HO CHI MINH NATIONAL POLITICAL ACADEMY
NGUYEN THI THANH DUNG
HO CHI MINH’ S POLITICAL THINKING MAIN CHARACTERISTICS AND METHODOLOGY
Major : Political Science
: 62 31 20 01
A SUMARY OF PHD THESIS
HA NOI - 2014
The thesis was compled
at Ho Chi Minh National political Academy
Academic Supervisor : Prof. Dr. Nguyen Van Huyen
Second Reviewer: ................................................................
The thesis is to presented at the Academy coucil of Thesis Accessment,
organised at Ho Chi Minh National Political Academy
At......., date..... month........year 2014
The thesis can be found at National Library
and The library of Ho Chi Minh National Political Academy
1. The imperative of the topic
Up to present, the researches on Ho Chi Minh in general and his political career in
particular have mainly focused to clarify the creativity and the unique expressed in his
political behaviour and ideology, which were accumulated, challenged and selected
during a process to make it more and more improved. They were the result of a process
relating to not only logic and experience, right-or-wrong experiment but individual
aspiration and belief as well. To summary, what are the causes that lead to the creativity
in political behaviour along with ideology of Ho Chi Minh?
Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote: “The ancestor of every action is logic”. His words
shows that every thought or action of the human beings originates from logic. The right
logic will rule over the right thought and action and create the difference in each
person’s thought and action. Above all, how excellent is Ho Chi Minh’s political logic to
form the individual creativity in his own political ideology and behaviour? What are the
features of Ho Chi Minh political logic that set up the political thoughts changing the
world map in the 20th century?
Doi Moi policy was officially implemented in Vietnam from 1986 with the first
and foremost reform in logic. In fact, it was the reform in political logic through
economic, cultural and social perspectives. It become the foundation or orientation for
the all-sided Doi Moi process in Vietnam. During this process, Vietnam Communist
Party has incessantly applied the creativeness of Ho Chi Minh’s Marxism and used it as
the argumentative base for the reform process. After almost 30 years, besides huge
achievements, the revolution reality increases new requirements that demand the
political system to enhance and to bring into play the people solidarity power as well as
the Vietnamese’s skill, spirit, intelligence and uprightness to build a prosperous,
democratic and civilized country. Above that, the Vietnamese need to exploit the
heritages that Ho Chi Minh left so as to figure out the valuable guidelines for the current
Therefore, learning about the main viewpoints in Ho Chi Minh political thought
not only decodes the origin of creativeness in Ho Chi Minh political ideology and action
but also creates the argumentative foundation for the current reform process. This
research supplements the profound knowledge of Ho Chi Minh’s political career and
plays a role in the research of History of thought and Political Theory in Vietnamese
Politics branch. For the above reasons, the topic brings about the huge reality and
argumentative values. The necessary awareness of the research, the student chooses the
topic “ Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking - main characteristics and methodology” for her
2. The purposes and tasks of the thesis
On the argumentative base of Ho Chi Minh’s political ideology logic, the
thesis aims to analyze the factors forming Ho Chi Minh political logic; to clarify
the characteristics expressed in the content and method of Ho Chi Minh politcal
logic along with the meaning of these characteristics with the political logic
reform in Vietnam currently.
2.2. Tasks of the thesis
To put the above targets into practice, the thesis will solve the following tasks :
- Clarifying the argumentative matters relating to logic, political logic, Ho Chi
Minh political logic and the factors forming Ho Chi Minh political logic.
- Clarifying the main characteristics of content and method of Ho Chi Minh
- Expressing the methodology of Ho Chi Minh political logic towards the political
logic reform in the current political reform of Vietnam.
3. Targets and scope of the thesis
3.1. Researched targets
- Main characteristics of Ho Chi Minh political logic.
- Methodology meaning towards the current reform career of Vietnam.
3.2. Scope of the reseach
From the perspective of Philosophy or Ho Chi Minh study, there have been a
number of researches with different interpretation. This topic just does a research
from the political philosophy perspective to discover the special features in Ho Chi
Minh political logic. The thesis focuses on not only the general Ho Chi Minh
ideology but also seeks for his political logic through the researches on his political
thoughts and behaviour. However, Ho Chi Minh’s life always associated with
politics; the political activities mainly governed other thoughts in different fields.
Every thought of Ho Chi Minh of other areas in his life always aimed at his political
purposes. It may be because his politics is humane politics; he always regarded the
freedom and happiness of people as his targets. Above all, the direct scope of this
topic may be narrow but it is implemented in large scale of Ho Chi Minh’s
awareness, life, career and thought. For instance:
- Mentioning the time, Ho Chi Minh political logic was established and
developed in his abundant political life. It is a process that was gradually supplemented,
developed and improved. Therefore, Ho Chi Minh’s political life should be considered
carefully to identify the main viewpoints in his political logic.
