundation for discovering the miserable. Her lessons are so wonderful to give me the useful knowledge of Western literature. Her literary love truly helps me to keep moving forward onto studying more about the wretchedness through out literary world. Finally, my deepest sincere and my appreciation go to English Department, two selected work’s authors, critics, my family and my best friends who always motivate and give me a great deal of strength to work well on my paper. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction................................................................................................ 1-12 1. The overview of two authors and their two selected works ....................... 13-21 2. The analysis of the wretchedness of human destiny reflected in two works.................................................................................. 22-42 3. The comparison of authors’ view of humanities ....................................... 43-54 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 55 Works Cited ................................................................................................. 56-58 iii ABSTRACT The thesis studies how human destiny of the westerners in the ‘civilized’ countries in the nineteenth century through the lens of Reader-Response, especially Marxist and Feminist Criticisms and investigates the ways that societies behave the bottom classes. This work will research the truly human values and examine the ways in which the two writers- Harriet Beecher Stowe (American) and Victor Hugo (French) evaluate the infelicity as well as denounce the social problems. Analyzing, using comparative and deductive skills will be applied to clarify the truth of human states and point out the literary valuehumanity. In Uncle Tom’s Cabin and The Miserable, three portrayed protagonists share the similar miserable situation created by the evil Western societies. Uncle Tom is an honest American servant who has to pay the price of ‘his color’ due to serious discrimination. The French man- Jean Valjean does not receive the society’s acceptance because of his ex-convict in the past in spite of his intelligence and talent. Together with Jean Valjean, Fantine, a beautiful and innocent girl, is buffeted by social prejudice. All of them are treated cruelly but their beautiful souls and goodness are kept. It reflects the humanities of two respectful writers and proves that individuals should be evaluated regardless of their colors, their undesired past or their genders. iv INTRODUCTION Literature is considered as the recording of the human heart and experience with the history and cultural values. It creates another world which we only see through reading literature; “There is no frigate like a book- to take us lands away.” (Dickinson par.1). Therefore, literature becomes one of the most important aspects in lives. It reflects the society and makes us think about it in order to understand more about the past. Numerous literary works are released to enrich the literary world. These works are successful thanks to not only the writer’s talented writing skills but also their whole hearts and marvelous ideology of humanity; In fact, “while it takes years to really know a person through a relationship, literature distills humanity into words”. This reflects that “the literary work is the author himself” and it makes us admire the writers due to covering the value of literature which includes the meaningful and longlasting contribution. When a work can take reader’s hearts, the work and its writer will be survived forever. That is the reason why Harriet Beecher Stowethe well-known American writer and Victor Hugo- the famous French author are appreciated all the time. They contribute to the literary world by portraying historical events deeply and truly in their famous writings. Thanks to these papers, the young generation has opportunities to study and discover how human destiny was reflected in the past. As a person who lives for literature, I am interested in reading the great writings related to history and human behavior in the past especially in the western culture. To study more about the new culture with historical values, I cannot stop discovering them because I feel painful and indignant for inferior people and also feel angry with the cruel scoundrels especially the evil societies. Though covering the civilization and humanity, these societies allow them to treat people badly and cruelly just because of color differences or prevent their talents and ambitions developing due to the poverty. The good and gentle residents cannot show their dreams even if surviving in this unequal society. Although they can be aware of unjust societies and totally have 1 experience in this dark lives, they do not have enough capacity to fight against to get freedom and better life. Therefore, the appearance of some literary works related to this problem helps them to have useful knowledge and strongly motivates them to stand up and struggle. In reality, these works have the value of both the content and the history. As for me, I am used to behave equally due to living in communist society and having the freedom. Besides that, I can live in my way and follow my dreams as well as show my talents even I am not rich. In addition, I also have studied many stories about humiliation that Vietnamese had to undergo during the war due to losing the freedom and being poor under the cruel politics of “civilized” countries. Therefore, I deeply understand how difficult and unjust