Giải Bài Tập Hóa Học 9 (NXB Tổng Hợp 2011) - Ngô Thị Diệu Minh & Ngô Nhã Trang, 142 Trang

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CHlfONG 1 C A C L O A I H 0 P C H A T V6 CCf HE THONG HOA KIEN THL/C 1. Mo'i q u a n tu'o'ng ho givLa c a c l o a i hgfp c h a t v6 cof 0X1 NGUYEN TO OXIT KHONG TAO MUO'l OX IT OXIT TAO MUOl OXIT BAZO OXIT L J O N G T I N H OXIT AXIT + H,0 + H,0 AXIT BAZO MUdi 1 MUOl TRUNG HOA MUQl BAZO MUOl AXIT 2. O x i t a) Khdi qudt ve si/ pJidii loai oxit OXIT (Nguyen to + oxi) Oxit khong tao muoi Oxit bazo Oxit axit Oxit lL/3ng tinh Oxit trung tinti (Kim loai* + oxi) (Phi kill! + oxi) (ZnO, AIA...) (CO, NO,..) * M o t so k i m loai k h i ket ho'p vo'i oxi 6' mile hoa t r i cao la oxit axit: CrOs tifo'ng ufng vo'i axit H2Cr04, Mn20T tu'o'ng ilng vo'i axit H M n 0 4 . 5 b) Tinh chat hod hoc cda 3. A x i t , bazcf, m u o i oxit Oxit axit Oxit baza a) Phdn loai axit, baza vd muoi Tinh chat hoa hoc~~~ Tac dung v61 H2O IVlot so oxit axit khi tac dung IVlot so oxit bazo tac dung v61 ni/6c vo'i nuo'c tao thanh dung dich tao thanh dung dich bazo (kiem). axit. Dung dich thu du'Oc lam Dung dich thu duoc lam ddi mau quy doi mau quy tim thanh do. ti'm thanh xanh. Vi du: CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 Vi du: CaO + HaO - - Oxit bazo tac dung vOi nuOc: Na20, Oxit axit tac dung vOi Ca(0H)2 nu6c: SO2, SO3, N2O5, P2O5... BaO, K2O... Axit CO oxi - - HN03 Oxit axit khong tac dung vOi nu'6'c: Si02... Tac dung v6i axit CAC HdP CHAT VO CO' (Axit -'Bazo - Muoi) Oxit bazo khong tac dung vfli nu'o'c: AI2O3, FeO, Fe203, Fe304... Khong phan ung Axit + oxit bazo muoi + nu'o'c Vi du: H3PO4 HCIO... Bazo khong tan trong nu'Oc Fe(OH), Baza tan trong nu6c (kiem) NaOH KOH Ba(OH)^... Axit khong CO oxi HCI HBr HI. HF... Fe(0H)3 Ai(0H)3 Muoi axit NaHCOj NaHSO, Ba(HC03),,.. IVIufi'i trung hoa NaCI Na.SO, Na^CO, BaCOj... Cu(OH),... AI2O3 + 3H2SO4 ^ Al2(S04)3 + 3H2O Fe304 + 8HCI -> FeCb + 2FeCl3 + 4H2O Tac dung vol bazo BazO((jd) + oxit axit -> muoi axit kiem hoac muoi trung hoa + H2O. Khong phan u'ng b) Thanh Ten cua axit l//c'w.-C02 + l\laOH~^NaHC03 2 <1 '^NaOH Tac dung vOi oxit 1 bazo Khong phan ung Oxit axit + oxit bazo Oxit bazo + oxit axit -> muoi Khong phan u'ng Vi du: CaO + CO2 Oxit lu'dng tinh Oxit trung tinh (oxit l 2AICI3 + 3H2O Tac dgng vOi bazo lIVlgS04 ^""""---.-.^P/Tan loai Tinh chat muoi ti2 axit Cong hoa hoc l\la2C03 tao 2 muoi Nal-IC03 Tac dung vo'i oxit axit cda phdn thu'c CO2 + 2(\laOH -> IMajCOa + H2O 1< phcln Nguyen tu' So nhom kirn loai hidroxit (-0H) Na 1 NaCI, Na2S04, Na3P04... Natri hidroxit NaOH Tham gia phan ung oxi hoa - khu' Kali hidroxit KOH K 1 KNO3, K2SO4, KCI... 2N0 + O2 ^ 2NO2 Canxi hidroxit Ca(0H)2 Ca 2 Ca(N03)2, CaS04, Ca3(P04)2... Bar! hidroxit Ba(0H)2 Ba 2 BaCi2, Ba(N03)2, BaS04... Nhom hidroxit AI(0H)3 Al 3 AICI3, AI(N03)3, Al2(S04)3- 3C0 + Fe203 2Fe + 300?. * Nh'u-ng oxit nao tac dung voi nu'o'c? Nhffng axit, bazo' nao tan trong nu'o'c t h i oxit do tac dung yd'i nu'o'c. d) Tinh chat hod hoc ciia axit, Axit ^"~~^~-~--„.P/?£n ioai baza Tinh chat hoa hoc^ Bazo' Axit Bazo Phan ung nhiet Tinh chat hoihoc~~Tac dung v6i giay Giay quy tim chuyen til mau Giay quy tim chuyen tii' mau tim quy tim tim sang mau do khi cho vao dung djch axit. sang mau xanh khi cho vao dung Tac dung vo'i dung Khong lam ddi mau dung djch Dung djch bazo lam ddi mau dung djch phenoiphtalein phenoiphtalein. djch phenoiphtalein tu' khong mau phan djch bazd (kiem). Mot so axit oxit axit + nu'Oc Vi du: H2SO4 ' % SO3 + H2O 2HNO3 2N0, + H2O + ^ Tac dyng vo'i i FeCIs + Hzt 3H2S04(to,9) + 2AI->Al2(S04)3 + e) Tilth chat hod hoc cila - Kim loai + miidi loai Vi du: Fe + CUSO4 muoi moi + kim loai mOi FeS04 + Cu - Kim loai dung tru'o'c (trii' Na, K, Ca...) day kim loai du'ng sau (trong day hoat dong hoa hoc cua kim loai) ra khoi dung djch muoi cua Chung. - Kim loai Na, K, Ca... khi tac dung vo'i dung dich muoi thl khong cho kim loai mo'i vi: Na + CUSO4 - > 2Na + 2H2O -> 2NaOH + H2 Vi du: CU + 2H2SO4 (dac) CUSO4 + 2NaOH ^ Na2S04 + Cu(0H)2i. CUSO4 + S02t + 2H2O. Bazd + axit -> muoi + nu'o'c Mot so hidroxit luBng tinh (AI(0H)3), Vi du: Zn(0H)2) tac dung vo'i kiem; NaOH + HCI -> WaCI + H2O AI(0H)3 + NaOH ^ NaAI02 + H2O Fe(0H)2 + 2HCI Zn(0H)2 + 2l\laOH Tac dung vdi axit Tac dung vo'i bazo Axit + oxit bazd bazd Vi du: CaO + H2SO4 muoi +.nu6'c CaS04 + NaHS03 Mot so oxit luBng tinh: ZnO, AI2O3, Cr203... tac dung vo'i dung djch bazo Axit + mu6i(dd) mu6i,ma) + axit,ma) Vi du: HCI + AgNOs 8azO(dci) + muoi(dd) Dieu l(ien phan u'ng xay ra: Muoi mdi hoSc bazo mdi sinh ra la chat Tac dung vol muoi l//'c'u.-2KOH + CuS04^K2S04 + H2SO4 + BaCl2 BaS04i + 2HC1 + Cu(0H)2i Lu'u y: Nhan biet goc SO4 bang 2l\laOH + FeCb -> 2NaCI + Fe(0H)2i dd BaCl2 tao ket tua trang BaS04. 