- For the space, Ho Chi Minh’s political life was very abundant. It was formed
from his real experiences when he stayed in many countries all over the world, hence,
the thesis bases on his activity process in different countries through many articles,
speeches, stories about his career to find out the main points in his political logic.
- Last but not least, mentioning the content, there is a wide scope in Ho Chi Minh
political logic. The thesis does not review the structure or the functions of logic as
psychological prospect, but limits and recognizes the speciality of Ho Chi Minh political
logic under political philosophy outlook.
4. Argumentative basis and methodology
- The thesis bases on the argumentative basis of Marxism, Ho Chi Minh ideology
and Vietnam Communist Party about Vietnam revolution.
- The methodology of the thesis is Dialectical materialism and Historical
- Additionally, the thesis also uses the detailed methods like history and logic,
comparison, analysis, synthesis, reality arguments, specialist interviews, document
5. Scientific contributions of the thesis
5.1. Scientific contributions
- The thesis has played a role in clarifying and deepening the matters relating to
logic, political logic, Ho Chi Minh political logic and the other factors affecting the
formation of Ho Chi Minh political logic.
- The thesis analyzes and generalizes the main prospects on content and Ho Chi
Minh political logic methodology, hence, interprets that the origin of creativeness in Ho
Chi Minh political thought and behaviour.
- The thesis infers the scientific comments that contribute to the development of
the branch of Vietnam political logic through the research on Ho Chi Minh political logic.
5.2. Contributions in reality perspective
- On the general basis of the basic Ho Chi Minh political logic, the thesis
analyzes, clarifies and affirms the values and the great stature of Ho Chi Minh through
the application of Party and People during this current stage.
- The date and knowledge of the thesis may be used as teaching material for
classes with the aim to enhance the political logic ability and political behaviour of the
leader officials or managers.
6. Argumentative and reality meaning of the thesis
6.1. Argumentative meaning
The thesis’s result will contribute to create the theoretical frame of logic, general
political logic and particular Ho Chi Minh political logic. It will become the base as well
as the tool to analyze and to deeply know the foundation and specific traits of Ho Chi
Minh political logic. This content has never been researched systematically but it is very
important to interpret the origin of political logic and behaviour among the human
beings in general and towards Ho Chi Minh in particular.
6.2. Reality meaning
The thesis will contribute to the main picture of researches on Ho Chi Minh and
consider it as a typically economic circumstance to apply it into the current political
status. The thesis will become the referenced document and suggestion for the future
research on Politics, Ho Chi Minh study and related branches.
7. Structure of the thesis
Beside the introduction, conclusion and reference index, the thesis also consists of
4 chapters and 9 sections.
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH RELATING TO THE THESIS
1.1. Group of the researches mentioning logic
This is one of the most attracted trends for the researchers and has gained plenty
of success. Through the sciencific projects, the authors have analyzed and explained
the matters relating to the origin, nature, characteristics of logic and Dialectical
materialism logic; the history of formation and development of Dialectical materialism
logic; the relation between content and method, level and ability of logic, the
regulations and rule of logic and Dialectical materialism logic; the relation between
Dialectics logic and Formalism logic, etc,. Through that process, the authors have
contributed to deepen the most common argumentative problems of logic and
Dialectical materialism logic, used the foundation of world outlook and methodology
to build the scientific logic methods in awareness and world transformation.
Simultaneously, through these researches, the authors have led to many new problems
that need to be concerned and continuosly resolved.
On the other hand, logic researches associates with the reform career received the
concern of many domestic scientists, especially from the Doi Moi process of our country
in 1986 until present. Though these researches have the difference in the approaching
method and content, they have the common point which is the resolution to the common
argumentative matters on logic and Dialectical materialism logic must associate with the
Reform career and Socialism construction in our country. The contributions of these
researches have clarified the common arguments on logic transformation, functions of
logic renewal towards the Reform process, Socialism construction, our current
situations along with the problems of logic that need solutions along with their
causes. After the analysis of argumentative basis and reality, the authors have
recommended some methods of our Party to improve the weaknesses in thoughts and
activities of our officials so as to meet the demand of general Reform career and logic
reform process particularly. Among these matters, all the authors have affirmed the
scientific nature of Dialectic materialism to the officials is the best way to ỉmprove
the weaknesses in our logic.
1.2. Group of researches mentioning the political ideology and political logic
This is the content that has not attracted much attention in both domestic and
international arena. The researches on this content have brought about many different
viewpoints on political logic, but in general they are both unanimous that political logic
is a process gathering and transfering information to form the viewpoints based on the
knowledge of political issues.
The authors have distinguished the political logic with the logic of politics.
Politics is an important factor of political logic. The logic of politics wants to mention
the sustainable matters on ideology and morality that mention the political languages.
