Household Oriented Approach for the Optimization of Resources Management at the Floating Village in Tonle Sap Lake Region, Cambodia

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VNU UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT DRESDEN EAM SAM UN HOUSEHOLD ORIENTED APPROACH FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT THE FLOATING VILLAGE IN TONLE SAP LAKE REGION, CAMBODIA MASTER THESIS Hanoi - 2011 VNU UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT DRESDEN EAM SAM UN HOUSEHOLD ORIENTED APPROACH FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AT THE FLOATING VILLAGE IN TONLE SAP LAKE REGION, CAMBODIA Major: Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment Code: MASTER THESIS SUPERVISOR: DR. ING. CATALIN STEFAN RESP. PROFFESOR: PROF. DR. RER. NAT DR. H. PETER WERNER Hanoi - 2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My highly appreciation wishes to acknowledge to Dr. Ing. Catalin Stefan, Institute for Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment at the TU Dresden, provided me a great support for making this paper possible and I also contribute of my thanks to alls as following in the accomplishment of this paper existing; • To Prof. Dr. –Ing. Habil. Dr. h. c. Bilitewski and Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Diem Trang, who established the cooperation Master program on “Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment” • To DAAD Hanoi provided me full support for both living allowance and tuition fee for duration 2 years of study. • To Prof. Dr. Le Thanh Son, Vice Dean at the Faculty of Chemistry, at the Hanoi University of Science always provided me a support. • To all professors, lecturers, and colleagues at the Hanoi University of Science and the Institute for Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment, at the TU Dresden for all the important assistances. • To Dr. Carly Starr who kindly revised this paper with grammar and structures. • To very supportive lovely parents, brothers, and sister, for encouragement and inspiration. i TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………………………...i TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………….. .ii ABBREVIATIONS……………………………………………………………………………….v LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………ix LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………xi LIST OF ANNEXES…………………………………………………………………………….xii ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………….....xiii Chapter I Chapter II INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………..1 I.1 Tonle Sap Lake Region……………………………………………………1 I.2 Poverty in Tonle Sap Lake Region………………………………………..2 I.3 Objectives of Study ……………………………………………………….4 ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONEMNAT RELAVANT FACTORS ………………………………………………………………………..5 II.1 Data Mining and Collections……………………………………………...5 II.2 Socio-Economic Factors……………………………………………….….5 II.2.1 Occupation and Income……………………………………….…..5 II.2.2 Education………………………………………………………….7 II.2.3 Sources of Energy for Consumption………………………………7 II.2.4 Human Health …………………………………………………….9 II.2.5 Environmental Pollution…………………………………………10 II.2.6 Land Use Classification………………………………………….10 II.3 Drinking Water Supply and Quality……………………………………..12 II.3.1 Sources of Drinking Water Supply………………………………12 ii II.3.2 Water Quality in the Tonle Sap Lake …………………………...13 II.4 Household Water Treatment Systems (HWTS), Effectiveness and Cost Analysis…………………………………………………………………..15 II.4.1 Solar Disinfection (SODIS)……………………………………...16 II.4.2 Boiling Water……………………………………………………17 II.4.3 Flocculation………………………………………………………18 II.4.4 Simple Sand Filter (SSF)………………………………………...19 II.4.5 Chlorination……………………………………………………...20 II.4.6 Sedimentation……………………………………………………21 II.4.7 Ceramic Filter …………………………………………………...21 II.4.8 Bio-sand Filter …………………………………………………..23 II.4.9 Effectiveness of HWTS………………………………………….26 II.4.10 Cost Analysis of HWTS…………………………………………28 Chapter III II.5 Domestic Waste Generation …………………………………………….29 II.6 Sanitation Facilities……………………………………………………...33 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONCEPT FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ……………………………………………….35 III.1 Optimization of Resources Management………………………………..35 III.2 Development of a Technical Concept for Safe Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation for Household-scale…………………………………………..35 III.2.1 Simple Sand Filter (SSF) and Solar Disinfection (SODIS)……...35 III.2.2 Sanitation ………………………………………………………..38 III.3 Development of Waste Management Concepts and Resource Recovery………………………………………………………………....40 III.3.1 3Rs Approach for Organic Waste Management and Agriculture Waste……………………………………………………………..40 III.3.2 Composting………………………………………………………41 iii III.3.3 