Giới thiệu tổng quan về sở giao dịch ngân hàng nông nghiệp và phát triển nông thôn việt nam.

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Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 A. INTRODUCSION Doing projects play an important role in studying program of students who are in Faculty of Tourism, HOU. We also have each project for each course. It helps us improve our English skill and our knowledge very much. The main purpose of the HD3 project is helping students gain more knowledge about Hanoi as a tourist destination. We also practice the skills in the course such as: learning more about Hanoi tourism potentials, building up commentaries at many sites in Hanoi, dealing with tourists’ questions and solving problems. Moreover, this project gives us one more chance to work in group effectively and find out the way how to design a tailor-made city tour of Hanoi for a group of tourists with different interests. From that, we have to make our own mind about tourism in Vietnam. This project is not only writing for teacher who will give the marks and comments to help us find out the right way to make a good project but also make us practice our English, researching and collecting information, writing skill… Thank to this necessary lesson, we feel more confident to introduce for tourists about famous destinations in Hanoi. It is very good for students to have a chance to do project like that. My group has 4 members: - Lưu Thi Nhung: Tran Quoc Pagoda - Nguyễn Thị Hồng Nam: House No.87 Ma - Lê Phương Ly: One Pillar Pagoda. - Nguyễn Thị Minh Huệ: Lang Pagoda. 1 May Street; Edit and Print Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 B. BODY Pre – departure information: Welcome to Hanoi! As you know, Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years. It is considered to be the cultural centre of Vietnam, where every dynasty has left behind their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors. Hanoi has more cultural sites than any city in Vietnam, including over 600 pagodas and temples. Hanoi still preserves many ancient architectural works including the Old Quarter and over 600 pagodas and temples. Today we have a tour to discover the traditional architecture of Hanoi. So we design this tour with some special pagodas and an old house in Hanoi. We hope that tourists who are interested in traditional architecture of Hanoi will satisfactory with them. Itinerary Tour: Searching the traditional architecture of Hanoi - 8:15 am: pick up tourists in the hotel - 8:45 am: Tran Quoc Pagoda The reason that it is considered a cultural symbol of Vietnamese Buddhism partly for it is the oldest pagoda and situated in the centre of the capital of Vietnam. - 10 am: One Pillar Pagoda Special and famous for its architecture, entire the pagoda is held up by only one pillar, imitating the feature of a lotus (symbol of Buddhism). All the building is situated in the middle of a pond of lotus. 2 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 The unique architecture is a whole column pagoda is set on a stone column. It is a combination of reckless imagination romantic poetical images through lotus and solution structure of wooden architecture in the system of foundation. - 11am: have lunch in restaurant in the Old Quarter and rest. - 1pm: House at No.87 Ma May Street The house at 87 Ma May Street is typical of architecture in Hanoi’s Old Quarter. It has shown the technical and arts building traditional old town of Hanoi. It is the art of building with traditional systems for tractors decorated wooden carving stations, construction techniques under the brick walls, floor systems via wooden bricks. - 1:45 pm: come back to the bus to go Lang Pagoda. - 2:15 pm: Lang Pagoda Lang pagoda is one of the most ancient pagodas in Hanoi. The architecture design of the pagoda is harmonious, stretching from the three entrances to the worshipping house. The multi – layer architecture structure with a green courtyard makes the ancient and sacred atmosphere of a Vietnamese pagoda. - 3:15 pm: finish the tour and take tourists to hotel. 3 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 TRAN QUOC PAGODA I would like to introduce to you one of typical traditional architectures of the Hanoians is an old pagoda architecture. Today we will visit Tran Quoc pagoda: one of the oldest pagodas in Hanoi. You know, Pagoda is the place to worship Buddhism and before introduce about the Tran Quoc pagoda’s architecture. I want to introduce to you briefly information about the Buddhism in Vietnam. 