Political logic wants to express a system of logic - reality relating to the collective
actions, to distinguish with the art logic, historical logic, moral logic. However, political
logic consists of at least 6 characteristics : i) Arranging the meaning of social targets,
requirements, processes and structures according to the importance or emergency level;
ii) Mobilizing the support by accepting, defending, criticizing or objecting to the
collective entity, procedure and its activities; iii) Reflecting the stability or instability
through the calculation of cooperation plans, divergence, disputes over the arguments of
groups; iv) Making decision and policies through the construction plans and collective
guidance and common outlook; v) Holding the power of words through the convincing
skills, making speech, expressing feelings; vi) Making the topics for present : dividing
and adjusting the different fields and the authority boundary among the social fields
along with maintaining the political privilege in the limitation.
On the other hand, the researches also deal with the structure of political logic,
political logic method and factors affecting the formation of individual as well as
community political logic. Moreover, it also affirms the influence of political logic on
the nations’politics along with the relation between political logic and political culture.
1.3. Groups of researches mentioning logic, Ho Chi Minh political logic
Although the scientific researches has turned into a unified conclusion of existing
Ho Chi Minh political logic, they have just stopped at bringing about a problem or
methodology, not the specialized research of Ho Chi Minh political logic to apply into
real situation in our country. These researches have provided the authors with all-sided
approaches so as to form the tool and specialized knowledge when doing the thesis. The
researches within and outside the country have had the contributions to the process that
explores logic and human brain’s activities. They also mention a kind of human logic at
the first level : political logic. However, the number of researches on Ho Chi Minh
political logic is not really high. It causes the disadvantages to the authors when
researching, but also creates the new characteristic for the targets and approaching
methods. Therefore, this topic will take part in fulfilling the range of Ho Chi Minh study
as well as Politics research.
Interpreting a topic which has not been chosen in thesis topic creates many
disadvantages in using the directly related researches. It will make some troubles when
researching, especially a thesis with the limitation of time as well as the legal standards.
However, awareness is a process in which the more the targets are researched, the more
we figure out that our knowledge is quite limited. Moreover, fully understanding of
human is out of ability towards anybody, especially when researching a great historical
character like President Ho Chi Minh. The thesis desires to open some aspects of the
general picture. It is essential to understand a person comprehensively and totally and it
also contributes to add more knowledge to the enormous scientific library.
THEORETICAL ISSUES ABOUT POLITICAL THINKING AND
ELEMENTS FORMING HO CHI MINH’S POLITICAL THINKING
2.1. Theoretical issues about thinking, political thinking and Ho Chi Minh’s
2.1.1. The concept of thinking
Thinking is a complex concept with many different commentaries in many ways,
depending on the philosophical viewpoint, researching area, specialized research,... But
different concepts of thinking have something in common, it is: human thinking process
must be accompanied with awareness, from realistic feeling to analysis and judgment to
objective reality (including judgments, judgment is an expression of thinking, it
determines the true or false value of the object man is thinking) under the logic
necessary to deeply recognize objective reality (through language, signs and images) and
find a direction and solution to modify objective reality in order to bring benefits to the
people and communities.
The thesis neither studies thinking as a complex psychological process as
psychology approach does nor as a process dissect the activity of neurons in
psychoanalytic research... Thinking, here, is studied as activities that occur in human
brain with distributed operations analysis, synthesis, comparison, compare to form
opinions, thoughts, words, actions to improve objective reality. It is an advanced stage of
cognitive processes including acquisition, processing information and generating new
knowledge in operations analysis, synthesis, comparison... to create the awareness and
improve the world through practical activities of man.
Thinking occurs when practical problems arise, in other words, it is practical
problems that require thinking. When the practice impacts, knowledge transfer into
human brains, meanwhile, takes place in the brain’s process of analysis, synthesis,
comparison, comparison... they are the manipulations of thinking that take place to
address management information. The result of this process will be reflected in language
(including speech and writing, gestures). In this process, knowledge and practical
circumstances should be regarded as raw materials, inputs of thinking. From the
knowledge about things that people take actions accordingly. In turns, the real action
was to provide evidence for a new thinking process. So, the consideration of thinking
should include the content of thinking, the way of thinking and the product of thinking.
The content of thinking is the practical situation and it will be reflected throughout the
process of thinking, through the manipulation analyze, synthesize, compare, compare to
create the products of thinking they are thoughts, views, behavior.
Products of thinking is knowledge (knowledge about the objects, phenomena).
Knowledge is manifested through thought, perspective, human behavior. So thoughts,
views, behavior are the expression of man's understanding of the objective world,
which is the product of the process of analysis, synthesis, comparison and matching
taking place in man’s brain. Therefore, learn about thinking (as a process) is different
from exploring thoughts (as a result of the thinking process), although they have
anintimate, inseparable relation. Thought, under any form of public expression (
concepts, categories, perspectives, politics... are the results of thinking. Correct
thinking leads to right thought, action and vice versa, incorrect thinkings leads to
wrong thoughts and actions.