Biogas Production……………………………………………….42 III.3.4 Char Briquette Production……………………………………….43 III.4 Development of Socio-Economic………………………………………..46 III.5 Quantification of the Environmental Impact of Technical and SocioEconomic Developments………………………………………………...50 III.5.1 Composting………………………………………………… …...50 III.5.2 Biogas Production………………………………………………...53 III.5.3 Char Briquette…………………………………………………….56 Chapter IV CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………...58 IV.1 Socio-Economic Development……………………………………………..58 IV.1.1 Household’s Income……………………………………………...58 IV.1.2 Household Cost Expenditure…………………………………….59 IV.1.3 Household’s Time Expending…………………………………....60 IV.2 Household’s GHG Emission …………………………………………….…61 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………….62 ANNEXES……………………………………………………………………………………….65 iv ABBREVIATIONS Acronyms 3Rs : Reuse, Recycle, and Reduce ADB : Asia Development Bank AUNP : Asian EU-University Network Program AWWA : American Water Works Association BSF : Bio-sand Filter Ca+2 : Calcium ion CAWST : Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CDC : Center for Disease Control and Prevention CFSP : Cambodian Fuelwood Saving Project CH4 : Methane CHLs : Chlordances Cl- : Chloride CO : Carbon monoxide CO2 : Carbon dioxide COD : Chemical Oxygen Demand CWP : Ceramic Water Purifier DDT : Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane DNA : Deoxyribonucleic acid DO : Dissolved Oxygen EAWAG : Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science EJF : Environmental Justice Foundation v Fe+3 : Iron ion GHG : Green House Gas H2 : Hydrogen H2O : Water HCB : Hexachlorobenzene HCHs : Hexachorinated hydrocarbons HWTS : Household Water Treatment System IDE : International Development Enterprise IGES : Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IPCC : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change JICA : Japan International Cooperation Agency K+ : Potassium ion LPG : Liquefied Petroleum Gas Mg+2 : Magnesium ion Na+ : Sodium ion NaOCl : Sodium hypochlorite NBP : National Biogas Program NIS : National Institute for Statistic NOx : Nitrogen Oxide O2 : Oxygen OCs : Organo-chlorines PAHO : Pan American Health Organization PCBs : Polychlorinated bi-phenyls PCE : Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment PET : Poly Ethylene Terephthalate vi POPs : Persistent Organic Pollutants POU : Point of Use RACHA : Reproductive and Child Health Allience RO : Reversed Osmosis SANDEC : Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries SO4-2 : Sulfate ion SODIS : Solar Disinfection SSF : Simple Sand Filter TCPMe : Tri 4-chlorophenyl methane TN : Total Nitrogen TP : Total Phosphorus TSS : Total Suspended Solid UNDP : United Nations Development Program UNEP : United Nations Environment Protection UNICEF : United Nations for Children’s Fund USAID : United States Agency for International Development UV : Ultra violate Vol : Volume WaterSHED : Water Sanitation Health Environment Development WHO : World Health Organization vii Dimensions µg/L : Microgram per litter asl : Above sea level g/m3 : Gram per cubic meter gCH4/kg waste : Gram methane per kilogram waste ha : Hectare Kg/hh/yr : Kilogram per household per year Kg/p/d : Kilogram per capital per day Km2 : Square kilometer L/d : Litter per day L/hh/d : Litter per household per day L/min : Litter per minute M : Metter mg/L : Milligram per litter mm/yr : Millimeter per year ng/g : Nanogram per gram pH : Percentage of hydrogen t TN/yr : Ton Total Nitrogen per year t TP/yr : Ton total phosphorous per year t/yr : Ton per year TCO2E : Ton carbon dioxide equivalent US$/ha : US Dollar per hectare US$/hh/yr : US Dollar per household per year viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Tonle Sap Lake Region with five zones classification……………………………..…2 Figure 2: Scheme of cycle of poverty and sanitation……………………………………………3 Figure 3: Occupation among population in the Tonle Sap Lake Region by percentage………...6 Figure 4: Income from sectors in the Tonle Sap Lake Region by percentage…………………..6 Figure 5: Education Level in the Tonle Sap Lake Region…………………………………………..7 Figure 6: Sources of energy for cooking……………………………………………………...…8 Figure 7: Sources of energy for lightening…………………………………...…………………9 Figure 8: Sources of drinking water…………………………………...…………………………12 Figure 9: Solar Disinfection …………………………………...………………………………...16 Figure 10: Simple Sand Filter.………………………...………………………………………...19 Figure 11: Ceramic Water Purifier (CWP) …………………...………………………………...22 Figure 12: Bio-sand filter design components…………………………………………………..24 Figure 13: Comparative cost production of HWTS per household per year. …………………...29 Figure 14: Characterization of domestic waste in Siem Reap Province…………………………30 Figure 15: Toilet Facility in Tonle Sap LakeRegion…………………………………...