1. Buddhism in Vietnam Vietnam is the nation without own religion but Buddhism still played an important role in the life of Vietnamese with 90% populations. Buddhism came to Vietnam by the maritime route from India and from China by land. Those who first carried this religion to Vietnam seem to have been refugees from persecution in China and religious pilgrims from India. Buddhism could be found in Tonkin (North Vietnam) in the second century A.D. North Vietnam was the cradle of the ethnic Vietnamese culture as it was not until 1802 that the southern area, including the delta, was conquered and consolidated into the approximate area of Vietnam today. The North of Vietnam follows Dai Thua (Great wheel) and the South is Tieu Thua (Small wheel). Do you know what the wheel is?: This is one of the earliest symbols of Buddhism, and consists of a circle (wheel) with eight or twelve divisions (spokes). The circle denotes the Buddhist concept of repeated births and endless existence. Eight "spokes" signify the Eightfold Path to reach Nirvana; and twelve "spokes" denote either the twelve "Principles of Buddhism", or the twelve-year calendar within an endless cycle of time. 4 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 Throughout twenty centuries in the long history of VN, Vietnamese Buddhism has been closely linked with the survival of the nation, whether in its rise and fall. Since the early days of its introduction, the mind of Vietnamese Buddhists has been so well imbued with the Buddha‘s Teachings about love, tolerance and sympathetic understanding that Vietnamese Buddhism has been able to co-exist in peace with other religions for over 2000 years. On the one hand, generations of Vietnamese monks and nuns and lay followers, unknown or well-known, have somehow participated in making it a unique Vietnamese religion colored with Vietnamese ways and customs. On the other hand, Vietnamese Buddhism has had a great influence on Vietnamese literature, art, music, architecture and Buddhism, so to speak, has become a part of Vietnamese life. 2. Tran Quoc pagoda 2.1 Location Tran Quoc Pagoda is located beside the dazzling West Lake, on Thanh Nien Road, Hanoi. Particularly, it is seated on an island linked by a bridge to the causeway between the two most romantic lakes of Hanoi: West Lake and Truc Bach Lake. 2.2 History The construction of the pagoda started in 541 and was completed in 545 under the reign of King Ly Nam De (544-548) under its original name of Khai Quoc (National Founder). It was initially built on the bank of the Red River. Until the early 17th century, under the reign of King Le Kinh Tong (16001618), the pagoda was moved to the Golden Fish Islet due to the river bank crumbling and was renamed Tran Quoc (National Defence). 5 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 2.3 A cultural symbol of Vietnamese Buddhism – the pagoda’s architecture You might ask yourself why among a number of beautiful pagodas in Hanoi, Tran Quoc should be visited. The reason is from the fact that it is considered a cultural symbol of Vietnamese Buddhism partly for it is the oldest pagoda and situated in the center of the capital of Vietnam Tran Quoc pagoda’s layout follows the "noi cong ngoai quoc" architectural style. This is the typical and traditional architecture of the pagodas in Vietnam with featuring three rows of buildings: three-compartment Thuong dien (Sanctuary), Thieu huong (Incense Burning House) and five-compartment Tien duong (Ancestor-worshipping House) ) connected to two corridors, bell tower, Ancestor House and Headstone House. There are remaining 14 stone steles carved much precious documentation and described sufficiently the constructive and repairing process. Especially, the Pagoda has a statue of Thich Ca Buddha made of gilt wood and Big Tower Garden. No one who has visited this significant pagoda of Hanoi does not take interest in its special and intricate style of architecture dated centuries ago. 2.4 A nice tranquil backdrop It must be said that the island and pagoda provide a beautiful backdrop, particularly when viewed at sunset. Standing at one end of Thanh Nien Road, one can see the towers of the pagoda rising above the lake’s surface. In the pagoda’s garden stands a Bồ Đề (Bodhi) tree, which is attached to a past story. The story tells that in 1959, on his visit to Vietnam, Indian Prime Minister Razendia Prasat offered the Pagoda a bodhi tree as a gift. The plant was grafted from the holy bodhi tree where Sakyamuni sat in zen (meditation) position and achieved enlightenment in India 25 centuries ago. Now the bodhi tree is easily recognizable from its heart-shaped leaves, taken from a cutting of its original 6 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 tree. Today, the tree green and luxuriant, shading over part of the pagoda's yard. These days, Tran Quoc Pagoda, as a religious relic with spectacular -surrounding scenery, is a favourite stopover of so many foreign visitors and pilgrims. 