* Thinking Classification: There are many ways to classify thinking, based on
- Based on the level of thinking: there are experient thinking and theoretical
thinking. Experient thinking is a stage of cognitive rationality, in which people draw the
knowledge about the material, objective phenomenon, primarily through the older
generalizations, inductive materials experience. Theoretical thinking is rational cognitive
stage, in which knowledge is drawn on the basis of an overview of the achievements of
the previous periods.
- According to thinking area: there are: political, economica, scientific, philosophical,
art, militaristic, cultural, religious thinking
- According to the form of thinking, there are dialectical thinking, metaphysical,
logical thinking, non- logical, integrated thinking, analysis, creative thinking, dogma,
thinking positive, negative etc...
The taxonomy is only relative because they're interwoven, blended together.
Using the same kind of thinking for many different areas and vice versa when thinking
about a field that can simultaneously use various types, many different forms of
thinking. Therefore, in each subject, the type of thinking, thinking forms blend to create
unity and distinctive in the minds of every person.
Thus, "political thinking" is a kind of thinking based on the field of social
development. Political thought has some commons in the concept of "thinking" but also
has some features, with specific characteristics to distinguish them from thinking in
other areas. This characteristic is dominated by political activists.
2.1.2. Political Thinking
Political thinkingis the activities of human brain to receive, process and produce
knowledge about how to win, to hold and to exercise power to help human percept, plan
and implement political decisions. In other words, political thinking is thinking about
political matters in a certain way. In this sense, political thought appeared with the
emergence of state, owned class nature and dominated by class stance. Products of
thinking process are the ideological point of view or the "technology" to resolve conflicts
in political reality.
Political thinking of each person depends on many factors: the objective factors
are: the practical conditions, the value in the history of thought, ideology and dominant
orthodoxy; the subjective one is the capacity of man. In the same practical
circumstances, the same living conditions, the same class standpoint, the same
ideological, but the way of thinking is different from man to man. Therefore, each
person's way of thinking primarily due to subjective specified factors.
Subjective elements are formed from innate qualities, are trained through practical
activities with the capacity, quality and mettle to metabolize certain objective factors on
subjective prism of each person.
Political thinking has close relationship and has a dialectical impact to political
ideology. Ideology and political systems reflect the views of political and economic
relations between classes, between nations and between peoples around the issue of
winning, keeping, and organizing and implementing state power. Political thinking
always arises from a socio - economic conditions of acertain society.
Thus, political thinking and political ideology have close relationships and
interactions. Thinking is the process of political concern, think about the political issues,
and ideas are the results of that process. To understand the political thinking of a person,
we need to go through thoughts, words, and actions of people that shine on cognitive
reasoning to show the basic characteristics of the thinking process. Political thinking of
man can be understood through his/her ideas, views, words, writings and actions in
practice. If the practice provides practical materials to form the ideological thinking, the
attempt of the subject to generalize the practice to express the essence of it is in the form
of practical reasoning. Therefore, studying political thought should go with learning
political ideology and political behavior (as a product and manifestation forms of
thinking). This concept can be a tool to better understand the related content. Finding out
political thinking is the basis for persuasive interpretation of a political theory and
political behavior. Because, all political behaviors are driven by politics, political
decisions, political thinking. Politicians who give correct political decisions will govern
political behavior correctly. Conversely, the wrong political way will put the whole
nation to the ladder of history. So, political trends play an important role in governing all
human activity in a society 's politics
2.1.3. The concept of Ho Chi Minh’s political thought
Ho Chi Minh 's political thinking are activities taking place in his brain,
giving him political opinion and political behavior to solve the practical matters of
Vietnam. Generally speaking, Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking is his way of
thinking about political issues in order to win, hold and exercise power for the sake
of Vietnameses people.
Learn the features of Ho Chi Minh 's political thinking is to find the
characteristics, or the nature of principles governing the thinking process in order to
achieve political objectives set out. The distinct characteristics that is one of the root
causes the formation of innovative ideas and political behavior of Ho Chi Minh. To
eneralize, learn the characteristics of the political thinking of Ho Chi Minh (as
characteristics of a thinking process about political issues) is to unify the content and the
method. Which content goes with which method, and vice versa, using one method to
express which content, one content can be reached by variety of methods. The contents
and methods are unified, mixed together in a subject and create the subject’s style. We
can, through a method of processing content, find out what common characteristics
dominating Ho Chi Minh’s thinking process. So, thinking about the political issues, the
process characteristics that are prominent features are expressed through thinking about
the political content. It is not the characteristic of content or method of thinking, but the
characteristic of thinking (as agreed between the content and method of thinking). Or
this is the practice of the thinking method on political content. Through innovative
thinking and political behavior (ie, content of thought) to find the consistency that
dominates the thinking process. These are distinctive features dominating Ho Chi
Minh’s political thinking process. The thought of what and how about political issues.
With similar political contents but different way of thinking, the results are diverse. Even
the same thinking content and the same thinking method, the results may be different.