8 Muoi(dd) + mudi(dd) muoi mo'i + muoi mo'i Vi du: BaClj + Na2S04 BaS04i + 2NaCI Dieu l Na2S03 + H2O. Tac dyng v6i oxit AgCli + HNO3 mo'i siph ra hoSc axit mo'i sinh ra la chat de bay ho'i hoSc la axit yeu hon axit tham gia phan u'ng. hoac muoi trung hoa + nu'dc l//cfu.'S02 + NaOH muoi mdi + axit mOi Dieu l muoi axit Muoi + axit Vi du: AgNOj + HCI + 2H2O. Khong phan u'ng AI2O3 + 3H2O. Dieu l 2NaAI02 + 3H2T Zn + 2NaOH Vidu: Cu(0H)2 2AI(0H)3 + 3H2T Tac dgng v6i bazd 2 oxit bazo + + nu'Oc Fe(0H)2 .I02. chuyen thanh mau hong. (I 2 N a C l + H2O A. CANXI OXIT C a O + H2SO4 > C a S 0 4 + H2O CuO + H2SO4 > CUSO4 + H2O 1. Bang phuong phap hoa hoc nao cd the nhan biet duOc tung chat trong moi day chat sau: a) Hai chat ran mau trang la CaO va Na20. d) CO2, SO2 t a c dung v d i dung dich bazo' tao t h a n h muo'i v a nu'dc: CO2 + 2 N a O H > NaaCOa + H2O SO2 + 2 N a O H > Na2S03 + IhO. b) Hai chat khi khong mau la CO2 va O2. Viet nhOng phu'Ong trinh phan ung hoa hoc. Ldl 5. Co hon ho'p khi CO2 va O2. Lam the nao c6 the thu du'oc khi O2 t(i hon a) L a y m o t i t m o i c h a t cho t a c d u n g v d i nu'dc, sau do d e m l o c , nu'dc hop tren? Trinh bay each lam va viet.phudng trinh phan u'ng hoa hoc. Ipc c u a cac d u n g d i c h n a y du'pc thuf b a n g k h i CO2 h o a c d u n g d i c h L O / GIAI N a 2 C 0 3 . N e u c6 k e t t i i a t r S n g t h i c h a t b a n d a u l a C a O , n e u k h o n g cd D i n h o n ho'p k h i CO2 va O2 d i qua b i n h du'ng dung dich k i e m k e t t u a t h i c h a t b a n d a u l a N a 2 0 . Phu'Ong t r i n h p h a n u'ng: (Ca(0H)2, NaOH...) k h i CO2 b i giuf l a i t r o n g b i n h , do c6 p h a n ufng sau: CO2 + C a ( 0 H ) 2 Hoac CaO + H2O > C a C O a i + H2O Hoac 6*. Cho 1,6g dong (II) oxit tac dung voi lOOg dung dich axit sunfuric cd nong do 20%. ' > C a C O s i + H2O C a ( 0 H ) 2 + NaaCOa > CaC03i + 2NaOH (mau ti'Sng) Na20 + H20 a) Viet phu'Ong trinh phan u'ng hoa hoc. 2 N a O H + CO2 b) Ti'nh nong dp phan tram cac chat c6 trong dung dich sau khi phan u'ng ket thuc. Ldl > Ca(0H)2 C a ( 0 H ) 2 + CO2 > NaaCOg + H2O. CO2 + 2 N a O H GIAI , GIAI i, > 2NaOH > Na.COa + II2O. b ) Sue h a i c h a t k h i k h o n g m a u v a o h a i o'ng n g h i e m c h i l a nu'dc v o i C a ( 0 H ) 2 t r o n g . O n g n g h i e m n a o h i v a n due, t h i k h i b a n d a u l a CO2, k h i c o n l a i l a O2. = 0'02 m o l ; ncuo = 1^ nH^s04 " * ^'2 " ^ o l i a) Phu'Ong t r i n h p h a n ufng: CuO + H2SO4 0,02 m o l — ^ 0,02 m o l CUSO4 + H2O 0,02 m o l ; P - ; CUSO4 tao t h a n h , t i n h theo so m o l CuO: ncuS04 = " c u O = 0,02 m o l : mc,so4 = 160 x 0,02 ^ 3,2g N o n g do p h a n t r a m cac chat t r o n g dung dich sau p h a n i l n g : C%e.,o CUSO4 C%Hso H2SO4 12 . 3 , 2 x 1 0 0 % ^ ^ (100 + 1,6) ' =iMiiiiOO!^. 17,76%. (100 + 1,6) Viet cac phiJOng trinh phan Qng hoa hoc. GIAI t a n t r o n g nu'dc la CaCOs. b ) L a y m o t i t m o i c h a t cho t a c d u n g v d i nu'dc, c h a t n a o t a n l a C a O , c h a t k h o n g t a n l a M g O . H o a c cd t h e cho h a i c h a t t a c d u n g v d i d u n g K h o i Itrpng H2SO4 dii sau p h a n ufng: \h H C l . S a u do c h o d u n g d i c h N a O H v a o d u n g d i c h sau p h a n iJng, dung dich nao tao k e t tua t r S n g (Mg{0H)2) t h i chat ban dau l a M g O , mH2S04 = 2 0 - (98 X 0,02) = 18,04g - b) CaO, MgO. a) C h a t n a o p h a n li'ng m a n h vd'i nu'dc v a t o a n h i e t l a C a O , k h o n g ufng h e t , H2SO4 con du". K h o i iMng a) CaO, CaCOa Ldl b) Theo phiTOng t r i n h p h a n u'ng t r e n t h i liTpng CuO t h a m gia p h a n - 2. Hay nhan biet tu'ng cap chat trong moi nhdm chat sau b l n g phu'Ong phap hoa hpc: I d u n g d i c h k h o n g cd k e t t u a t h i c h a t ban d a u l a C a O . M g O + 2HC1 MgCl2 + 2 N a O H > M g C l s + H2O > M g t O H ) . ! + 2NaCl (man Lriing) CaO + 2HC1 ' > C a C L + H2O. 13 3*. 200ml dung dich HCI c6 nong d6 3,5 mol/lit hoa tan vC/a du 20g h6n hop B. L U U H U V N H D I O X I T CuOvaFegOg. 1 . Viet phu'Ong trinh hoa hoc cho moi bien doi sau: a) Viet cac phu'Ong trinh phan ung hoa hoc. I b) Ti'nh khoi lu'o'ng cua moi oxit bazo c6 trong hon ho'p ban d a u . r.n a) Phu'o'ng t r i n h p h a n u'ng h o a h o c : 2HC1 > CuCl2 2x m o i + 6HC1 y moi + II2O > FeClg + SHaO ^ [2x + 6 y = 0,7 (1) S + O2 (2) S O 2 + CaO hay S O 2 + C a ( 0 H ) 2 ,dd) (3) SO2 + H2O (4) H2SO3 + 2 N a O H (5) b ) D y a v a o phu'Ong t r i n h p h a n u'ng t r e n t a c6: (6) > H2SO3 > NaiSO-, + 2H2O NasSOs + H 2 O > NaaSCi + SOgt + H 2 O > 2NaCl + S 0 2 t + H2O SO2+ 2NaOH > ISiaSO^ + H2O > NaaSOg. 2 . Hay nhan biet tu'ng chat trong moi nhom chat sau bang phuo'ng phap hoa hoc: a) Hai chat ran mau trSng la CaO va P2O5. a) Viet phuong trinh phan u'ng. b) Hai chat khf khong mau la SO2 va O2. b) Ti'nh nong do mol cua dung dich Ba(0H)2 da dung. Viet cac phu'Ong trinh hoa hoc. c) Tinh khoi luong chat ket tua thu duOc. LOI GIAI GIAI a) C h o nu'o'c v a o h a i d'ng n g h i e m c6 chu'a C a O v a P2O5. Sau do cho 2 24 quy t i m vao dung dich t r o n g h a i ong n g h i e m , dung dich nao doi m a u quy t i m t h a n h x a n h , c h a t b a n d a u l a C a O , d u n g d i c h n a o d o i m a u q u y a) Phu'Ong t r i n h p h a n u'ng h o a h o c : t i m t h a n h d o , c h a t b a n d a u l a P2O5. Ca(0H)2 ^ BaCOaU 0,1 m o l 0,1 m o l H2O CM,^^,,^,,,^, = M c) D y a v a o phu'o'ng t r i n h p h a n y n g t r e n t a c6: CaO + H2O P2O5 + 3 H 2 O b ) D y a v a o phu'o'ng t r i n h p h a n iTng t r e n t a n h a n t h a y : nBa(0ii.2 - n c o , - O , l m o l > CaSO^ + I I 2 O v i H C I d§ b a y ho'i n e n k h i S O 2 t h u du'o'c se k h o n g t i n h k h i e t . 