3. Bao thien tower As you can see the tower’s name is Bao Thien. It includes 11 floors, 15 high. Each floor has 6 small vaulted roofs, Adida Buddhist statue that made of rare stone and the total are 66 statues. The tower’s construction started in 1998 but there were some reasons so until in 2003 it has finished. Then I will tell you one small story about the tower in Tran Quoc pagoda’s garden that Kim Cuong Tu Buddhist monk leaded the pagoda and respond to build in XI century. He is the superior Buddhist, high position in Buddhism and always is delegate of national assembly. When building the tower, someone said that he built it to after he died his ash will put in this tower. However, some warmed-heart ones still understand and respect his work because there are many projects, restaurants and hotels growing up…it seems to swallow West Lake. Therefore, he knew that this tower’s building is to make harmony of the sacred land, of the pagoda. Then when he passed away, the tower of Tran Quoc pagoda keeps country, protects Thang Long citadel. Nowadays it becomes a very valuable and rare project.  Problem in Tran quoc pagoda: Your group comes into Tran Quoc pagoda. In front of pagoda, some tourists want to take photos but many sellers around there coming and ask them buying some things. They refuse buying anything but the sellers still ask with insistence, make noise and follow your tourists. - Solving problem: 7 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 Come closely with your tourist. Talk in a polite way with the seller that your tourists do not want to buy anything.  Questions: 1. What are the names of two lakes in front of Tran Quoc pagoda? - Ho Tay: West Lake - Truc Back Lake: White Soul Lake 2. What is the meaning of “noi cong ngoai quoc” architecture in pagoda? Internal attack with outside support 3. Why there often has tower garden? To keep the bone-ash of monks 4. Why does each tower have different height? It depends on the position of the monk. 5. What are four sacred animals? Dragon, phoenix, unicorn, tortoise 8 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 APPENDIX Bao Thien tower Tower garden 9 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 The gate of pagoda The roof of pagoda 10 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 The way in pagoda 11 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 THE ONE PILLAR PAGODA The One pillar pagoda is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Vietnam. It was built in 1409 under the Ly dynasty. In Vietnamese, it has named “Dien Huu tu” which literally means “Long lasting happiness and good luck”. The unique pagoda is located in the western part of the city, near Ho Chi Minh’s Museum, Ong Ich Khiem St, Ngoc Ha, Ba Dinh District in Hanoi. 1. History According to legend, Emperor Ly Thai To – the first King of Ly dynasty was very old and had no children. He used to go to pagodas to pray to Buddha for a son. One night, he dreamt that he was granted a private audience to the Goddess of Mercy, who was seated on a great lotus flower in a square-shaped lotus pond on the western side of Thang Long Citadel, gave the King a baby boy. Months later, when the Queen gave birth to a male child, the Emperor ordered the construction of a pagoda supported by only one pillar to resemble the lotus seat of his dream in the honour of the Goddess of Mercy. According to a theory, the pagoda was built in a style of a lotus emerging out of the water. The pagoda was built in 1049 during the Ly dynasty. At this time, the Buddhism was becoming popular in Vietnam. 2. Architecture - Special and famous for its architecture, entire the pagoda is held up by only one pillar, imitating the feature of a lotus (symbol of Buddhism). All the building is situated in the middle of a pond of lotus. It is called Lotus Court a square column with a 3m-dimensional, curved roofs of the stone column cylinder 4m high (not including the underground) has a diameter of 1.2 m. Head including 2 stone blocks, fitted very smart, espy a rock line. 12 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 - The unique architecture is a whole column pagoda is set on a stone column. It is a combination of reckless imagination romantic poetical images through lotus and solution structure of wooden architecture in the system of foundation. Especially using large columns overlap column from the floor, create the stable, just bring aesthetic effect such as eel's wings shower, setting the harmony between the roof and floor