…..……34 Figure 16: Comparison of time spending between baseline–boiling water and optimizedSODIS/SSF…………………………………...…………………………………...…36 Figure17: Comparison of cost production between baseline-boiling water and optimizedSSF/SODIS……………………...…………………………………...………………37 Figure 18: GHG Emission from baseline-boiling water and optimized-SODIS/SSF ……..……37 Figure19: Complete single pit…………………………………...……………………………….39 Figure 20: Nutrient recovery from human waste…………………………………...……………39 Figure 21: Schematic of composting equation………………………………...……………….…….41 ix Figure 22: Conversion of organic material without oxygen………………………………..…...42 Figure 23: Influence factors on biogas and methane yield……………………………….…...…43 Figure 24: Kiln for powder making with burning process……………………………….…...…44 Figure25: Powder compressor for briquette making…………………………………...…..……44 Figure 26: Paper brick maker from paper waste …………………………………...……………44 Figure 27: Material balance of mushroom growthsectors………………………………..…...…47 Figure 28: Comparison of income between baseline- farming, baseline-fishing, baseline-service, baseline-trade and optimized-mushroom………………………...……………..……49 Figure 29: Comparison of mass reduction within baseline- before and optimized-after mushroom Growth…………………………………...………………………………….....……50 Figure 30: Cost benefit of compost per ton…………………………………...…………………51 Figure 31: Default value of GHG emission from composting gCH4/kg waste …………………51 Figure 32: Comparison of rice yield between baseline scenario and optimized scenario ………53 Figure 33: Capital cost of biogas systems in Cambodia …………………………………...……54 Figure 34: Comparison cost analysis between firewood and biogas………………………….…54 Figure 35: Comparison time spending for cooking and firewood consumption baseline scenario and optimized scenario of biogas system……………………..……………………...55 Figure 36: GHG Emission from baseline-firewood and optimized biogas for cooking…………56 Figure 37: Comparison of expense for baseline-firewood and optimized-char briquette…….…57 Figure 38: Comparison of GHG emission between baseline-firewood and optimized- char briquette…………………………………...…………………………………...….…57 Figure 39: Income generation between baseline and optimized scenario………………………..58 Figure 40: Cost expenditure from household indicators…………………………………………59 Figure 41: Household’s time spending for fuel cooking and water supply between baseline and optimized scenario………………………………………………………………...…60 Figure 42: GHG emission from each household……………………………………………….61 x LIST OF TABLES Table1: Land use classification …………………………………...………………………….....11 Table 1: Water quality parameters in the Tonle Sap Lake………………………………...…….14 Table 3: Summary of potential effective by HWTS…………………………………...………...28 Table 4: The volume and nutrient loading of water consumption in household (g/m3) ………..31 Table 5: Human waste flow…………………………………...…………………………………32 Table 6: Agricultural waste generation from Zone 1, Zone 2, Zone 3, and Zone 4 ………….…33 Table 7: Characteristics of biogas composition…………………………………...……………..42 Table 8: Fuel Characteristics…………………………………...………………………………..45 Table 9: Economic characteristic of mushroom production during 6 moths………………...…..48 xi LIST OF ANNEXES Annex1-Socio-economic indicators…………………………………………………………….. 65 Annex1-1 Components of Service Occupation in the region……………………………65 Annex 1.2 Income from fishing………………………………………………………….65 Annex 1.3 Income from farming………………………………………………………65 Annex1.4: Income from trade…………………………………………………………66 Annex15: Income from services…………………………………………………………66 Annex 1.6: Income generation from total zones…………………………………………67 Annex 1.7: Income generation from total zones by percentages………………………...67 Annex2: Sources of energy consumption………………………………………………………..68 Annex2.1: Energy for cooking…………………………………………………………..69 Annex2.2: Energy for lightening………………………………………………………...69 Annex3: Drinking Water Supply –cost estimation ……………………………………………..70 Annex4: Fuel consumption and emission factors by household (Calculation by Shipbuilding GHG Emission Inventory Tool)…………………………………………………………70 Annex5: Agricultural and household waste materials …………………………………………..71 Annex6: Drinking Water Quality Index ………………………………………………………...73 Annex 7: Household water treatment system (HWTS) for drinking water……………………...74 Annex 8: Sanitation facility……………………………………………………………………...74 xii ABSTRACT Tonle Sap Lake is known as a rich in natural resources where it engages the high population contribution throughout the floodplain up to 1.2 million and approximately 4.2 million in total of the region, and makes up the distribution density in average 58 persons per square kilometer. Due to the high proportion of population depend on existing resources; fishing and farming are majority