4 . Biet 2,24 lit khi CO2 (dktc) tac dung vua du voi 200ml dung dich Ba(0H)2 san pham sinh ra la BaCOa va H2O. 0,1 m o l > CaSOs NaaSOs + H2SO4 hoac S O 2 + N a 2 0 + GIAI > SO2 Na2S03 + 2HC1 mcuo = 0,05 X 80 = 4 g CO2 SO2 K h o n g n e n d u n g p h a n u'ng: f x = 0,05 m o l " ^ [ y - 0 , 1 0 mol LCfl NagSOa NajSOa hoac H2SO3 + NaaO 6y m o i 8 0 x + 1 6 0 y = 20 ^ LOU G o i X , y l a so m o i ciia C u O v a Fe^Oa. FeaOs H2SO3 -^h I ^ " " ^ ' = - T o o o - = °''"^'^^- CuO + X moi CaSOa S _(1L> SO2 L 0 7 GlAl 3,5x200 ^ ^ 0,5 m o l / l i t . > Ca(0H)2 (kiem) > 2H3PO4 (axit). b ) D a n h a i k h i v a o h a i o n g n g h i e m chu'a nu'o'c, sau do cho q u y t i m v a o cac ong n g h i e m , dung dich t r o n g ong n g h i e m nao doi m a u quy t i m t h a n h do t h i c h a t b a n d a u l a k h i S O 2 , k h i O2 k h o n g p h a n u'ng. H o a c d u n g t h a n h o n g t r e n que d o m de thuf, k h i O2 l a m b u n g c h a y que dom, c o n k h i S O 2 k h o n g p h a n u'ng. SO2 + H 2 O > H2SO3. 15 3. Co nhu'ng khi am (khi c6 iSn hoi nuoc): cacbon dioxit, oxi, luu huynh dioxit. Khi nao c6 the lam kho bang canxi oxit? Giai thich. LCfl GlAl C a O CO t i n h h u t a m ( h o i nu'o'c) t a o t h a n h C a ( 0 H ) 2 , d o n g t h o ' i l a mot o x i t bazc' ( t a c d u n g vo'i a x i t ) . D o do C a O c h i d u n g l a m k h o cac McaSOa = 120 ; Mca(OH)2 = ^4 a) Phu'o'ng t r i n h p h a n u'ng h o a h o c : + SO2 Ca(0H)2 0,005 m o l > C a S O a i + H2O 0,005 m o l 0,005 m o l • b ) T i n h k h o i Itfo'ng cac c h a t sau p h a n i l n g : k h i a m la hidro a m , oxi a m . 4. Co nhu'ng chat khi sau: C O 2 , H2, O2, SO2, N2. Hay cho biet chat nao c6 tinh chat s a u : a) Nang ho'n khong khi. D i f a vao phu'o'ng t r i n h p h a n tfng t r e n t a n h a n t h a y : nca(0H)2 > i^sOg n e n c h i t a o m u o i CaSOa. ' n s o , = ncasoa = 0>005 b) Nhe ho'n khong khi. c) Chay daoc trong khong khi. ^ m^so, = 0-005 x 120 = 0,6g nic3(0H)2du= ( 0 , 0 0 7 - 0 , 0 0 5 ) X 74 = 0,148g. d) Tac dung vo'i nu'o'c tao thanh dung dich axit. ' c) N o n g do m o l ciia s a n p h a m sau p h a n u'ng: e) Lam due nude voi trong. 0,002x1000 Ci.,,n g) Doi mau giay quy tim am thanh do. ,r,lI^ ^ ~ „ « 2,857mol/lit. ^M(Ca(0H)2)dU ' LCflGIAI T i n h c h a t hoa h o c cua axit a) N h f f n g k h i n a n g ho'n k h o n g k h i : CO2, O2, SO2. 1. TL/ M g , MgO, Mg(0H)2 va dung dich axit sunfurie loang, hay viet cac b ) N h u ' n g k h i n h e ho'n k h o n g k h i : H 2 , Ng. phUdng trinh phan u'ng hoa hoc dieu che magie sunfat. c) N h u ' n g k h i c h a y du'o'c t r o n g k h o n g k h i : H 2 . LCfl d) N h i J n g k h i t a c d u n g vo'i nu'o'c t a o t h a n h d u n g d i c h a x i t : CO2, SO2. PhLTo'ng t r i n h p h a n iJng h o a h o c : e) N h u ' n g k h i l a m due nu'o'c v o l t r o n g : CO2, SO2. g) N h u ' n g k h i l a m d o i m a u q u y t i m a m t h a n h d o : CO2, SO2. 5. Khi lu'u huynh dioxit diioc tao thanh til'cap chat nao sau day: a) K2SO3 va H2SO4 b) K2SO4 va HOI d) Na2S04 va CuCJa e) NajSOa va NaCI. c) Na2S03 va NaOH LOIGIAl K h i SO2 du'o'c t a o t h a n h t u ' c a p c h a t : K2SO3 + H2SO4 > K2SO4 + SO2T + H 2 O . 6. Dan 112ml khi SO2 (dktc) di qua 700ml dung dich Ca(0H)2 c6 nong dp 0,01 mol. a) Viet ph'u'dng trinh phan u'ng h o a h p c . b) Tfnh khdi lu'dng cac chat sau phan u n g . c) Tinh nong do mol c u a san pham sau phan d n g . Ldl GIAI noo = =0,005 mol; ^^•^ 22400 nca(OH)2 ^ 16 700x0,01 , ^QQQ = 0,007 m o l • •: Ji^^ ' • GIAI M g + H2S04 (loang) MgO > MgS04 + + H2SO4 > M g S 0 4 + H2O M g ( 0 H ) 2 + H2SO4 > MgS04 + 2 H 2 O . 2. Co nhu'ng chat sau: CuO, Mg, AI2O3, F e ( 0 H ) 3 , Fe203. Hay chon mot trong nhOng chat da cho tac dung vdi dung dich HCI sinh ra: a) Khi nhe hdn khong khi va chay du'o'c trong khong khi. , ,,,, b) Dung dich CO mau xanh lam. c) Dung dich CO mau vang nau. . d) Dung dich khong CO m a u . , Viet cac phu'dng trinh phan u'ng. LCfl GIAI a) K h i n h e ho'n k h o n g k h i v a c h a y du'o'c t r o n g k h o n g k h i l a k h i H 2 . M g + 2HC1 ^MgCla + H a t , b ) D u n g d i c h c6 m a u x a n h l a m l a d u n g d i c h CuCl2. Cu0 + 2HC1 ^CuCla + HaO c) D u n g d i c h c6 m a u v a n g n a u l a d u n g d i c h F e C l s . Fe(0H)3 + 6HC1 > FeCh + SHaO THi; VIENTINHBINHTHUAN 17 Hoac FeaOg + 6 H C 1 c) Chat ket tua mau t r i n g khong tan trong nUdc va axit? > 2 F e C l + SHzO d) Dung dich khong mau va nUdc? d ) D u n g d i c h k h o n g m a u l a cac d u n g d i c h MgCl2, A I C I 3 . AI2O3 + 6 H C 1 Viet tat ca cac phUOng trinh phan u n g . > 2AICI3 + 3H2O M g + 2HC1 LCfl > MgCl2 + H a t . 