by a virtual match. - Along with pond square below may be a symbol for the round holes, square meters of land, as reaching the pagoda on the idea high: charity light the world. Wood block architecture has been assisting by landscape, with pond, with trees has created a closer, but still pure fine. Feeling bar's architecture as share, harmony with heaven water and green leaves of the trees makes people attractive clean your troubles, reached in the light of the soul. A narrow flight of stairs leads to the tower where there sits a gilded figure of Goddess of Mercy, to whom the pagoda is dedicated. And the altar in the small shrine, a gilded figure of Goddess of Mercy sits in the dim interior upon lotus blossoms. The lotus throne in Buddhist iconography is reserved for those who have obtained "perfect comprehension." - Every month, on the first and fifteenth, the king together with the queen, her attendants and courtiers, went to the pagoda to pay homage to the Buddha. Every year on April 8 (lunar year) the king went to the pagoda on the eve of the Buddha's birthday to keep himself pure and calm and to prepare for the Buddhabathing ceremony the following morning. On that day, there was a grand ceremony called “Phong Sinh” festival (animal - releasing ceremony) in front of the pagoda. After the Buddha-bathing ceremony, the king stood on a high platform, began releasing a bird. So on that day sky was filled with release birds. - Sadly, the first One Pillar Pagoda was destroyed during the French War in 1954. The new Vietnamese government rebuilt the temple in 1955 and still commemorates the legend of Emperor Ly Thai Tong. This is an architecture 13 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 combine’s creative space architecture with high-low rhythm including stone sculpture, Painting, drawing touches corridors, the water is a symbol of culture, high art, and the deep ethnic lines. It has been devastating; rebuilding small compared with original sample, repeat here in a cluster has a unique architecture. - It was built of wood on a single stone pillar 1.25 m in diameter, and it is designed to resemble a lotus blossom, which is a Buddhist symbol of purity, since a lotus blossoms in a muddy pond. Before the pagoda was opened, prayers were held for the longevity of the monarch, hence being considered a temple at that time. During the Ly Dynasty era, the temple was the site of an annual royal ceremony on the occasion of Vesak, the birthday of Gautama Buddha. A Buddha-bathing ceremony was held annually by the monarch, and it attracted monks and laymen alike to the ceremony. The monarch would then free a bird, which was followed by the people. - In fact, there are some copies of the One pillar pagoda in the world. There are one in Ho Chi Minh City and one in China. The copies were built to show the relationship between two countries. This unique shape of the pagoda together with the special story has been of great absorption to hundreds of thousands of international tourists! Questions 1. When was the One pillar pagoda built? In 1409 under Ly dynasty 2. Who is worship in One pillar pagoda? Goddess of Mercy 3. Why has One pillar pagoda become famous? 14 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 Special and famous for its architecture, entire the pagoda is held up by only one pillar, imitating the feature of a lotus (symbol of Buddhism). All the building is situated in the middle of a pond of lotus. 4. What do the name “Dien Huu tu” mean? It means “Long lasting happiness and good luck” 5. When was One pillar pagoda destroyed? In 1954 by the French Problem Each stop has some specific rules. Tour guide should explain for tourists to make the tour more smoothly and successful. - In One pillar pagoda, we have some specific rules: Firstly, please do not turn the back to the altar because it is taboo in Vietnam. Secondly, please do not make noises and keep quiet to show respect to the sacred place. Thirdly, please do not throw the rabbits on the floor to protect environment. To avoid getting lost, tour guide should set the meeting point for tourists. 