High-quality human resource development for women in vietnam at present time

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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION NGUYEN THI GIANG HUONG HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR WOMEN IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT TIME Major: The Dialectical Materialism &Historical Materialism Code : 62 22 80 05 THE DOCTORAL THESIS IN PHYLOSOPHY Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Nga HANOI - 2013 I DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY I hereby declare that the research paper titled “High-Quality Human Resource Development for Women in Vietnam at Present Time”is my own work and to the best of my knowledge. Data and materials used in the thesis are real with obvious origins; findings in this thesis are studied results of the writer. AUTHOR OF THE THESIS Nguyen Thi Giang Huong II TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Pag e 1 Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH RELATED TO THE THESIS 1.1. The research works related to the thesis 1.2. The value of the referenced works and further study 6 6 22 Chapter 2: HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR WOMEN AT PRESENT IN VIETNAM – VIEWED FROM THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE OBJECTIVE CONDITIONS AND SUBJECTIVE ACTORS 2.1. Some basic concepts 2.2. The importance of high-quality human resource development for women in Vietnam today 2.3. The objective conditions and subjective factors affecting high-quality human resource development for women in Vietnam today Chapter 3: HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR WOMEN AT PRESENT IN VIETNAM - CURRENT SITUATION AND EMERGING ISSUES 3.1. High-quality human resource development for women in Vietnam at the present- situation and causes 3.2. Some issues raised in the development of high quality human resource for women in Vietnam today Chapter KEY SOLUTIONS TO HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR WOMEN IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT TIME 4.1. Solutions related to the objective conditions for the development of high quality human resource for women CONCLUSION124 4.2. Solutions related to the subjective factor in the development of high-quality human resource for women LIST OF AUTHOR’S PUBLISHED SCIENTIFIC WORKS LIST OF REFERENCES APPENDIX 25 25 45 57 70 70 100 4: 114 114 146 149 150 161 III LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BCH : Committee BTV : Standing Committee CĐ, ĐH và sau ĐH : Undergraduate and Graduate CNH, HĐH : Industrialization and Modernization HĐND : People’s Council NNLNCLC : High-Quality Female Human Resource NNLCLC : High-Quality Human Resource NNLN : Female Human Resource NNL : Human Resource QH : National Assembly TCCN và TC nghề : Vocational Training TW : Central level IV LIST OF TABLES Page Table 3. 1: Distribution of labor force by qualification in 2010 70 Table 3.2: Distribution of workforce by urban - rural level in 2010 72 Table 3.3: 73 NNLN Distribution by region and by level in 2010 Table 3.4: Percentage distribution NLNCLC by qualification engaged in socioeconomic activities 84 Table 3.5: Percentage NNLNCLC having academic titles in the 2007 – 2011 76 Table 3.6: Percentage of women in the Executive Board (EB) of the Party from 1991 to 2015 80 Table 3.7: Rate of female workforce positions in the Party Committees 81 Table 3 8: Rate of female workforce holding positions in Parliament 83 Table 3.9: Percentage of women in the People’s Council 1989 – 2016 84 Table 3.10: Percentage female human holding the titles of People's Councils 85 Table 3.11: Percentage of female labor leaders, management of the Central State Table 3.12: 86 Percentage of female workforce participation level People's Committees 89 Table 3.13: Some basic indicators related to maternity care, 2001 – 2009 96 Table 3.14: Number of hours worked by the average per person/per day ational Table 3.15: level 97 Average income/month NNLCLC 109 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The urgency of the theme The development of human history has demonstrated the important role of women in producing materials, spirits, especially human reproduction. However, in most places of the world, compared with men, women still suffer disadvantages and their role and position in family and society has been undervalued. In recent years, on a global scale, many countries have achieved female human resource achievements in all aspects: On the social level, women participate more in social activities of society. In the family, women also have help from men to develop and find their identity. However, injuctice discrimination against women still exists to various extent around the world, expecially in the poor and backward countries, which affects the possibility of women to affirm the position, role and contribution of women in the sustainable development of the countries in the world. Based on Marxism - Leninism, the Communist Party of Vietnam has always appreciated the women’s role, position and status, regarding women as an important