people have to suffer, and I absolutely share with them. The humanity and love of people help me to come to them- the miserable and discover them. I strongly believe that they have totally great characters and are loved by all though they suffer from the grim destiny. I made the thesis “Human destiny reflected in Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe) and The Miserable (Victor Hugo) through Readerresponse Criticism” because I would like to investigate the injustice and evil society that makes people disappointed with their destiny throughout the main characters. Marxist and Feminist criticisms are applied to help readers to discover the writings more deeply based on the social and dialectic theory; we will understand the human fate clearly and easily throughout the describing of two excellent authors- Harriet Beecher Stowe and Victor Hugo in their most famous works. Throughout this, the readers will understand more about how miserable westerners have to face as well as unequal politics in the contemporary societies. Besides that, this paper also includes the comparison of both writings and writers to discover the author’s perspective and love that they offer to the miserable as well as the evil societies, which have strong effect on their lives, are exposed clearly. We will understand more about how writer’s humanity reflected in their works. To complete this paper, critical analysis will 2 be applied and the oriented ideas will be arranged logically. Marxist and Feminist theory will be used to clarify the character’s destiny basing on historical and social background. To sharpen my thesis, I am also concerned in the related studies, critiques and essays which give me more information about both writers and writings. Reading comprehension will be used to understand the two stories- Uncle Tom’s Cabin and The Miserable and other related papers. After analyzing the miserable human destiny in two selected works, I also apply the comparative skills to figure out the similarities and differences of the characters’ states in western society as well as the author’s humanity that is expressed in some aspects. Harriet Beecher Stowe and Victor Hugo are appreciated in both their talented writing skills and their charity to the inferior classes. They describe every character deeply with different personalities and situations which change his feeling and behavior to serve his real states. Each character with different destiny which is either good or grim, figures the true contemporary social face if we discover him through reader’s response, especially Marxist and Feminist critical lens. I decide to divide my thesis into three chapters which help me to transfer my cherished ambition with deeper and clearer study through every part. Chapter 1 will introduce about the historical background and the authors with important events that urged them to produce these novels. Besides, it also includes the story summaries that cover all writing development. Chapter 2 focuses on analyzing human destiny of the main protagonists reflected in two selected works under Marxism and Feminism. We will understand how miserably westerners suffered in the 19th century. Chapter 3 will give the comparison of historical background, people’s lives and the author’s perspective in two different countries and then figures out similar characteristics of western human destiny and the writers’ humanities. Reader-Response Criticism Reader-Response criticism is a literary theory that primarily focuses on the readers and their experience of the literary works. Reader-response criticism 3 argues that literature should be viewed as a performing art in which each reader creates their own, possibly unique, text-related performance. Marxism and Feminism are two main means of Criticism that are applied to complete my work. They are combined to clarify the westerners’ infelicity through some aspects, especially social class ranking and gender difference. Marxist Criticism is indebted to the political theory of Karl Marx who is primarily a theorist and historian. He plays an important role in distributing people’s awareness about the poor people’s rights and the struggles between the inferior classes and the oppressors. Marx is talented and successful in building the theory related to the workers. DiYanni (391) gave a comment that: Marxist critics reflect literature for its reflection of how dominant elite and middle-class values lead to control and suppression of workingclasses. Marxist critics see the literature’s value in promoting social and economic revolution, with works that espouse Marxist ideology serving to prompt the kinds of economic and political changes to conform to Marxist principles When the profits are not reinvested in working-classes but in creating more factories, they will be grown poorer until the revolution happens successfully under possible and perfect system. That means struggle is the best way to change the destiny and gets better lives between oppresses and oppressing. According to Marxists, literature is reflected those social institutions with a particular ideological function. Literature reflects class struggle and materialism; thought how often the quest for wealth traditionally defines characters. So Abrams (149) figured out the significant application of Marxist view in literature, "it not as works created in accordance with timeless artistic criteria, but as 'products' of the economic and ideological determinants specific to that era". Therefore, Marxist criticism generally approaches