15 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 APPENDIX Photos: 16 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 17 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 HOUSE NO.87 MA MAY STREET – TYPICAL OF ARCHITECTURE IN HANOI’S OLD QUARTER I/ GENARAL INFORMATION 1. History of the House No.87 Ma May Street. The house at 87 Ma May Street is one of two Old Quarter houses, which open to public view. This house dates from the end of the nineteenth century. At that time, only one family lived there, but five families lived in the house from 1954 to 1998. The residents renovated the house to suit their living needs, in the process damaging architectural elements typical of Hanoi’s Old Quarter. The HanoiToulouse program also includes this house. Renovation began in May 1999 and finished that October. The house at 87 Ma May Street is typical of architecture in Hanoi’s Old Quarter. Ma May Street was once divided into two smaller streets: Hang May, which specialized in bamboo and rattan goods, and Hang Ma, which was named after the Black Flag Troops, who had their headquarters there during the French colonial period. Many local and foreign traders, who had converged there for business, gradually settled on that street. The host of this house before 1945 stay here and selling rice, after 1945 was sold to a Chinese family in the North and selling drugs. Year 1954, the Chinese family migrated to South, to leave the house under the management of the state. Year 1954, the Department arranged for the 5 families to live in this house. The house have been improved as a pilot in 1999 with the cooperation of Hanoi (Vietnam) and the city Toulouse (of France) in the project "Conservation, improvement of Hanoi old town." 18 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 Currently, under the management of the People's Committee of Hanoi is the home form of traditional houses in Hanoi old town is well preserved. 2. General architecture in the Hanoi’s Old Quarter. Although Hanoi’s Old Quarter has a 500-year history, few buildings in the architectural style of the Le Dynasty remain except for several pagodas and communal houses. Most houses and shops were built of mud bricks; they failed to survive the destruction of time. Even where brick structures have survived, their wooden stairs, doors and window frames are newer. Weather and termites damaged to original. Most houses modern visitors see in the Old Quarter were built at the end of the nineteenth century. But since many of them were erected on their former foundations, they continue to exhibit many architectural characteristics of the buildings that preceded them. The most distinctive of such characteristics, at least for domestic architecture, is the so-called “tube house”, whose long, narrow structure resulted from a lack of space within the old city and an imperial tax calculated by the width of shop frontage. These dwelling, which no doubt evolved from early market stalls, are often only two to three meters wide, but they may be 50 to 100 meters long. Some houses have frontage on two parallel streets. In the old days, one extended family occupied each house, but modern times have forced the residents of the Old Quarter to sub-divide the old tube houses. Now, a family of four commonly lives in a space of from fifteen to twenty space meters. All of the long narrow houses had interior courtyards in the old days, though residents have covered many of these over for storage or living quarters. Though small, these courtyards provided light and air and a quiet place for elderly family members to drink tea cultivate ornamental plants, or raise pet birds and fish. The population explosion has consumed the courtyards. Now, 19 Website: Email : Tel (: 0918.775.368 residents use every square meter for commercial purposes or to house their family. II/ THE ARCHITECTURE OF HOUSE NO.87 MA MAY STREET 1. The architectural style of the traditional house No.87 - House No.87 is the area of 157.6 m2, built with square corner of the street; the length is 28m, width 5m and front width of the face consequences 6m. Therefore, form of pieces of land is "no consequences" land "no consequences" so well to bring about consequences of “Loc”. - The architectural style of the traditional old town Hanoi, which is: House 1 - Courtyard 1 - House 2- Courtyard 2 - Kitchen - House 3 (Toilet, storage) Therefore, class and each field divide space architecture of the house: * Grade the outside (the class 1): level 1 to sales, to level 2 for living room and space of worship. * Class inside (the class 2): floor 1 includes the storage of goods and for the assistance; floor 2 is home’s bedroom with implementation where is drinking tea or playing chess's and implementation of the drug is exposed to the north courtyard. The two layers are separated by large courtyard for light and ventilation for the entire house. First field (field 1, is called the dry ground), and the host decorating with plants in pots “bonsai” to bring more definition to the nature of space. Field 2, a part where cooking (kitchen), the rest of the tank and rain water for cleaning house. * Class in the end (of the 3) including toilet and storage. 20
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