driving force of Vietnam's revolution. For more than 25 years of implementing the reform of the country, the Communist Party and State have adopted lines and policies to use and develop female human resource in the cause of building and defending the country. However, at the present time, high-quality human resource development for women still faces many difficulties: obsolete starting conditions of the country and Confucianism ideological influence of sex discrimination. That is the reason why special attention should be paid to high-quality human resource for women. To meet the opportunities and challenges, all national potentials, including female 2 human resource and more importantly high-quality female human resources, must be properly exploited. Women, accounting for half the world’s population with abundant laborand rich creativity, are a great important resource to be exploited and developed to help accelerate socio-economic development. In recent decades, it should be noted that in many countries and different regions of the world, the number of women holding senior government positions, including top level and high-quality female human resource has increased remarkably. Sweden is a typical country, “Swedish women are all as absolutely equal as men, from education for inheritance rights. We have half of the participation of women leaders in parliament, the government and local authorities”[30, p..107]. Though, high-quality female human resource is still untapped and developed in accordance with its capabilities. It is proven that women are not inferior to men in terms of intellectual, ability and other qualities. Thus, the development of female human resource, especially NNLNCLC is one of the important issues today, because if not we will lose half the power of the country for socio-economic development. Furthermore, the liberation and development of intellectual potential of NNLNCLC is an urgent objective requirement of social development. As the social development has created the objective conditions for the exploitation and development of that potential at higher level. In order to exploit the maximum power of NNLNCLC, we have to combine an effective manner the impact of objective conditions and subjective factors in the process of NNLNCLC development. Therefore, NNLNCLC development in our countries should be considered as an important part of NNLCLC during the development of the country. 3 As part of Vietnam’s women and human resource of our country, NNLNCLC work creatively with enthusiasm and their inherent ability to contribute to the construction and protection of the country and the struggle for women's liberation. At the same time, the earnest desire of NNLNCLC is that social and family give them the favorable objective conditions to improve their ability to contribute to development of a rich and strong Vietnam. For this purpose, the study of NNLNCLC development viewed from the interaction between the objective conditions and subjective factors seeks their contribution to socio- economic development in our country in recent years. Based on the results, finding feasible solutions to develop NNLNCLC to meet the requirements of the reform of the country's is an urgent significant theoretical and practical issue. Deriving from the above reasons, the postgraduate student chooses the topic “High-Quality Human Resource Development for Women in Vietnam at Present Time” for the doctoral thesis in philosophy. 2. Objectives and tasks of the thesis 2.1. The objective of the thesis On the basis of clarifying the need and the objective conditions and subjective factors influencing the development of NNLNCLC in Vietnam today, the thesis assesses the situation of NNLNCLC in Vietnam nowadays, from which it proposes a number of key measures to develop NNLNCLC to meet the requirements of the renovation in Vietnam. 2.2. The tasks of the thesis First, an overview of research issues related to the thesis. On that basis, the positive value of previous research has been inherited and further issues should be studied. 4 Second, systematize and interpret the basic concepts related to the topic, analyse the importance and the objective conditions and subjective factors affecting the development NNLNCLC in Vietnam today. Third, analyze the situation and causes and various issues in the development of NNLNCLC in Vietnam today. Fourth, propose some key solutions to develop NNLNCLC in Vietnam today. 3. The Object and scope of research 3.1. Subjects of research: Philosophically, the thesis approaches the relationship between objective conditions and subjective factors of development of Vietnam NNLNCLC in the current period. 3.2. Scope of Research Research on NNLNCLC (academic and labor age) involved in the process of socio-economic development since the renovation of the country. Research on NNLNCLC situation and the emerging isssues of development NNLNCLC in Vietnam through statistics on NNLNCLC participation in leadership and management in the political and science, and technology systems with the assumption that the other areas have similar developing conditions. 