3 . Hay viet cac phaong trinh phan ufng trong moi trUdng ho'p sau: a) Magie oxit va axit nitric c) Nhom oxit va axit sunfuric Cac p h i i d n g t r i n h h o a h o c : \ ' b) Dong (II) oxit va axit clohidric a) C h a t k h i c h a y dUdc t r o n g k h o n g k h i l a k h i H j . d) Sat va axit clohidric Zn + 2HC1 e) K e m va axit sunfuric loang. LCfl a) M g O + 2HNO3 > CuCla + H2O c) AI2O3 + 3H2SO4 d) Fe + 2 H C 1 e) Z n + H2SO4 ' ' > Al2(S04)3 + 3H2O > FeCh CuO + 2HC1 CuO + H2SO4 > BaS04i + 2HC1 d) D u n g d i c h k h o n g m a u l a : Z n C l a , Z n S 0 4 . ZnO + 2HC1 ZnO + H2S04 > ZnCl2 + H2O > Z n S 0 4 + H20. 2 . San xuat axit sunfuric trong cong nghiep can phai c6 nhij'ng nguyen lieu chu yeu nao? Hay cho biet muc dich cua m6i cong doan san xuat axit sunfuric va dan ra nhOng phan L i n g hoa hoc. a) Phadng phap hoa hoc. Viet phUdng trinh hoa hoc. Ldl b) Phaong phap vat If. (Biet rang dong khong tac dung vdi axit HCI va axit H2SO4 loang). LCfl GlAl a) P h t r c n g p h a p h o a h o c : N g a m h 6 n h d p h o t C u v a F e t r o n g d u n g d i c h H C I d u . P h a n i l n g x o n g , loc l a y c h a t rin, rufa n h i e u I a n t r e n g i a y loc. L a m k h o c h a t r a n do l a h o t C u , c a n , g i a suf du'o'c 7,2g. Suy r a t r o n g h o n h d p c6 7 2 % , c o n l a i 2 8 % l a F e . P h a o ' n g t r i n h p h a n ufng: Fe + 2 H C 1 > FeCh + H-^^ - M u c d i c h cua m 6 i c o n g doan s a n x u a t a x i t s u n f u r i c : • D o t lu'u h u y n h t r o n g k h o n g Idhi de san x u a t lu'u h u y n h d i o x i t : S + O2 • > SO2 O x i h o a SO2 (V2O5) de san x u a t SO3: • 1 , Co nhung chat: CuO, BaCl2, Zn, ZnO. Chat nao noi tren tac dung voi dung dich HCI va dung dich H 2 S O 4 loang, sinh ra: b) Dung dich c6 mau xanh lam? >H2S04. 3 . Bang each nao c6 the nhan biet dJdc tung chat trong moi cap chat sau fheo phuong phap hoa hoc: Mot so axit quan trong a) Chat khi chay dUdc trong khong khf? 2SO3 C h o SO3 t a c dung vo'i H 2 O de s a n x u a t H2SO4: SO3 + H2O difdc 2 , 8 g b o t F e . nguyen l i e u l a lu'u h u y n h ( h o a c q u a n g p i r i t ) , k h o n g k h i v a nUo'c. 2SO2 + O2 c h a m bang m a n h nilon m o n g va nho. Cha nhieu I a n ta cung thu GIAI S a n x u a t a x i t s u n f u r i c t r o n g c o n g n g h i e p c a n p h a i c6 > k h o n g phan ilng. b ) Phiro'ng p h a p v a t I I : D u n g t h a n h n a m c h a m , sau k h i d a boc d a u 18 > CUSO4 + H2O B a C l 2 + H2SO4 + Hat — > ZnS04 + H2t. 4. Co 10g h6n hop bot cac kim loai dong va sat. Hay gidi thieu phadng phap xac dinh thanh phan phan tram (theo khoi lUo'ng) cua m5i kim loai trong hon hdp theo: nam > CUCI2 + H2O c) C h a t k e t t u a t r S n g k h o n g t a n t r o n g nu'dc v a a x i t l a BaS04. (loang) Cu + H C I > ZnS04 + Hat b ) D u n g d i c h c6 m a u x a n h l a m : CuCl2, CUSO4. dng: > M g ( N 0 3 ) 2 + H2O b) C u O + 2 H C 1 > ZnCl2 + H 2 t Z n + H2SO4 GlAl P h a c n g t r i n h h o a h o c cua cac p h a n GIAI ' a) Dung dich HCI va dung dich H 2 S O 4 . b) Dung dich NaCI va dung dich N a 2 S 0 4 . c) Dung dich N a 2 S 0 4 va dung dich H2SO4. Viet cac phUdng trinh phan ufng. 19 Ldl GIAI a) Cho dung dich BaCl2 vao h a i ong n g h i e m c6 chiJa dung dich H C l va dung dich H2SO4, chat t r o n g ong n g h i e m nao clio k e t t u a mau t r a n g , suy r a chat ban dau la H2SO4, chat t r o n g o'ng n g h i e m k h o n g c6 h i e n tu'o'ng g i xay r a la H C l . BaCla + H2SO4 5. Hay sCf dung nhung chat c6 s i n : Cu, Fe, CuO, KOH, CeHigOg (glucozcf), dung dich H2SO4 loang, H2SO4 dac va nhung dung cu thi nghiem can thiet de lam nhung thi nghiem chiing minh rang: a) Dung dich H2SO4 loang c6 nhOng tinh chat chung cua axit. b) H2SO4 dac C O nhung tfnh chat hoa hpc rieng. Viet phapng trinh hoa hpc cho 6 moi thi nghiem. > B a S 0 4 i + 2HC1 (Ngoai BaCls r a c6 the dung Ba(N03)2 hoac dung dich Ba(0H)2). b) D u n g m o t t r o n g nhiJng thuo'c thiJ nhu' cau a). c) Cho giay quy t i m vao h a i ong n g h i e m chila Na2S04 va H2SO4, Ldl GIAI a) Dung dich H2SO4 c6 nhu'ng t i n h chat hoa hpc chung ciia axit. L a m nhffng t h i n g h i e m : , chat t r o n g ong n g h i e m nao l a m quy t i m doi mau t h a n h do la dung H2SO4 + Fe dich H2SO4, con chat t r o n g ong n g h i e m Ida quy t i m k h o n g doi mau la H2SO4 + CuO Na2S04. H2SO4 + CuCOa > CUSO4 + CO2 + H 2 O Co the n h a n bie't Ii2S04 bang k i m loai boat dong (Zn, Fe, M g , Al...) CO k h i H2 bay len. H2SO4 + 2 K 0 H > K2SO4 + 2H2O 4*. Bang dadi day cho bie't ket qua cua 6 thi nghiem xay ra giu'a Fe va dung djch H2SO4 loang. Trong m5i thi nghiem nguoi ta dung 0,2g Fe tac dung vo'i the tich bang nhau cua axit, nhu'ng c6 nong dp khac nhau: > FeS04 + H2T > CUSO4 + H2O b) H2SO4 dac C O nhu'ng t i n h chat hoa hpc r i e n g . L a m nhu'ng t h i nghiem: 2H2SO4 , d a c , + Cu CUSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O ^"^'°'"-'-) 6 H 2 O + 6C. CeHi20s Thf nghiem Nong dp axit Nhiet dp axit (°C) Trang thai sat 1 1IV1 25 La 190 2 2M 25 Bpt 85 a) Viet phUPng trinh hoa hpc. 3 2M 35 La 62 b) Tfnh khoi iLfpng mat sSt da tham gia phan u'ng. 4 2M 50 Bot 15 c) Tinh nong dp moi cua dung dich HCl da dung. 5 2IV1 35 Bpt 45 6 3IV1 50 Bpt 11 Thoi gian phan Qng xong (s) 6. Cho mot khoi lu'Png mat sat du'vao 50ml dung dich HCl. Phan u'ng xong thu du'pc 3,36 lit khi (dktc). Ldl ni-K.