of region up to 70%, and has resulted 42.8% living in the poverty in the area. A large number of floating villages in floodplain live in low income generation from farming and fishing; likewise, inadequate to access safe water supply, lack sanitation system, and poor understanding of environmental impacts, the Tonle Sap Lake basin is alarming to call for the sustainable management in terms of human health, socio-economic, and environmental issues. Thus, the purpose of this paper is analysis of human and environmental relevant factors includes socio-economic, drinking water, sanitation system, and domestic waste. Based on this relevant factor analysis, the key tasks are to develop a concept for optimization of household oriented resources and compile the oriented guideline for local community use. As a result, it is indicated that mushroom is feasible option for socio-economic development up to 10,210 US$/hh/yr compare to baseline scenario comprised only 2,732.75US$/hh/yr or 5 times increasing. The optimization scenario for the drinking water supply is SODIS and SSF, sanitation is dry toilet with single pit or bucket, and waste management is compost, biogas, and char briquette. Those methods are recommended to use in the basin due to their not only low cost production, but also flexible, less time spending, and environmental- friendly. In average of cost expenditure from each household is estimated that 107.5US$/hh/yr and it is reduced to 71.96US$/hh/yr respectively. Time spending is also significantly reduced regarding to the optimization scenario up to 935.5hrs/hh/yr if compare to the baseline scenario 1498.5hrs/hh/yr. GHG emission from household oriented are 6.42TCO2E/yr, whilst, the application of the optimized scenario is reduced to 0.59 TCO2E/hh/yr. xiii Chapter I INTRODUCTION I.1 Tonle Sap Lake Region Tonle Sap Lake is known as a largest lake in Southeast Asia. It lies on the central plain of Cambodia where it covers 85 620km2 of land (Figure 1). The lake connects to the Mekong River by the Tonle Sap River which is 120km long (Sokhem, P., & Sunada, K., 2006). As a complexity of flowing and inter-linkage, the lake changes in size and volume depending on the season. During the wet season, the depth of the lake can rise from 1m up to 10 m. Meanwhile, the surface area enlarges from 2500km2 up to 15 000km2, extending the lake over the floodplain consisting of flooded forests, shrubs, and rice field (Keskinen, M, 2006). The variation of water volume in the lake is influenced by the increasing water level from the Mekong River where it causes reversed flow of the Tonle Sap River during the wet season. During the dry season, the Tonle Sap Lake is reversed again and starts to empty into Mekong River. The extraordinary water regime of the Tonle Sap Lake and Tonle Sap River has provided occasionally to biodiversity and highly productive aquatic food chain. The migration of various fish species and aquatic animals between the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River is highly remarkable due to the suitable conditions for feeding food, breeding and nursing in the flooded forest or shrubs. The adult fish or aquatic animals might be moved to the Mekong River or habitant in the lake throughout the year (Lamberts, 2006). More than 1.2 million people live in the floodplain by deeply depending on the fishery and other existed resources. Furthermore, it is estimated that an approximately half of total country’s population is direct or indirectly beneficially from the lake’s resources. Though, the rich of fisheries, forestry and water sources that encourages the high opportunity for floating rice, seasonal rice cultivation and aquaculture, a large number of population still live in a poverty. 1 Figure 1: Tonle Sap Lake Region with five zones classification ( Joha, S. and J. Koponen, 2003) I.2 Poverty in the Tonle Sap Lake Region Despite of the abundant natural resources, livelihoods in the Tonle Sap Lake region is known as the poorest part of the country due to the strong dependences on the existing resources in the area, and more than 70% of labor force employs in agriculture. Rich in resources, it is engaged higher proportion of population in floodplain more than 1.2 million and more than 4.2 million in the Tonle Sap Lake region. However, the high dependence on natural resources for daily livelihoods has resulted in 42.8% of the population live in poverty in the basin (Malin. M, 2009). The high poverty rate in this area is partially from unequal access to natural resources, insufficient rights for land usage, and less opportunity to increase productivity (Keskinen, M, 2006). Living with a low income generation, the population lack food security and clean water; however, it is high aspect of poor awareness to pollute water and surrounding environment from the population. The most significantly, in the floating community in the floodplain of Tonle Sap Lake region is appeared strongly closed to water resources for domestic consumption and dumping site for their household waste including excreta. The high pollution is alarming, with 2 increased incidents of diarrhea, up to 22.4% in Tonle Sap Lake region (NIS, 2004), 54.1% in children under 5 years old in case study among 123 samples in the Chong Khnea District, Siem Reap Province (USAID and RACHA, 2009), and is the known as cause death of children under 5 in 7% of cases (WHO, 2011). 