4. Rationale and Research Methods 4.1. Rationale: research thesis is based on the perspective of Marxism Leninism and Ho Chi Minh Ideology, the Communist Party's views on Vietnam human, human resource, high quality human resource, women's roles, women's liberation and the previous studies of working women. 4.2. Research Methodology: 5 The thesis uses points of dialectical materialism and historical materialism ideology of Marxist-Leninist philosophy- as a basic methodology for interpretation and analysis. The thesis uses the history and logic, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and generalization, comparison, statistical data processing methods. The thesis is also in conjunction with the interdisciplinary approach of the sociology of gender and science. 5. Scientific contributions of the thesis The thesis clarifies NNLNCLC, NNLNCLC development and the importance of developing NNLNCLC in Vietnam today. The thesis contributes further analyses some basic contradictions of gender perspective in the development of Vietnam NNLNCLC today. On that basis, the thesis offers a number of solutions related to objective conditions and subjective factors primarily aimed at NNLNCLC development in Vietnam today. Initially, the thesis has new approaches to gender issues in strategic NNLNCLC in particular and NNLCLC of Vietnam in general. 6. The theoretical and practical meaning of the thesis - The thesis contributes to the study of the theoretical and practical NNLNCLC, adding scientific basis referenced in making strategy and policies related to NNLNCLC development in Vietnam today. - The thesis may make reference application in research, teaching and learning about NNLNCLC, gender and development in universities and colleges in Vietnam today. 7. Structure of the thesis In addition to the introduction, conclusion and a list of references, the thesis is structured into four (04) chapters, nine (09) sections. 6 Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH RELATED TO THE THESIS 1.1. THE RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THE THESIS 1.1.1. The research projects related to human resources, human resource development Dr.Tran Van Tung, Le Ai Lam (Institute of World Economy) (1996), Human Resource Development-World Experience and Practice in Our Country, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. The book has an overview of the role of human resources in the innovation economy and experience in human resource development of education in a number of countries around the world. Applying the precious experience in the development of human resources in our country will contribute to NNLCLC, boosting socio-economic development. Scientific State-level Program- KX-07, KX-project 07-18, Dr. Nguyen Trong Bao eds (1996), Family, school, society with the discovery, selection, training, retraining, and use of financial incentives, Education Publishing House, Hanoi. The book helps us understand the "fostering talents" which was recorded in the Party platform, written in our State Constitution. In particular, the authors focus on the role of family, school and society in the discovery, selection, training, retraining, and preferential use of the property, which has offer some solutions to develop this resource. Prof. Dr. Pham Tat Dong (Chairman of Social Science Project - 0309) (1999), Industrialization and Modernization with intellectual elite- The policy orientation. The project has clarified the issues for the Vietnam intelligentsia, as a basic important human resource; the position and role of the Vietnam intelligentsia in the industrialization and modernization of the country, the intelligentsia situation and policies of the Party for the intelligentsia, which 7 have developed a strategic partnership with Vietnam intelligentsia to deserve as the backbone, the essence of the human resources. Dr. Do Minh Cuong, Dr. Nguyen Thi Doan (2001), Human Resource Development of higher education in Vietnam, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. The book mentions some contents about higher education, and proposes feasible solutions for human resources development of higher education, highly qualified human resources in our country, for the industrialization and modernization process. Dr. Nguyen Huu Dung (2003), Effective use of human resources in Vietnam, Social- Labor Publishing House, Hanoi. The book presents a system of theoretical issues and practices related to the development, distribution and use of human resources in the development of a socialist-oriented market economy in Vietnam; evaluation of 15 years of human resource innovation; introduction of experience of U.S, Japan and China on this issue, and then the solution proposed for the development, proper distribution and effective use of human resource in the economic development in our country by 2010. Pham Thanh Nghi, Vu Hoang Ngan (eds) (2004), Human Resource Management in Vietnam-Some theoretical and practical issues, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi. The book is a collection of research papers, articles, presentations at the State-level Science and Technology Program