-R khiH2 NhQng thi nghiem nao chung to rang; a) Phan ufng xay ra nhanh hpn khi tang nhiet dp. Lfng Fe xay ra nhanh hPn khi tang nong dp axit? LOIGIAI Qua bang k e t qua ciia 6 t h i n g h i e m ta n h a n t h a y : 22,4 = 0,15 moi a) Phu'o'ng t r i n h hoa hpc cua p h a n li'ng: b) Phan Lfng xay ra nhanh hPn khi tang dien tich tiep xuc. c) Phan =-^^^ GIAI + 0,15 moi 2HC1 > FeCL + H2 0,3 moi mpe = 0,15 X •/ . 56 = 8,4g. c) N o n g dp moi ciia dung dich H C l . b) So sanh T N 3 va T N 5 chufng to p h a n u'ng xay r a n h a n h h o n k h i t a n g dien t i c h tiep xuc. npici = Snji^ = 0,3 moi 20 ' , b) T i n h k h o i lu'Png m a t sat, du'a v a o phu'o'ng t r i n h t r e n t a c6: . : a) So sanh T N 4 va T N 5 chufng to p h a n ting xay r a n h a n h hPn k h i t a n g n h i e t dp. c) T N 4 va T N 6 chufng to p h a n ufng xay r a n h a n h ho'n k h i t a n g n o n g dp cua dung dich H2SO4. , 0,15 moi ' Du'a vao phu'o'ng t r i n h hoa hpc t r e n , ta c6: =^ C^'KilCD- 0,3x1000 „ ,,,,, go = 6mol/lit. 21 : 7*. Hoa tan hoan toan 12,1g h6n hop bot CuO va ZnO can 100ml dung djch HCI 3 M . Luyen tap: Ti'nh chat hoa hpc cua oxit va axit a) Viet cac phuong trinh hoa hoc. b) Tinh phan tram theo khoi lapng cua mSi oxit trong hSn hop ban dau. c) Hay tinh khoi luo'ng dung dich H2SO4 c6 nong do 2 0 % de hoa tan hoan toan h5n hop cac oxit tren. Ldl GIAI 3x100 CuO + 2HC1 ZnO + 2HC1 > CuCU + H2O (1) > ZnCls + H2O (2) _ 0,05x80x100% —— 12,1 > CuSO,, + H2O >.ZnSO| + H2O =98.(0,05 +0,1) = 14,7g K h o i lufo'ng dung dich H2SO, 20% can dung: 14,7x100 22 c) NazO b) CuO d) CO2 . e) P2O5. GIAI CuO + CO2T Cu(0H)2 ^ 0,1 mol 20 a) H2O p) N h f l n g o x i t l a : CuO, CO2 (phan hiiy CuCOs hoac Cu(0H)2 duo'c (3) 0,05 mol "^112804 = p) Phan u'ng hoa hop va phan ung phan hCiy? Viet phu'Ong trinh hoa hpc. CuCOs Diia vao phu'o'ng t r i n h (3) va (4), ta c6: ^112804 a) Phan ii'ng hoa hop? Viet phu'ong trinh hoa hoc. CuO, p h a n huy CaCOg du'o'c CO2). =33% c) Kho'i luo'ng H2SO4 can dung: 0,1 mol 2. NhOng oxit nao daoi day CO the dieu C h e bang: cac phUo'ng t r i n h hoa hoc (hpc sinh tu" viet). y = 0,1. %mzno = 100% - 33% = 67%. ZnO + H2SO4 (Hoc sinh iiX v i e t cac phtfo'ng t r i n h hoa hoc). a) Ca 5 oxit da cho c6 the dieu che bang p h a n ufng hoa ho'p. V i e t G i a i he phu'o'ng t r i n h t r e n ta c6: x = 0,05; 0,05 mol c) N h f f n g oxit tac dung vo'i dung dich N a O H : CO2, SO2. LCfl •80x + S l y = 12,1 [2x + 2y = 0,3 CuO + H2SO4 ; b) Nhufng oxit tac dung vo'i dung dich H C I : CuO, NaaO. b) T i n h t h a n h phan h o n ho'p, diia vao phiio'ng t r i n h hoa hoc (1), (2) v a da k i e n de bai cho ta c6 he phu-o'ng t r i n h dai so: =^ GIAI a) Nhu'ng oxit tac dung vd'i n^o'c: SO2, Na20, CO2. 2y mol /omcuo - c) Natri hidroxit? b) Axit clohidric LCfl 2x mol y mol a) Nadc , a) PhLTOng t r i n h hoa hoc xay ra: mol tac dung du'oc vdi: Viet cac phiJOng trinh hoa hpc. D a t X va y la so mol CuO va ZnO t r o n g h6n ho'p. X 1. Co nhu'ng oxit sau: SO2, CuO, Na20, COg. Hay cho biet nhQng oxit nao " (4) CaCOa ^ CuO + H2O CaO + CO.T. 3. Khi CO dupe dung lam chat dot trong cong nghiep, c6 l i n tap chat la cac khi CO2 va SO2. Lam the nao c6 the loai bo du'pc nhu'ng tap chat ra khoi CO bang hoa chat re tien nhat? Viet cac phuong trinh hoa hoc xay ra. ' LO'I GIAI Cho h6n ho'p k h i CO, CO2, SO2 l o i tii tii qua dung dich Ca(0H)2. CO2 va SO2 tac dung vo'i dung dich Ca(0H)2 tao chat k h o n g t a n CaCOa va CaSOg con l a i k h i CO k h o n g tac dung thoat ra. CO2 + Ca(0H)2 > CaCOsi + H2O SO2 + Ca(0H)2 > CaSOyi + H2O. 23 4 . Can phai dieu che mot lUpng mud'i dong sunfat. Phaong phap nao sau day tiet kiem dapc axit sunfuric: a) Axit sunfuric tac dung vdi dong (II) exit. T a t ca cac chat k i e m deu la bazd. V i du: N a O H , Ba(0H)2, Giai thi'ch cho cau tra 161. - K h o n g p h a i t a t ca cac + CuO Cu + 2H2SO4 BaCL + \ H2SO4 ... . i CuO + H2O H2O cac chat Idem Ba(0H)2, N a O H . CO2 + N a O H CO2 SO2 /1" + 2NaOH CO2 + Ba(0H)2 > NaHCOa > Na2C03 + H2O > BaCOai + H2O d) Doi mau quy t i m t h a n h x a n h : cac I d e m N a O H , Ba(0H)2. 3. lii nhu'ng chat cd s i n la Na20, CaO, H2O. Hay viet cac phu'dng trinh oa hoc dieu che cac dung dich bazd. + NaOH" Na2S03 > NaCl + H2O b) B i n h i e t p h a n huy d n h i e t do cao: nhu'ng bazd k h o n g t a n : •Na2S04 NagSOa + NaOfNs^ > CuCla + Ba(0H)2 + 2HC1 (9)\ S^o^S02-^S03 Cu(0H)2 + 2HC1 SO2 H2SO4 " a) T a t ca cac bazd da cho deu p h a n u'ng vol dung dich H C I . 