81% of households in the floating villages in the Tonle Sap basin currently have no sanitation system (NIS, 1998), and there is a low awareness of hygiene in this area. The high incident of diarrhea among these populations requires both water and sanitation intervention to reduce human health risks that endangers the lives of adults and children. As shown in Figure 2 there is a strong link between poverty and poor sanitation. The improved sanitation may help to break the cycle by stopping human excreta entering the environment in a way that influences human health. Overcrowded, bad drainage, polluted water, unreliable and insufficient water supplies and poor sanitation all contribute to poor health (Rebecca. S, 2003). Figure 2: Scheme of cycle of poverty and sanitation (Rebecca. S., 2003) 3 Given characterization of Tonle Sap Lake region, livelihoods is significantly dependent on fisheries, forestry, water sources and rice cultivation; however, it is still high proportion living in poverty that encourages the high rate of human health risks. Likewise, it is partially from lack of cleaned water supply, low sanitation and hygienic promotion program, and lack domestic waste management from household. Thus, it is an essential for this master thesis aims to address the local resources management in terms of human health, environmental impact, and socioeconomic welfare for floating villages in Tonle Sap Lake region by analyzing of human and environmental relevant factors including socio-economic, water supply, sanitation, and domestic waste management. Based on these factors, it is essential to develop a concept for the optimization of resources management. The compilation of household oriented guidelines is also implanted for local community practices. I.3 Objectives of Study The terms of human health, environmental impact and socio-economic aspects, this mainly study’s purposes are concluded into three tasks; Task I: Analyze of human and environmental relevant sectors by focusing on socio-economic, water supply, sanitation, and domestic waste management for household level. Task II: The study is to develop the concepts for optimization of resources management in region by focusing on four main indicators description in Task I and; Task III: Compiled the oriented guidelines for best practices in local community at the Tonle Sap Lake region. 4 Chapter II ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL RELEVENT SECTORS II.1 Data Collection The methods of study are assessments of both human and environmental databases, focusing on relevant factors included socio-economic, water supply, sanitation, and waste management in the region. Database analysis based on the reports from local organizations, government, and international organizations will be assessed. Each sector is defined by the baseline scenarios and optimized scenarios based on indicators. In particular, time, cost, green house gas emission, nutrient recovery, and water quality are determined for the optimization of resources. II.2 Socio-Economic Factors II.2.1 Occupation and Income According to NIS (1998), employment in the Tonle Sap Lake Region is classified into agriculture, small trade, fishing and services. Agriculture is related to rice farming, floating rice, dry and wet rice farming and crops in which it plays the major roles in the total region (63.4%). The trade makes up 12%, fishing 5.7% and service 5.9% (Figure 3). Small trade is the activities of small businesses in the region and includes shops, selling fish, and other trade. Service occupation is mentioned on the providing service sectors such as; motor taxi, boat service, restaurants, guest house, battery charging shop, rice milling sectors, workers and other service. The occupation varied from zone 1 to zone 5. In the zone 1, fishing activities raise up to 55% which is higher than other zones. For zone 2, zone3, and zone 4 has found that agriculture is significant jobs in these zones (average 80%). However, in zone 5 is the urban area, among population preferred the provided service (30%) and trade (30%). 5
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