Project KX.05.11 workshop (2001 - 2005), with the theories, experiences, and recommendations on human resources management in Vietnam. The work has important implications for our State to efficiently manage Vietnam Human Resource, contributing to promote modernization and implementation of socialist-oriented reform. Dr. Doan Van Khai (2005), Human Capital in the process of industrialization and modernization in Vietnam, Publishers Political Theory, 8 Hanoi. The author has clarified a number of issues related to industrialization and modernization, such as: outline of the industrialization in the world, content, nature, essential properties and characteristics of industrialization and modernization in Vietnam at present. The author clarifies human resource as a decisive factor of the industrialization and modernization; the actual human resource situation in Vietnam and the issues to meet the requirements of industrialization and modernization. On this basis, the author has taken the direction, viewpoints and basic solutions: group of solutions of rational and efficient use of human resources; group of solutions of social favorable environment to use and develop human resources effectively to meet the requirements of industrialization and modernization in Vietnam. Pham Thanh Nghi (Editor) (2006), Improving the efficiency of human resource management in the industrialization and modernization of the country, Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi. The authors have presented: the systemization of basic theoretical issues, new perspectives and modern human resource management issues such as human capital and human capital development, human resources management models, the factors affecting human resource management and macroeconomic policies affecting human resource management. The authors also present the management experience of human resources in developed countries like the U.S. Sweden, East Asia and countries with economies in transition.These highly reliable systematic materials gathered from the authorities as well as rich practical survey data, are valuable materials to assess the situation and development in the human resource management in our country. In particular, the authors have analyzed the differences in the human resource management in a number of areas: public administration, public service delivery units and business through the results of sociological investigation. These are very 9 interesting data, reflecting the differences in recruitment, use, evaluation and human resource development in various areas of the economy. The authors have proposed the application of the appropriate human resource management model to replace outdated models. At the same time, the book also offers the views and solutions to improve the efficiency of human resource management in three areas: state administration, public service delivery units, and business. The proposals are comprehensive, uniform, science - based and feasible. Ministry of Planning and Investment (July 2011), General report on Vietnam workforce development plan (2011-2020). The Report, a valuable scientific work of scientists, has focused on the following important issues: Current situation of HRD with the fundamental achievements, the main limitations and its causes; Vietnam HRD Orientation by 2020 and the raised issues; The main measures implemented workforce development planning in Vietnam during 2011 - 2020; organization of Vietnam workforce development plan 2011-2020. 1.1.2. The research works related to high-quality female human resource Dr. Bui Thi Ngoc Lan (2002), The intellectual resources of the innovation in Vietnam, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. The author has pointed out the important role of intellectual resources for the development of the society and also clarified the characteristics and situation and development trends of intellectual resources in Vietnam, thus affirming the need to care for the development and promotion of intellectual resources in the reform in Vietnam. On that basis, the author has proposed the basic ideas and the main measures such as raising awareness of the society about the need to develop intellectual resources for the reform; education and 10 training reform to provide foundation to develop the intellectual resources; building sound cultural and social environment, promoting sustainable intellectual resources of Vietnam. These are feasible solutions to HRD in the country's human resources. The work has important implications for theoretical development and promotion of intellectual resources, the most important parts of NNLCLC, contributing to the rapid development of these resources to meet requirements of industrialization and modernization in the context of globalization and international economic integration today. Le Thi Hong Diep (2005), Development of High-Quality Human Resources to Form the Knowledge-based Economy in Vietnam. PhD Thesis. Center for training teachers of Political Theory, National University, Hanoi. The authors enriches the development of new theoretical NNLNCLC to shape the knowledge-based economy