5 . H§y thu'c hien nhOng chuyen doi hoa hoc sau bang each viet nhQng phUOng trinh hoa hoc (ghi dieu kien cua phan u'ng, neu c6). SO3 - . Viet cac phu'dng trinh hoa hoc. de t i e t k i e m t a n e n t h e o p h a n ufng (1) (phUo'ng p h a p a) t h i liJo'ng a x i t SO2 ^ . d) Do'i mau quy tim thanh xanh? Qua p h a n \ing (1) v a (2) t a n h a n t h a y m u o n d i e u che a m o l CUSO4 SO2 la chat k i e m . V i du: A1(0H)3, 2 . Co nhu'ng bazd sau: Cu(0H)2, NaOH, Ba(0H)2. Hay cho biet nhOtig bazd nao: (1) H2O a mol + bazd deu KOH. Cu(0H)2, F e ( 0 H ) 3 . . . V i cac bazd nay deu la chat ke't tua. GIAI > CUSO4 a mol S GIAI - H2SO4 b) L6I b) Axit sunfuric dac tac dung vdi kirn loai dong. LOI a) Co phai tat ca cac bazd deu la chat kiem khong? Dan ra cong thu'c hoa hoc cua nhu'ng bazd de minh hoa. Na2S04^5^BaS04i ( H o c s i n h t y v i e t cac phUo'ng t r i n h hoa hoc). Tinh chat hoa hoc cua bazd 1. Co phai tat ca cac chat kiem deu la bazd khong? DSn ra cong thuc hoa hoc cua vai ba chat kiem. LO'I GIAI D i e u che cac dung dich bazo (Idem): NaaO + H2O CaO + H2O > 2NaOH > Ca(0H)2. 4*. Cd 4 Ip khong nhan, m5i Ip dung mot dung dich khong mau sau: NaCI, Ba(OH)2 va Na2S04. Chi du'dc dung quy tim, lam the nao nhan biet dung dich du'ng trong mdi lo bang phu'dng phap hoa hoc? Viet cac phu'dng trinh hoa hoc. 25 I^Cfl GlAl - C h o q u y t i m v a o tCrng m S u thii lam hai nhom: Mot so bazd quan trong cua c a c d u n g d i c h t r e n , r o i c h i a • N h o m I : Quy t i m doimau thanh xanh: Ba(0H)2 v a NaOH. • N h o m I I : Q u y t i m k h o n g d o i m a u : N a C l v a Na2S04. 1 . C o 3 lo k h o n g n h a n , m 6 i lo d d n g m o t c h a t rSn s a u : N a O H , B a { O H ) 2 , N a C l . H a y t r i n h b a y e a c h n h a n b i e t c h a t d u n g t r o n g m 6 i lo b a n g p h u ' O n g p h a p h o a hoe. Viet e a c phu'Ong trinh h o a h o c n e u c 6 . LCflGIAI P h a n b i e t c a c c h a t t r o n g c a c n h o m : L a y tCfng c h a t c u a n h o m I - do v a o tCrng c h a t c u a n h o m I I , t a n h a n t h a y c 6 h a i c h a t do v a o n h a u cho k e t t u a t r S n g l a B a ( 0 H ) 2 v a Na2S04, h a i c h a t c o n l a i k h o n g p h a n ling A. N A T R I H i D R O X I T la N a O H v a NaCl. H o a t a n cac c h a t rin v a o nUo'c r o i thuf c a c d u n g d i c h b a n g q u y t i m , quy t i m khong doi m a u la dung d i c h NaCl, quy t i m doi m a u t h a n h xanh la dung dich N a O H , Ba(0H)2. N h a n biet dung dich N a O H B a ( 0 H ) 2 + Na2S04 > B a S O . i + 2NaOH. 5. C h o 1 5 , 5 g n a t r i oxit N a j O t a c d u n g voi nuoc, t h u dude 0,5 lit d u n g d j c h v a B a ( 0 H ) 2 b a n g d u n g d i c h N a 2 C 0 3 : c6 k e t t u a l a d u n g d i c h B a ( 0 H ) 2 , k h o n g CO k e t t u a l a d u n g d i c h N a O H . Ba(0H)2 + Na2C03 bazd. a) V i e t p h J d n g t r i n h h o a h o e va tinh n o n g d o mol cua d u n g d i c h bazd thu dUde. b) T i n h t h e tieh d u n g d i c h H2SO4 2 0 % , e o k h o i lu'dng n e n g 1,4 g / m l c a n d u n g de t r u n g h o a d u n g d i c h b a z d n o i t r e n . LCfl 15,5 ^NaaO = - T T 0 . 2 5 62 a) Phu'o'ng t r i n h h o a h o c : 0,5 > FegOs + HgO b) H2SO4 + ... > N a 2 S 0 4 + H2O c) H 2 S 0 4 + ... > ZnS04 + H20 d) N a O H + ... > NaCI + HgO ... + CO2 > Na2C03 + H20. F e 2 0 3 + 3H2O a) 2 F e ( O H ) 3 -A = 1M. b ) Phu'o'ng t r i n h h o a h o c : b ) H2SO4 + 2 N a O H > N a a S O j + 2H2O c) H2SO4 + Z n ( 0 H ) 2 > Z n S 0 4 + 2H2O > N a C l + H2O d) N a O H + H C I 2 N a O H + H2SO., ^ LdlGIAI 0,5 m o l 0,5 trinh h o a h o e . > 2NaOH 0,25 m o l --M (NaOH) = 2. C o n h u n g c h a t s a u : Z n , Z n ( 0 H ) 2 , N a O H , F e ( 0 H ) 3 , CUSO4, N a C l , H C I . H a y e h p n n h u n g c h a t t h i c h h d p d i e n v a o s O d o p h a n u'ng s a u v a l a p p h u o n g e) NaaO + H 2 O > k h o n g p h a n li'ng. N a O H + Na2C03 a) ... GIAI > BaCOyi + 2NaOH > Na2S04 + H 2 O e ) 2 N a O H + CO2 + H2O. — ^ Na^CO, 3. D i n tu til' 1,568 lit k h [ C 0 2 (dktc) v a o m o t d u n g djch c 6 h o a t a n 6,4g N a O H . 2 mol 1 mol 0,5 mol 0 , 2 5 mol a) H a y x a c d i n h k h o i lu'o'ng m u o i t h u du'pc s a u phan u'ng. b) C h a t n a o d a l a y 6\J va d a la b a o n h i e u (lit h o a c g a m ) ? " ^ H 2 S 0 4 can dimg - 0 , 2 5 X 9 8 = 2 4 , 5 g LO/ a) K h o i ™duiig dich H2SO4 = ^ ' ^ ' ^ Q ^ ^ ^ "^dLLug 26 dich H.^so^ 122,5g =^~~-'^OT,5ml. GIAI lu'o'ng m u o i t h u du'o'c: Tru'd'c t i e n t a p h a i x e m m u o i n a o duo'c t a o t h a n h ( N a H C O g h a y N a 2 C 0 3 ) . 0,07 m o l CO2 22,4 27 HNaOH = = 0,16 —7- LdlGIAI mol 40 ^ N a O H > 2ncQ,^ n e n m u o i sau p h a n u'ng l a N a a C O a . + CO2 2 mol > Na2C03+ = 0,07 m o l (0,16 - 0,07 m o l 0,14) X 40 (4) = CO2 0,8g. + H2O CaCOg (5) Ca(N03)2 1 . H a y d a n ra m o t d u n g d i c h muoi k h i t a c d u n g v d i m o t d u n g d i c h c h a t k h a c thi t a o ra: a) C h a t k h i (2) C a O + H2O (3) C a ( 0 H ) 2 + CO2 (4) CaO + 2HC1 (5) C a ( 0 H ) 2 + 2HNO3 Viet c a c p h u o n g trinh h o a h o c . CaCOa + H2SO4 > CaCOg + HoO > CaClg + H . O > Ca(N03)2 + H2O. 2 . C o 3 l o k h o n g n h a n , m o i lo d u n g m o t c h a t r § n m a u t r a n g : C a C O s , C a O , C a ( 0 H ) 2 . H a y n h a n biet c h a t d y n g t r o n g m o i lo b a n g phu'Ong p h a p h o a h o c . V i e t c a c phu'Ong t r i n h h o a h o c . GIAI L a y m o t i t m o i c h a t cho v a o nu'Oc, c h a t r S n t a n c6 t o a n h i e t l a CaO, chat r S n t a n m a k h o n g toa n h i e t la Ca(0H)2 va chat r a n con l a i k h o n g t a n l a CaCOa. 