That is because of the method or the content or the way to manipulate thinking? For
example, with dialectical method, different people give different results. Ho Chi Minh
applied Marxist dialectical method but inherit both the East - West values to create
something of his own. Political thinking of Ho Chi Minh is one kind of successor,
developed a creative thinking and can be called "beyond gross" on Vietnam national
identity. Ho Chi Minh is the hyphen between Vietnam and the world, between tradition
2.2. Factors affecting the formation of Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking
2.2.1. Objective factors
* Vietnammes Social Practices in the late nineteenth century and early
In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, Vietnam society
directly affected by the aggression policy of France colonial dominatio. Under French
colonial rule, Vietnam society had profound transformation in all spheres: political,
economic, social. Nguyen Tat Thanh witnessed poor people living in hungry and
exploitation. He could see the vicious humiliation on the faces of every person in Nghe
An. In Hue, he witnessed the plight of working people and the image of his white
western swagger, arrogance and cruelty. Growing up, homecoming, delving into the
lives of people, Nguyen Tat Thanh penetrated the identity of people suffering
dehydration: heavy taxation, meticulous service. Being exposed to the patriotic elites and
heard them talking about the country, he understood the time and the torment of his
father's generation: lost nation, broken families. What helearned, heard, accompanied
and with the explanations of his father, are vivid lessons and powerful impression. In his
recognition, Nguyen Tat Thanh’s will was to expel the French
Ho Chi Minh’s Political Thinking was sproutied from it. They were the
circumstances of the homeland, the country, the family that nurtured his cradle will to
find ways to reclaim independence and freedom for the people. It was derived practices
that directly impacted the formation and development of his political thinking. Do not
bathe in that practice, thinking about a way to help countries, hardly can a the path of
action be realized.
* World political context in the early twentieth century
First, the world revolutionary movement was transiting from old - style
democracies to new -style democracies.
Second, Russian October Revolution triumphed and the advent of the III
International with Lenin's great contributions that directly impacting and deciding
factors to the formation of Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking.
Third, the national liberation movement this time had a transformation and posed
new requirements that should have a consistent ideology to meet urgent demands of the
revolution. The process of traveling, exploring, testing and determining the path for
national salvation, liberation of Ho Chi Minh not only met Vietnam's political reality,
but also reflected the trend of the world revolutionary movement. It reflected the
scientific revolution of Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking.
Thus, the economic - political - society conditions of the homeland, the country,
and the time was the first ground that affected the formation of Ho Chi Minh’s political
thinking. In addition to practical origin, Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking also based on
the inheritance theoretical achievements in the history of human thought.
* Thinking - reasoning factors
- The typical political thinking of Vietnam: community; humanity - rooted.
- Typical Eastern political thinking: "People - rooted" toward finding an ideal king
to state power. The village community and centralization trend of central political
institutions respected “peace” and “hamony".
- Typical rational Western Political Thinking: It was thought to respect and
uphold human individuals; respecting the nature of the movement and social
development. Thinking seeked to focus the West rationalized, objectified features in the
design, construction and operation of institutions and political institutions. Thinking
focuses on build forms of government organizations operating in an objective manner, in
accordance with the will and interests of the ruling class but less dependent on the
individual power. Thinking about the concentration of power into the virtuous leader,
talented and reputatable; the participation of the elite leadership team with special
qualities and intellecture in the state apparatus.
- Marxist - Leninist political thinking - materialistic dialectical method of
thinking. This is the typical method of thinking, covering most dominant thinking in all
areas. In certain aspects, the method of thinking is another concrete manifestation of
dialectical thinking. Thanks to the dialectical method of thinking, Ho Chi Minh
recorded, total - integrated and creative applicated in practical revolutionary Vietnam.
To collect and study Marxism - Leninism with the path Lenin had directed, applying
dialectical thinking methods, Nguyen Ai Quoc created a suitable path for Vietnam's
revolution to win completely. Marxist - Leninist, terms of geographic, is Western
thinking, but due to it’s decisive influence to the formation and development of Ho Chi
Minh’s political thinking, the thesis considers it a separate element.
In short, Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking is a node of the nation’s intellectual and
the era’s intellectual. It was the movement, the development of patriotism in Vietnam
late nineteenth century to the 20s of the twentieth century, when catchint Marxism Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking was formed. With his receptive, creative
application, Ho Chi Minh contributed an additional steps, methods to develop, enrich
Marxism - Leninism with new arguments, drawn from the practices of the country and
its people. Economic context - domestic and international political factors, along with
the source argument on objective, were all impacted to the formation of Ho Chi Minh’s
2.2.2. Ho Chi Minh’s subjective factors and practices
Regarding quality, in Ho Chi Minh convergenced all the qualities needed for a
true revolutionaries. The soul of a great patriot, a fervent communist revolutionary
soldiers, willing to sacrifices for national independence and freedom of the people. He
had an intense faith in the people. He had a casual style, sincerity, modesty, mingled
with the masses and convince to big for everyone.