through analysing the contents, criteria and factors affecting its development. The author also carries out the relative comprehensive evaluation of NNLCLC situation to form knowledge –based economy period 2001 - 2007 in association with the content and criteria for impact factors mentioned above. The author proposes solutions to NNLCLC development to form the knowledge-based economy in Vietnam in the future. Those proposals finds a way to to develop effective NNLCLC as the major force in the realization of the knowledge - based economy in Vietnam. Tran Van Tung (2005), Training and Retraining Human Resources and Using their talents, World Publisher, Hanoi. The book presents the experiences of discovery, training and using scientific and technological talent in the fields of production and management of the U.S. and some European countries (Germany, France, UK), Asia (Japan, China, South Korea and some other Asian countries). Then the author has taken the issue: Vietnam needs to reform education policies, training and using of existing 11 resources. The author’s study has great practical significance for our country in the discovery, training, and using their science and technology talents for industrialization and modernization and reform the country. Institute for Development Strategy of the Ministry of Planning and Investment (2006), chaired Ministry-level scientific project titled High quality workforce: current situation of development, and the use of the reinforcers. The authors have stated their views on NNLCLC and showed the impact factors. They have initially assessed the situation of our country NNLCLC groups and proposed directions and measures to develop Vietnam NNLCLC in the coming years. Dr. Pham Hong Tung is chief editor of Brief Study on Discovery (2008), Training and Using of talent in the History of Vietnam, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. Virtually, the book brings us a concise and comprehensive assessment about both pros and cons in practical training as well in using talent over the era of our forefather's generation from the period of nation building to the North conquered period, passing the construction period of the monarchical state independent (the tenth century to the fourteenth century) to the middle age in Vietnam with folk conception of talent usage; besides, a lastest conception of human resources formed from late nineteenth century to early twentieth century a long with the appearance of the Westernized intelligentsia in Vietnam. Finally, the author makes clear ideas thought of Ho Chi Minh in training generations of talent to contribute to build the Party rescuing the country. Wherein, the author draws out useful lessons contributing to the scientific foundation for the development of strategic planning, using, in the long, honoring talent - NNLCLC in Vietnam today. 12 Human resource strategy of China 1978-present, Ed. Dr. Nguyen Thi Thu Phuong (2009), National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. By studying definition, strategic formation and talent strategy from 1978 to now, her work has highlighted the principle of Chinese strategy in using talent through talent concept. Thereby, the author also points out the advantages and disadavantages of talent strategy in China to get some lessons for talent development strategy of Vietnam nowadays. Her work also give good reference for the Party and the State in proposing policy as well formulating total strategies for talent, the most important point of NNL. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Van Khanh is the chief editor of Building and promoting intellectual resources in Vietnam, (2010), National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. This book is the result of various fields research and practice conference of scientists carried within the framework of national scientific research issued KX.03.22/06-10 Building and promoting intellectual resources serving the Vietnam prospect in the twenty-first century. Approaching from the different fields of study, it is the author’s desire to shape the awareness as well explain the basics of intellectualization and intellectual resources. The book is structured into four sections include: Part I: Intellect and intellectual resources - the general theory. Part II: Vietnam intellectual resources: history and present. Part III: Building and promoting Vietnam intellectual resources to serve the development of the country. Part IV: Development and use of intellectual resources – experience from foreign countries. The book plays an important role of reference for both theory and practice of promoting the intellectual resources of Vietnam today as well meeting the demands of industrialization and modernization of the country. Institute of Politics - National Administration of Ho Chi Minh, Institute of Scientific Socialism (2010) issued general report of research results of 13 local scientific study in 2010 named Developing NNLCLC to meet the demand of pushing up industrialization and modernization associated with the intellectual economy. The theme focuses on clarifying NNLCLC theory