literary works as products of their era, especially as influenced, even determined by the economic and political ideology that prevail at that time of their composition. “Marxist criticism is concern both with understanding the roles of politic, money and 4 power in literacy works and with redefining the reforming the way society distributes its resources among the class’s relation.” (DiYanni 391). This is an equal lens to understand and advocate the miserable that are oppressed in the unjust society. Therefore, when coming to them, we will know clearer about the real situation of social rank and status as well as study the writings more successfully. Together with Marxism, Feminism is also used to clarify the women’s miserable situation. In the nineteenth century, Westerners were treated badly due to not only different social classes but also different genders. Women are considered as inferiors who have a little of the legal, social, political rights that are granted in western countries. They are limited both educational and employable opportunities. They have to follow the unequal rules and accept society’s prejudice if they have any mistakes. In 1848, a group of women and men drafted and approved the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments which was considered as the declaration of women’s rights. From that point, women continued to struggle in order to receive their own rights. Therefore, they showed their experience and their voice in literature and took society’s compassion. Thus, Feminism was built in literary world to speak up the women’s infelicity and to sympathize with them. Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory or by the politics of feminism more broadly. It can be simply understood as using feminist principles and ideological discourses to critique literatures language, structure and being. Besides, Feminist criticism is concerned with “the ways in which literature (and other cultural productions) reinforce or undermine the economic, political, social, and psychological oppression of women" (Tyson par.3) In addition, feminist criticism was further concerned with the exclusion of women from the literary canon, and Tyson suggests this is because the views of women authors are often not considered to be universal ones. Therefore, women’s destiny will be understood more clearly through feminist critical lens. 5 In the western of 19th century, people suffered all wretchedness when they were born. They work hard in harsh conditions to serve the society and face the tragic situation even though they are honest, talented and well-behaved to the others. They have love, family, work,…but in society, they are just inferior classes and are oppressed by higher social classes. They cannot change their destiny until they finish their poor lives. They were born in poverty and covered the miserable destiny under lower social statues; they are not allowed to have human rights, freedom, or carry out their dreams even living with their own families. All of these things are forbidden by the social politics. The poor never become the rich though they are intelligent and work very hard as well as the black never put off the slavery and get freedom as the white though they have great personalities and good ambitions. It would be better if they did not come to the world of cruelty which forces the miserable to the hell. All of the unequal things are written and portrayed clearly in two great novels- The Miserable and Uncle Tom’s Cabin which are never forgotten by numerous readers. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is appreciated highly and its most value is that opening the eyes of millions Americans and Europeans on the great shame of America- the Negro slavery. Dinh (89) recognized that the success of Uncle Tom’s Cabin is inevitable because of the obvious reasons, “it reflected the idea that slavery in the United States, the nation that purportedly embodied democracy and equality for all, was an injustice of colossal proportions”. She also appreciated its value which plays an important role in abolishing the slavery in America. It seems to be concerned as the first novel that has touched upon the social problems of the time in American Literature. (“American Literature” 89). In the 19th century, the black people are sold and bought many times as products, becoming slavery who are treated badly as inferiors in society. The White- their masters have rights to control them, even punishing or killing. Green pointed out “a master could be held criminally liable only if the slave he killed was completely submissive and under the master’s absolute control” (par.7). The white deny the slaves opportunities of studying how to read and 6 write to protect against their forming aspiration that could lead to escape or rebellion. Slavery is depicted as “evil not for political or philosophical reasons” (Dinh 91) but mainly because discrimination divides families, destroys normal parental love and is inherently un-Christian. It forces the husband to live far away the wife, mother away the children and these crimes are against sanctity of domestic love. Carrying the historical and humanity values, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is one of the few works that is appreciated and admired by many talented authors in all over the world. Tolstoy mentioned Uncle Tom’s Cabin on his short list of “example of the highest art following from love of God and man” (qtd.in Green, “Deceiving America”). This writing is also evaluated as a heart of typical 19th century melodrama of mixing of feelings and historical events: cruelty, suffering, religious devotion, broken home, improbable reunions (Robbins par.2). According to Bailey, he acknowledged the values of this writing. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is so wonderful with a noble effort and splendid success. He believed that “the work to us give evidence of greater power, of deeper and more various resources, than any other novel of the time.” (par.4). Uncle Tom’s cabin seems to be a real evidence of color discrimination in America of 19th century. Harriet Beecher Stowe is totally successful in describing this dark lives throughout some typical character’s destiny. Green (par.11) expressed: The result was a series of fictional sketches of slaves under physical or psychological assault- among them, the beautiful Eliza, who escapes from bounty hunters by leaping from ice floe to ice floe across the Ohio River with her baby in her arms; the brooding Cassy, who belongs to the brutal Simon Legree; and Tom himself, whose gentleness and generosity grow apace as he is sold father and father south, eventually to Legree, who 7 torments and tortures him before ordering his overseers to beat him to death. Parrker et al. gave a comment that the writer clarifies how miserable human destiny is in her time by her past experience and builds the charactersTom and Eliza with her own suffering and oppression as well as her determination to be free. That helps her to have a deep power to produce this novel which is such phenomenal success. (1606). Come to slavery by her whole heart, convincing the northern reader help to end the discrimination is the main goal for her to start this novel, “most immediately, the novel served as a response to the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which made it illegal to give aid or assistance to the runaway slave”. (Truong 45). She also included Tom embodies noble hero who always spreads some of love and goodwill of his religious beliefs to everyone he meets especially the poor slaveries. Though he does accept his destiny of inferior happily, he helps the runaways to keep the secret. Tom’s passivity is one of his limitations but his personal and “his heroic model behavior should be practiced by everyone, black and white.” (51). Riss argued in his writing “Racial Essentialism and Family Values in Uncle Tom’s cabin” about the role of the authors in the 19th century, especially Harriet Beecher Stowe’s. He expressed: Stowe’s understanding of the priority of race in forming a Negro’s character certainly would not have surprised her contemporary readers. Indeed, during the Antebellum period, it would have been more surprising had Stowe done anything other than attribute cultural differences to race. As one historian of ethnology has stated. Although the United States shared in a general Western movement toward racialist thinking, American writers in the years from 1830 to 1850 led Europeans in expounding views of innate racial difference. (513) 8 Hinkle realized the cruelty of slaveholders though they were characterized as good patrons. She included that Mr. Shelby is considered as the best slave owners and great father of the poor slavery. However, in order to save himself from the immense financial dept, “he is forced to sell Tom as well as Eliza’s son Harry to the unscrupulous trader, Haley. In doing so, he will be breaking up two families, taking children from parents and separating husbands and wives". (Hinkle par.11). She mentioned about Eliza’s unequal destiny and the real happiness when she gets freedom. Though she is behaved well in Mr. Shelby’s house and his wife loves her as her daughter, she is not a white woman with natural rights. In contrast, she is a black slave with maternal love for her son- Harry. Hinkle emphasized: George and Harry’s time in the Quaker home is womb-like, comforting; they are reborn into freedom after passing through the fostering care of these abolitionist people of conscience Stowe calls upon abolitionists of her time to offer this kind of fostering to freedom with Christian patience and affection. (par.18). The Miserable by Victor Hugo is appreciated by millions readers because it is not only a valuable symbol of his success but also a pride of the whole world. Before starting this novel, he had changed the view of independence and Empire; he commented himself “five years ago, I was on a point of becoming the favorite of the king. Today, I am on a point of becoming the favorite of the people.” (qtd. in Maurois, “the life of Victor Hugo”). He will never be the one any other than he was the other, for the moment will come when his feelings of independence will rise to the surface. (279). Maurois (353) confirmed that the story’s material is the general knowledge based on the fact, including building the character’s destiny and reproducing the history. Therefore, this novel has come to be accepted by the whole world as one of the great works of the human image. 