Regarding capacity, Ho Chi Minh has super abilities. He was intelligent, astute,
sensitive to the new and had independent creative thinking; erudite wisdom, deep
knowledge. He had been exposed to many different cultures, so that he himself knew
many languages and accepted the positive changes of the international situation and the
legacy ideological achievements of human culture to creatively apply to Vietnam and
practical answers the requirements of Vietnam's revolution.
The natural talent and rarely personal qualities prescribed in Ho Chi Minh
allowed him integrate values embodied the essence of national and era culture to form
his own ideas in the process of filtering, re-creating, transforming development
knowledge. The quality was not that natural. It is the result of complex conditions, the
active, self- initiative of Ho Chi Minh. In particular, mention must first engagement,
penetrated into the life working people, not only the lives of Vietnam's labor, but also the
lives of workers in many countries across the continent, not only in countries that
colonized but in the metropolitan countries. Since then, he had a comprehensive view,
profoundly human life labor under the capitalist regime, especially the lives of workers
suffering the colony. Since then, he actively jointed the struggle revolutionary in the
labor movement and national liberation movements in the colonial world.
In summary, the economic- political - social conditions and ideological premise,
are objective basis affects the formation of Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking. In the
formation and development of thinking, biological factors and it’s evolution plays a very
important role, but the creative decisions of thinking is the social relations. This shows
that, the objective basis is necessary but not sufficient condition for the formation of Ho
Chi Minh’s political thinking. The subjective factor of capacity, personal qualities and
practices are the most decisive factors, the key to creativity that led to success in his
political career. He combined these and cleverly made use of special form of his
political thinking. In other words, Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking is a product of a
clever combination between the objective and subjective factors. These factors have
always changing in accordance with the history, set the stage for the transformation and
development of Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking. His political thinking, therefore,
always had an additional development on the correspond practical platform and made its
own characteristics, notably and can not be mistaken with any other politicians.
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF HO CHI MINH’S POLITICAL THINKING
3.1. The special points in the content of Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking
3.1.1. Thinking about the choice of the objective of Vietnam revolutionary
This is expressed first of all in thinking about the selection of Vietnam's
revolutionary path: National independence associated with socialism. This is covering
and vital content, containing Ho Chi Minh’s creative in comparison with his
predecessors, the contemporary politicians of the country and the world.
The revolutionary targeting primarily derived from the wisdom of the choice to
seek a path of national liberation - the path to the West. This was a creative point in Ho
Chi Minh’s thinking in comparison with same time patriots and started his political
career. The way that Ho Chi Minh selected as national independence associated with
socialism. The goal was confirmed consistently since the 1920s, to find a way to help the
country until after the government won, the administration building. According to Ho
Chi Minh, socialism only brings new life of freedom, true happiness for the people. The
goal of the revolutionary path in Ho Chi Minh’s thought was fundamental difference
with the way of the patriots in the nation's history.
3.1.2. Thinking about the way and method to achieve revolutionary goals
It is the thinking about the revolutionary methods and forces, the role of party
organizations for the victory of the revolution. Ho Chi Minh had launched the innovative
argument, even contrary to the views of the comrades in the Communist International.
Typically, it is the view of the revolutionary forces.
In Brief political platform, Ho Chi Minh wrote: "the Party must be very in touch
with bourgeois intellectuals, middle peasants, youth, Tan Viet... etc. to pull them away
on the side of the proletariat class. As for rich farmers, medium, small landowners and
An Nam capitalists who were unclear counter-revolutionary, must take advantage of,
and then make them neutral. Which parts were the counter-revolutionary (the
Constitutional Party, etc.) must be overthrown”.
The international communist comrades who dominated by left, lonely, narrowminded tendencies had made many wrong judgments in matters of national liberation
revolution. They said the first task of the revolution is the liberation of the class. Only
when the proletariat won, then they could help the colonies win. They identified forces
carried out the revolution mainly of workers, peasants, and national bourgeoisie,
bourgeois, middle peasants... were counter-revolutionary forces.
Obviously, the point of view of Nguyen Ai Quoc was in stark contrast to the
hardening of perceptions, "leftist" mistakes that existed in the Communist International.
So then they had criticized harshly Nguyen Ai Quoc, affecting the role and activities of
him. But, with firm political bravery, Ho Chi Minh is not afraid of attribution in
revisionist tendencies. He also did not bind himself to dogmatic thinking, but aims to
creatively combine the common values of Marxism - Leninism with the practice in
Vietnam. The creative expression that is unique in the political thinking of Ho Chi Minh.
3.1.3. Thinking about building an ideal state institutions for the people of Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh aimed at constructing a new state model in Vietnam after
independence: a government employed by the working people, or a government of the
people, by the people, for the people. That State break with hereditary monarchy and
mode of French colonial domination. It is a republic, power belongs to the people.