role in CNH, HDH which based on intellectual economy, also studying the world experience in promoting NNLCLC in contrast to current NNLCLC of Vietnam included hot issues. On that basis, his work brings an overview of NNLCLC growing trend, simultaneously, proposing essential solution to encourage that resources to meet the requirements of Vietnam’s industrialization and modernization based on knowledge economy. Assoc. Prof., Dr., Nguyen Van Tai (2010) issued Promoting positive social staff of our country, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. On the basis of Marxism - Leninism and Ho Chi Minh thought, author have gone deeply into analysis, then clarifying the theoretical basis and practical guidelines aslo policies of our Party. Especially, he approaches the problem systematically to give the fact assessment in the situation of officer in our country today; wherein proposing specific and feasible solutions to contribute to consolidate and improve the quality of multilevel staff. Nguyen Thi Thanh Dung (2010), Ho Chi Minh Thought in apply to build leader staff and manage board in our country today, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. The book reflects broadly and systematically the basic content of the Ho Chi Minh ideation, which set out a number of feasible solutions in order to contribute to the directing the leaders, management board of our country today. The experience of some countries to develop education and training, science and technology associated with the construction of the intelligentsia published by Institute of Educational Sciences of Vietnam (2010) , National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. Authors has analyzed countries’ education 14 and training policy together with development of science and technology to draw out lessons for Vietnam. Besides typical books and research of both internal well-known scientists and administrators, there have scientific articles also mentioned that issue such as: Developing NNLCLC along with the modernization of the country and international integration (2002), Dr. Nguyen Huu Dung (author.), Journal of Political Theory 8, T8/2002. In his article, he has formulated the concept of NNLCLC, summarized NNLCLC situation in our country today, on this basis, proposed the basic solution to promote intellectual resources during the renovation period. Assoc. Prof., Dr. Bui Thi Ngoc Lan (2007) reported a number of additional for strategic development of human resource development in Vietnam, Journal of Political Theory T2/2007. The author has studied systematically the basic point of the Vietnamese Communist Party about NHL through Party's conference in which she could clarify rationale of devopling NNLCLC under the spirit of Congress X (2006). Dr. Phan Thanh Khoi contributed The contribution of the intelligentsia in the policy and guidelines of international economic integration (2008), Journal of Political Theory 3/2008. Inside this article, the author makes clear the important role of the Vietnamese intelligentsia in the industrialization and modernization of their country. The author has pointed out that intelligentsia is the serious factor in building the scientific foundation; improving and completing legal system, human resources training; which are contributing to the process of modernization of agriculture and rural. Simultaneously, he has shown a number of measures to bring 15 intelligentsia into play under context of implementation of modernization today. Dr. Nhat Pham Cong (2008), Improving the quality of human resources to meet the requirements of innovation and international integration, Communist Journal issue 786 (April 2008). The authors analyzed the current status of our human resources related to the quantity and quality. Particularly, it is the emphasis in this article that the author has pointed out poor performance and weak points of Vietnamese NNL in contrast with abundant NNL. Besides, the author has given a number of major causes that led to the current situation; on that basis, proposing some solutions to develop NNLCLC strong enough to adapt to the requirements of industrialization, modernization of the country. Dr. Dam Duc Vuong contributed with Report scientists at the Vietnam International Conference school for the third time with the theme: Vietnam, integration and development, situation and solutions in human resource development Vietnam, T12/2008. According to his work, the author refers to the current status of Vietnam human resources deeply to multilevel, such as farmers, workers... Since then, he has taken measures to develop human resources Vietnam at present, in order to improve the quality of human resources to meet the country’s requirements of industrialization and modernization. According to "Problem developing high-quality human resources in our country", Journal of Labor and Social Affairs, No. 329, May 2-2008, authors Nguyen Tien Dung and Do Van Dao assess the status of NNLCLC, pointing out the problems and shortcomings which give solutions to NNLCLC development in our country today.
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