9 As a phenomenon in the 19th century in French literature, The Miserable has totally taken the reader’s heart by the real contemporary social and political issues. Turner (par.34) believed that “the experience of The Miserable undergoes a similar process of extremes colliding from different societal and political vectors.” Therefore, The Miserable is perhaps the last great literary masterpiece to achieve a wide readership among all classes of society at the first time it appears. Both writer and writing are absolutely embraced the people as both subject matter and audience to the maximum degree. The convicts, the prostitutes, the revolutionary youth, students and working-class would not only form the plot of this work, but a large percentage of those who would read or at least hear the story read out loud. (Turner par.11). Under Marxist criticism, the novel’s success is enhanced by the historical value. It helps the reader to study the human destiny easily as well as the poverty, unequal society and struggle. Nordby saw the closed relationship between the Marxist critical lens and the novel in interpreting the human poor fait especially in Fantine’s situation. She analyzed: If you were to interpret this scene through a Marxist lens, one could say that Fantine's situation is because of the division between the classes. If a woman of higher birth had child out of wedlock, she perhaps would not have experienced such a massive change in status. Moreover, when Fantine is attacked by a richer, more privileged man, Javert immediately takes his side. Because Fantine is a prostitute, her word has no merit. The class system failed Fantine. (par.3). The story is successful in combining with the reality, covering a deep meaning and it is also the opposite between the dark and light, paradise and hell, that makes the distance among human destiny not only the social position but also in deep morality. Dang et al. (500) showed this viewpoint in their criticism. They emphasized that the dark-light image seems to be the beginning and ending of the novels’ protagonists, though he has to face many challenges even 10 the death, he tries to survive not only for him but also for rescuing the miserable especially the women and the children. They also showed the poor destiny through the typical characters in The Miserable. Fantine with the image of a woman without shoe walking the street to get food, and works in the factory but is fired later; she embodies numerous other people’s fate in the industrialization cities in this times. Valjean is an ex-convict who struggles to redeem himself morally and find the acceptance in society under assumed name for his past mistakes. He has to change his name many times to become a good person. (499). Really, Victor Hugo builds the characters basing on the real social situation including his faith to the right people and his disappointment to the contemporary laws. Iosue (par.13) expressed in his writing “Les Miserable” that Hugo does not believe in the social politics, “though the religion is part of the chain, the law is not”. Iosue proved his criticism by Victor Hugo’s points in completing his two characters- Bishop Myriel and Javert. The priest, who represents for God, helps the poor ex-convict -Valjean by giving him shelter and protects him by telling lies for his stealing. Therefore, Valjean is reborn and becomes a good person who helps other miserable people and is loved by all. In contrast, Javert, representing unjust, unquestioning law, pursues him relentlessly until Javert commits suicide in the face of the truth that the law is wrong. Iosue also included Hugo’s viewpoint; That is society should not break the laws, but the laws should be just and more reliable. Like Iosue, Arms realized Hugo’s talent in writing as well as the value of The Miserable. Its influence has been pervasive, both on the development of modern literary realism and on popular culture in general. He (par.2) appreciated the novel contributing in literature in his study “Les Miserable by Victor Hugo in nineteenth century literature criticism” by a comment: While a work of fiction, the novel also provides insight into and commentary on numerous historical, political, and philosophical 11 subjects, ranging from Napoléon’s defeat at Waterloo to the evolving architectural landscape of nineteenth-century Paris. With a deep investigation into character’s destiny, Femie (par.37) almost realized the life of each character is influenced by several other characters. Their destinies are entwined and to some extent at least, they are depended on one another. He claimed that Jean Valjean takes care of Fantine’s daughter- Cosette as the responsibilities for “Fantine's fall from grace and sets out to make amends”. That is called “the key issue lies in the recognition of one's influence and the acceptance of responsibility for it” instead of changing most profoundly the challenges we may face in the real life. 12 THE OVERVIEW OF TWO AUTHORS AND THEIR TWO SELECTED WORKS Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) and “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” (1862) Uncle Tom’s Cabin is considered as one of the greatest novels of American Literature in the 19th century. Harriet Beecher Stowe shows both her talented writing skills and her whole heart to the slaveries in her writing which is appreciated as “at heart a typical nineteenth-century melodrama of cruelty, suffering, religious devotion, broken homes, and improbable reunion.” (Robbins par.2). The author discovers the miserable destiny and portrays the aspects of the slave’s lives deeply and truly. According to Dinh (89), Uncle Tom’s Cabin seems to open the eyes of millions Americans and Europeans on the great shame of America- the Negro slavery. Therefore, hundreds of editions and millions of copies have been sold around the world even though the value of the story is misunderstood in a short time. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is remained the world’s second most translated book, after the Bible and it has also taken a wide range of readers. It is important to remember that the novel is not just titled Uncle Tom’sit is named Uncle Tom’s Cabin which makes the cabin become the most important symbol around. Though it is not mentioned in the novel regularly, it carries the special meaning because it is the only Tom’s own place where he can live peacefully and happily with his small family. He is proud of it because it is full of his memories including his love’s family and his religiousness even though it is not as big, beautiful and luxurious as his masters’ houses. There, he has time for relaxing after hard-working day and he can show his talent in cooking and he feels happy for receiving the admiration of little patron. That is a dreamful life that he wishes. However, his real destiny is completely contrasted to his cabin and it is a hurt to him whenever he suffers the pain and thinks about it where he cannot return until he dies. The cabin becomes the opposite image of 13 Legree’s plantation where he is behaved cruelly and beaten brutally and it is totally different from the cotton gin shed where Tom lies dying. Moreover, it seems to be as a point of contrast of the cottage where George, Eliza and their family are reunited in Canada where all people are gotten freedom. Though he may not get back his cabin, the freed slave like him can create loving, harmonious household like to it. Race discrimination is a significant social issue because people use this term as the basic for discrimination. It almost appeared about 1400s when Europeans began colonizing African and America with the big idea “civilize the savages” and they would become superior of other race they encountered. Color discrimination is the system that practicing of denying people access to rights, representation or resources based on racial differences. Moreover, it directly and strongly affected every aspect in society. However, it is so important to remember that color discrimination is neither natural nor inevitable. In United States, the court ruling established applying chiefly to Black African from the 18th century. In the next one, there was a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of Africa, however the discriminatory laws kept the black American disenfranchise particularly in the South. Under the laws, the black were treated badly and unequally, compared to the white. They were being legally prohibited to use the same parts of restaurant or beeches. Moreover, they were totally forbidden to study how to write and read, or had their own properties even they could make them. In contrast, they would become criminals. Especially, they live in the society without freedom and were only products which were bought and sold many times. In 1860s, 3.5 million slave were sold in the South of America for serving the agricultural development while industry was widen and needed numerous free workers, so the southern American change their points to the slaves and they really wanted to abolish the slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896) was born in 1811 in Litchfield, Connecticut, into a respectable and famous family. Lyman Beecher- her father 14 was one of America’s most celebrated clergyman and followed the antislavery movement. Her brothers- Henry Ward and Edward were famous preachers and her older sister- Catherine pioneered in woman’s education. All of them were dominated seriously by their father under the God’s lessons. In 1832, she followed her father to Cincinnati. There she taught, wrote, and had heard many slave’s stories from black freedman and white travelers in the South. She had a wide range of knowledge by reading of antislavery literature and saw herself the operation of the “Underground railroad”. In the age of 25, she got married with Calvin Ellis Stowe who is one of the leading professors at Lane and then they had seven children. During 18 years living across Ohio River from slaveholding communities, she absorbed fugitive slaves and visited the South- Kentucky as her first personal knowledge of Institute of Slaveries. In 1848, one of her sonsSamuel Charles died of illness that made her understand more about the miserable of slave women’s separating from maternal love. In 1850, she returned to New England when her husband was appointed to the faculty of Bowdoin College in Maine. There, while seated at the communion table in the Congregational Church that she received the inspiration for her most famous writings “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” under divine direction of God as she later reported. In 1862, President Lincoln called her “a little lady who wrote the book that make the big war” when he first met her to express her novel’s enormous success and the value to the struggle against the slaveholding South. Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe is the real story of the miserable slaveries in the Southern of United States. Stowe focused on portraying Uncle’s Tom - an African slavery with absolutely loyal to his masters and he is a really religious man. He lives without freedom and totally suffers mournfully and difficultly life trip. Due to working hard, he is behaved rather well in his first master- Arthur Shelby. He lives happily in a small cabin and is beloved by all. However, his destiny is changed awfully after Mr. Arthur decides to sell him and another five-year-old talented child – Harry to Haley- a cruel slave trader because of his immense dept even though he is not characterized as 15
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