People exercise their power directly or indirectly through representatives elected by the
people. But what kind of Republican best suited to historical circumstances and
aspirations of the people of Vietnam. Selecting an institution that could meet Vietnam’s
social realities is also a peerless creative of Ho Chi Minh. This creation was the result of
time he had traveled overseas with his capacity of thinking and rich practices.
Ho Chi Minh found a particular state model of Vietnam in accordance with
conditions of an Eastern nation which want to escape from colonial semi-feudal, to build
a perfect life, happiness for the people, to have independence, sovereign and not to
depend on other powers. According to him, in that state, people who hold a decisive role
in all fields of economics, politics, culture and society. People have the right to selfemployed, meaning that there is a right to have his body protected and freedom of
movement, freedom of profession, freedom of speech, and freedom of study in the
framework of the law. People have the right to collective ownership, local ownership,
home and working places ownership. People were the masters of all the unions, the
social and political institutions through elections and dismissal. State's inheritance,
development and creative application of the models which used in history is to choose a
suitable model for practical and cultural traditions of the people of Vietnam. That state is
unity between classes, people and humanity, bringing its own characteristics on the basis
of inheriting the advanced state model of Vietnam and the world. It is the product of
independent, innovative and revolutionary in the political thinking of Ho Chi Minh. It
also had created a character, and the difference in his successful political career.
3.2. The main characteristics of the process of political thinking of Ho Chi Minh
3.2.1. As the system
Systems and consistency thinking are the hallmarks of the theoretical thinking of
Ho Chi Minh. He had an overview, look at things in a holistic unity of the parts to the
whole, between the individual with the general trend of the world. From the general
perception, from the system of the world revolution, he got the position, the role of
revolution in Vietnam's trend. Achieving that level, Ho Chi Minh had developed
politics not only to political science, but also the art of leadership, talent and ability is
Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking systematic expressed in many ways. It is a
systematic relationship between the revolutions of national liberation in Vietnam with
the world revolutionary movement; the recognition of a socialist society is not
immutable but need to be considered in a state of movement, change and frequently
renovated. Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking systematic also expressed in a multidimensional perspective, the coexistence of opposing attributes and the interaction of
opposites, the transformation between opposites with each others to create higher quality
in the development process of the system; or it is the similarities found in the difference
between the theories, as well as seeing the difference in the basis of considering the
history of Marxism - Leninism. Systemic thinking had helped Ho Chi Minh formed the
opinion, thought, way, method, force, the role of the organization.... to win, keep and
enforce the rights of the people of Vietnam. It is also the hallmarks to dominate the
process of political thinking of Ho Chi Minh.
3.2.2. Promoting practices and anti-dogmatism
Ho Chi Minh is a typical Marxist; he creatively applied Marxist analysis to the
issue of national liberation according to the dialectical method and practical standpoint.
Throughout the process of political thinking, practical perspective was considered the
starting point, the motive and the purpose of the political career of Ho Chi Minh.
Through practical thinking, he creatively applied Marxism - Leninism to the specific
circumstances of Vietnam and offered a way to go for revolution. It also was a source of
his ideas and creatively political behavior.
Practicality in Ho Chi Minh thinking had been shown through the perspective of
the relationship between the theory and the practice; in the process of forming the
viewpoint of Vietnam's revolution. And above all, practicality expressed by his own
actions. In Ho Chi Minh, thinking is to action, to improve practice, to liberate the nation
and liberation of the people. The liberation of the people are the urgent tasks, must be
placed on top. Therefore, to explore, to think to answer the demands of practice are in
place, there is no time to think impracticable, or think that far from practical
requirements. Ho Chi Minh just thought about what practices are required to solve her
own practice. All his thoughts were rooted in reality and practicality to serve through
action. Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking therefore always is present in the action, with
action to express his thinking, even thinking primarily understood through action. This is
different from many thinkers, politicians around the world
3.2.3. Putting national interests as top political priority
From the first post to the last page, from newspapers, poetry, short stories to the
text were shown the aspirations of independence, freedom of Ho Chi Minh. The whole
of his last wills is “the whole our Party and people have to unite and build a country of
Vietnam peaceful, unified, independent, democratic, prosperous and worthy contribution
to the cause of world revolution". in thoughts of Ho Chi Minh, national independence
must be a full and true independence and it is performed thoroughly according to the
principles of the country of Vietnam must belong to Vietnamese; all matters of national
sovereignty can be solved by the people of Vietnam, no foreign intervention.
People of Vietnam do not accept any intervention; all the support and help
Vietnam fight for independence, freedom is welcome and appreciate; any imposition
infringe national sovereignty are denied, dismissed. That independence by the people of
Vietnam won through struggle and it brings a life of freedom and happiness for the
people. Ho Chi Minh had devoted all his life to think what to do to perform for the
country's independence and freedom for the people, our fellow citizens who have
enough food, clothing and education as well. That was the principle, the direction in
thinking and political action of Ho Chi Minh.
3.2.4. Flexibility and improvisation
President Ho Chi Minh was a communist soldier in target consistent and flexible
in approach. His supreme purpose was for the nation's independence and freedom for the
people happy. The goal is immutable, but to achieve this is a process fraught with
difficulties and hardships, requires struggle, sacrifice of many classes of people, many
generations. In each step up, revolutionaries have to deal with numerous variations,
requires revolutionaries to clear, sober, sensible way to fight change to suit the specific
historical conditions that poses the struggle. The strategy in a specified period of time
did not harm “the immutable ", meaning the long-term objectives had been identified.
Flexible method, sometimes offensive and sometimes retreating sometimes need
to compromise on principles to achieve long-term goals. It is not only the science but
also an art of Ho Chi Minh's revolutionary. This was shown most outstanding
revolutionary period Vietnam during the period 1945-1946. Main flexibility,
improvisation during the revolutionary leadership had shown his character and talent.
This is a typical characteristic, made the distinctive features of the political thinking of
Ho Chi Minh.
In Ho Chi Minh, the ability to predict had been established since the early
revolutionary activities. This is one of the decisive factors leading to the success of
Vietnam's revolution. That thinking was expressed through the comments on the times,
the trends in the international political situation from which he made the right decisions
for Vietnam's revolution. It is a manifestation of a strategic thinking with the ability to
analyze the situation in the country, the world, the master of the objective laws of
history, properly identifying characteristics and development trend of the times, given
ability to accurately forecast trends and development of the world revolution. On that
basis, he gave an assessment of the situation of Vietnam's revolution.
That thinking was imbued with the expression of the dialectic materialism
combined with Vietnam and Eastern philosophy, on the basis of understanding the
geopolitical situation in the world, in the country to have the optimal decision. This
represented a visionary, wide and deep - a determining factor in the success or failure of
his political career without any politician has been. Predictability in the political thinking
of Ho Chi Minh had been shown throughout the course of the revolutionary leadership
of Vietnam. The assessments and way which he outlined for revolution was typical for
his thinking. It is also an expression of the genius of Ho Chi Minh City, but certainly not
owerned by many other politicians and revolutionaries in the country and the world.
Humanity in the political thinking of Ho Chi Minh means actually to think about
people, people-centered and for all people. This type of thinking of Ho Chi Minh had
been confirmed and practiced skillfully and cleverly made the culture in Ho Chi Minh’s
politics. The humanity of his behavior had raised him to a higher level of culture. It was
the political culture of Ho Chi Minh had shown both in thought and action.
Humanity, culture in political thought Ho Chi Minh is reflected in the respect of
human rights, the highest aim, and final goal of the revolution is the liberation of man.
The goal was to dominate every thought and political action of Ho Chi Minh. It was the
successor to the ruling tradition of our nation and was also application of viewpoint of
Marxism - Leninism on the role and power of the masses. People are both the subject as
an objective of the revolution. Political thinking of Ho Chi Minh takes people as the
original. This was also thinking about a moral politics. Ho Chi Minh career to pursue is
to strive "for our country to be completely independent, our people are entirely free,
people who have enough food, clothing and education as well. According to him, the
highest morality is "wholeheartedly serving the people, ready to fight for the people,
exemplary in all the work for the Party and for the people".
Humanity in Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking also expressed tolerance in
humans, with who makes mistakes and even enemies. This had raised him to reach not
only cultural tolerance, but also the culture in every gesture, every action, in daily life
and in the harshest periods of the revolution. Tolerance cultural helped him constantly
open to absorb and positive factors, progressive and humanistic world to enrich the
national culture. This helped make a special point in Ho Chi Minh’s political thinking humanity and cultural thinking.
MEANING OF METHODOLOGY OF HO CHI MINH POLITICAL
THOUGHT WITH THE INNOVATION POLITICAL THOUGHT IN
4.1. Political Thought in Vietnam after nearly 30 years of innovation
Party's political thinking is the cognitive process of the path, the way of achieving
socialism; restructuring of the organization and operation mechanism of the political
system, firstly innovating methods of the Party leadership; innovate and improve the
efficiency of state management in order to maintain political stability and to build a
socialist regime stronger; implementation role of the Fatherland Front and other political
organizations - to ensure socialistic democracy, promoting human rights of all people.
During the renovation process, the party insists Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh
ideology underlying ideological lodestar for action. Through applying the principles of
Marxism, the instructions in thought and action of Ho Chi Minh that the innovation
achieved significant achievements in all aspects.
4.1.1. Thinking about socialism and the path to socialism in our country
Immediately after establishing and during the revolutionary struggle, the Party has
always affirmed that socialism is the goal and ideal of the Party and our people; go to
socialism is an objective requirement, the inevitable path of Vietnam's revolution.
Perseverance independent and socialism in the current period was further confirmed our
Party in the Party Congress documents, striving for the goal of " prosperous people,
strong country, democracy, justice, "This is entirely consistent with Ho Chi Minh
ideology on the overall goal of socialism in Vietnam.