3. H a y v i e t c a c phu'Ong t r i n h h o a h o c k h i c h o d u n g d i c h N a O H t a c d u n g v d i d u n g d i c h H2SO4 t a o r a : 28 NaHC03) loang): > Ca(0H)2 a) M u o i natri h i d r o s u n f a t a) T a o r a c h a t k h i , v i d u m u o i c a c b o n a t ( C a C 0 3 , N a 2 C 0 3 , h o a c d u n g d i c h m u o i s u n f i t (Na2S03) t a c d u n g v d i a x i t ( H C l , H2SO4 CaO + C O . L07 b) C h a t k e t t u a . LdlGIAI Phu'o'ng t r i n h h o a h o c c u a cac p h a n li'ng: CaCOs > H2CO3. Tinh chat hoa hoc cua muoi LOIGIAI (1) GIAI la axit yeu, c6 p H = 5 . Ca(0H)2 ^ CaCl2 2 mol. Dung dich bao hoa CO2 trong nUo'c tao r a dung dich axit cacbonic 1 . V i e t c a c p h u d n g t r i n h h o a h o c thUc h i e n nhO'ng c h u y e n d d i h o a h o c s a u : CaO > Na2S04 + 2H2O + 2NaOH L07 B. C A N X I H I D R O X I T CaCOa + H2O 4. M o t d u n g d i c h b a o h o a khf CO2 t r o n g nu'dc c 6 p H = 5. H a y g i a i t h i c h v a l u ' g n g c h a t du' sau p h a n iJng: mNaOH 1 mol > NaHS04 v i e t phu'Ong t r i n h h o a h o c c u a CO2 v o l n u o c . mNaaCOg - 0.07 x 106 = 7,42g. b ) Khoi 1 mol 1 mol H2O 1mol 0,14 m o l + NaOH H2SO4 P h u o n g t r i n h h o a h o c c u a p h a n li'ng: 2NaOH H2SO4 b) IVluoi n a t r i s u n f a t . Na2C03 + H C l N a 2 S 0 3 + H2SO4 > C a S 0 4 + CO2T + H 2 O > N a C l + C 0 2 t + H2O > Na2S04 + S O a t + H2O b) T a o r a chat k e t tiia, v i du dung dich m u o i ( B a C L , Ba(CH3COO)2, N a ( N 0 3 ) 2 . . . ) t a c d u n g v o i d u n g d i c h H2SO4 t a o r a k e t t u a B a S 0 4 . B a C l 2 + H2SO4 > B a S 0 4 i + 2HC1 B a ( C H 3 C O O ) 2 + H2SO4 > B a S 0 4 + 2CH3COOH (axit axetic) H o a c n h i J n g d u n g d i c h m u o i b a r i t a c d u n g vo'i d u n g d i c h m u o i c a c b o n a t ( N a 2 C 0 3 , K2CO3) t a o r a BaCOg k e t t u a . B a ( N 0 3 ) 2 + Na2C03 — ^ B a C O g i + 2 N a N 0 3 . 2I .. C o 3 lo k h o n g n h a n , m S i lo d u n g d u n g d i c h m u o i s a u : CUSO4, A g N O a , N a CZ\. I . H a y d u n g nhu'ng d u n g d i c h c 6 s S n t r o n g p h o n g t h i n g h i e m d e n h a n b i e t c h a t d a n g t r o n g m d i l o . V i e t c a c phUOng t r i n h h o a h o c . 29 Ldl PhUo'ng t r i n h hoa hoc cua cac phan u'ng: GIAI Cho dung dich N a O H vao b a ong nghiem chijfa cac muoi t r e n , chat t r o n g ong nghiem nao cho ke't tiia mau xanh l a m la C U S O 4 , chat t r o n g ong nghiem cho k e t tiia t r a n g sau chuyen t h a n h mau den la AgNOs- Chat t r o n g ong nghiem con l a i khong c6 h i e n tuo'ng gi l a N a C l . Pb(N03)2 + NaaCOa Pb(N03)2 + 2KC1 BaCl2 + NazCOs 2AgOH > A g O H l + NaNOs doi. a) Dung dich NaOH d) Khong cd chat mdi nao dUpc sinh ra, chi c6 mot phan dinh sSt b'l hoa tan. c) Dung dich AgNOs. Giai thi'ch cho sii Itfa chon do va viet phJOng trinh phan dng xay ra. Neu CO phan u'ng, hay viet cac phu'Ong trinh hoa hoc. Ldl Ldl GIAI a) Tac dung v d i dung dich N a O H l a dung dich c a c muoi Mg(N03)2 v a CuClz v i s i n h r a M g ( 0 H ) 2 k e t tua; Cu(0H)2 k e t tua. Mg(N03)2 + 2 N a O H > MgCOHJai + 2NaN03 > 2 A g C U + CuCNOg).. 4. Cho nhu'ng dung dich muoi sau day phan dng vdi nhau tdng doi mot, hay ghi dau ( x ) neu c'6 phan u'ng, dau (0) neu khong: KCI Na2S04 Cau c dung. Fe + CUSO4 6*. I r o n 30ml dung dich cd chda 2,22g CaClg vdi 70ml dung dich cd chiJa 1,7g AgNOs. a) Hay cho biet hien tupng quan sat du'pc va viet phu'dng trinh hoa hpc. b) Ti'nh khoi lao'ng chat ran sinh ra. c) Tinh nong do mol cua chat con lai trong dung dich sau phan dng. ho rang the ti'ch cua dung dich thay do'i khong dang ke. LCflGIAI ncaci2 BaCIa = f f f " 0,02mol;. m^^^Q^ = j ^ = 0,01 m o l a) Phu'o'ng t r i n h p h a n dng: d 6 c6 dau ( x ) . Ldl > FeS04 + Cu K h i cho d i n h sat vao dung dich CUSO4, d i n h sSt b i hoa t a n , k i m NaNOa Pb(N03)2 hoc • - (tao n e n FeS04) n e n mau x a n h cua dung dich ban dau b i n h a t dan. c) Tac dung v d i dung dich AgNOy l a dung dich muoi CuCl2 tao AgCl ket tua trSng. NajCOg GIAI loai dong b a m ngoai d i n h sat, dung dich CUSO4 t h a m gia p h a n dng > C u ( 0 H ) 2 i + 2NaCl b) K h o n g muoi nao tac dung v d i dung dich H C I . 30 c) Mot phan dinh sSt bi hoa tan, kim loai dong bam ngoai dinh sSt va mau xanh cua dung dich ban dau nhat dan. b) Dung dich HCI V i e t phUo'ng t r i n h hoa ' b) Kim loai dong mau do bam ngoai dinh sat, dinh sSt khong cd sU thay 3. Co nhO'ng dung dich muoi sau: Mg(N03)2, CuClj. Hay cho biet muoi nao CO the tac dung vdi: Hay ' a) Khong c6 hien tiidng nao xay ra. AgaO + H2O den) CuCla + 2AgN03 > BaCOgi + 2NaCl 5. Ngam mot dinh s§t sach trong dung dich dong (II) sunfat. Cau tra Idi nao sau day la dung nhat cho hien tudng quan sat du'pc? (mau CuCl2 + 2 N a O H > PbS04i + 2NaN03 BaClz + Na2S04 — > B a S 0 4 i + 2 N a C l . > Cu(0H)2^ + Na2S04 ( m a i l xanh) AgNOa + N a O H > P b C l a l + 2KNO3 Pb(N03)2 + Na2S04 PhUo'ng t r i n h p h a n iJng: CUSO4 + 2 N a O H > PbCOgi + 2NaN03 GIAI NazCOs KCI Na2S04 NaNOa Pb(N03)2 X X X 0 BaCl2 X 0 X 0 CaCla + 2AgN03 1 mol 2 mol > 2 A g C U + CaCNOsla (mau trSng) H i e n tu'o'ng quan sat dufoc: Tao r a k e t t u a mau t r S n g , iSng dan xudng day co'c, do la AgCl. b ) T i n h k h o i Itfo'ng c h a t r a n s i n h r a , p h a i x e m c h a t n a o c o n dii. CaCla + 2AgN03 1 mol 2 mol > 2AgCU + L a p t i so': ^'^^ > ^'^^ J. Ca(N03)2 3. a) Viet phucng trinh dien phan dung dich muoi an (co mang ngan xop). b) Nhung san pham cua sU dien phan dung dich NaCI 6' tren co nhieu Lfng dung quan trpng: CaCl2 d\J, n e n t i n h k h o i lu'o'ng c h a t r a n ^ t h e o AgNOa: 0,005 m o l mAgci c) 0,01 m o l = 0,01 X 0,01 m o l 0,005 m o l 143,5 = l , 4 3 5 g ncaciadu = 0'02 - 0,005 = 0,015 m o l ncu(N03)2 - 0.005 m o l a) 1. Co nhOng muoi sau: CaCOs, CaS04, Pb(NQ3)2, NaCI. Muoi nao noi tren: a) Khong dUo'c phep co trong nUdc an vi tfnh doc hai cua no? b) Khong doc nhung cung khong dude co trong nude an vi vi man cua no? c) Khong tan trong nu'dc, nhung bj phan huy d nhiet do cao? d) Rat ft tan trong nUdc va kho bi phan huy d nhiet dp cao? GIAI c) C a C 0 3 d) CaS04. - Natri hidroxit dung de: 1) ... ; 2 N a C l + 2H.;0 - P h a n iJng t r u n g hoa H C l hkng HCl + NaOH - - 32 2) ... ; 3) ... , GIAI P ' ^ ' " > 2 N a O H + H g t + Cl2t K h i clo dung de: 1) t a y t r a n g v a i , s d i giay; 2) s a n xuat a x i t H C l ; K h i h i d r o dung de: 1) h a n cat k i m loai; 2) l a m n h i e n lieu dong N a t r i h i d r o x i t dung de: 1) nau x a phong; 2) san xuat n h o m ; 3) che b i e n dau mo. 4. Dung dich NaOH co the dung de phan biet hai muoi co trong mdi cap chat sau du'pc khong? (Neu du'Pc thi ghi dau x, neu khong thi ghi dau 0 vao cac 6 vuong). GIAI a) Dung dich CUSO4 va dung dich F e 2 ( S 0 4 ) 3 • b) Dung dich Na2S04 va dung dich CUSO4 • c) Dung dich NaCI va dung djch BaCl2 • Viet cac phu'png trinh hoa hoc neu co. • LO'I > N a C I + H2O M u o i + a x i t : NazCOs + 2HC1 > 2NaCl + C 0 2 t + H2O M u o i + muoi: Na2S04 + B a C l 2 > B a S 0 4 i + 2NaCl Na2C03 + B a C l 2 > BaCOsi + 2NaCl > Cu(0H)2i + 2NaCl. GIAI Dung dich N a O H co the dung de p h a n biet du'o'c h a i muoi co dung dich N a O H : P h a n ufng trao doi giUa: Muoi + kiem:CuCl2 + 2NaOH 3) ... CO n i a n g n g a n M u o i N a C I l a s a n p h a m cua p h a n dng h a i dung dich sau: - 2) ... ; C O t e n lijfa; 3) bom k h i cau, bong t h a m khong. 2. Hai dung dich tac dung vdi nhau, san pham thu dUdc cd NaCI. Hay cho biet hai cap dung dich cac chat ban dau cd the da dung. Minh hoa bang cac phUdng trinh hoa hpc. LCfl - 1) ... ; 3) ... 3) s a n xuat chat deo P V C . l o t so m u o i quan t r o n g b) N a C l Khi hidro dung de: 2) ... ; b) D i e n cac chu': - a) Pb(N03)2 - ' (30 + 70) Ldl 1) ... ; LOU 0,005x1000 CM(Ca(N03)2) - Khi d o dung de: Dien nhung ung dung sau day vao nhung cho de trong 6' tren cho phu hdp: Tay tr§ng vai, gia'y; nau xa phong; san xuat axit clohidric; che tao hoa chat tru' sau, diet co dai; han c§t kirn loai; sat trung, diet khuan nu'dc an; nhien lieu cho dpng cP ten lua; bPm khi cau, bong tham khong; san xuat n h o m ; san xuat chat deo PVC; che bien dau mo. p 0,015x1000 CM(CaC.2)--(^0770^-0,15M p - t r o n g cac cap a (tao t h a n h Cu(0H)2 k e t tua mau x a n h , F e ( 0 H ) 3 k e t tua m a u v a n g nau) v a cap b (tao t h a n h Cu(0H)2 k e t t i i a m a u x a n h , con Na2S04 k h o n g phan u'ng). 5. Trong phong thi nghiem co the dung nhu'ng muoi KCIO3 hoac KNO3 de dieu che khi oxi bang phan u'ng phan huy. a) Viet cac phu'png trinh hoa hpc xay ra doi vdi moi chat. Il I b) Neu dung 0,1 mol moi chat thi the tich oxi thu dupe c6 khac nhau 33 khong? Hay ti'nh the ti'ch khi oxi thu diJOc. phan bon kep. c) Can dieu che 1 , 1 2 lit khi oxi, hay tinh khoi lu'gng m6i chat can dung. Cac the tich khi du'oc do o' dieu kien tieu chuan. Ldl c) Trpn nhij'ng phan bon nao vol nhau ta du'oc phan bon kep NPK? LCSI GIAI a) T e n h o a h o c cua p h a n b o n : a) Cac phUCng t r i n h p h a n u'ng p h a n h i i y : K C I : K a l i clorua; NH4NO3: A m o n i n i t r a t ; NH4CI: A m o n i clorua; 2KNO3 2 K N O 2 + O2T (1) ( N H 4 ) 2 S 0 4 : A m o n i p h o t p h a t ; Ca3(P04)2: C a n x i p h o t p h a t ; 2KCIO3 2KC1 + S O . t (2) Ca(H2P04)2: C a n x i d i h i d r o p h o t p h a t ; phan NH4H2PO4: Amoni dihidrophotphat; b) Theo phu'o'ng t r i n h (1) va ( 2 ) : so mol h a i muoi t h a m gia Ling GIAI nh\J nhau ( 0 , 1 mol), nhung so m o l oxi s i n h r a k h o n g nhu' nhau. Theo phiro'ng t r i n h ( 1 ) : 1-^^03: Kali nitrat. b) H a i n h o m p h a n b o n : - no^ = ^n^.^^.^^ = -'1 = 0,05 mol P h a n b o n do'n: K C I , N H 4 N O 3 , N H 4 C I , (NH 4)2S04, C a ( H 2 P 0 4 ) 2 , •Ca3(P04)2. = 0 , 0 5 x 2 2 , 4 = 1,12 l i t Theo phu-o'ng t r i n h (2): - P h a n b o n k e p : ( N H 4 ) 2 H P 0 4 , (NH4)3P04, N H 4 H 2 P O 4 , KNO3. c) P h a n b o n k e p N P K : T r o n cac p h a n b o n N H 4 N O 3 , ( N H 4 ) 2 H P 0 4 nQ^ = | n K c i 0 3 = ^'^^ v a K C I t h e o t i le t h i c h ho'p, du'o'c p h a n b o n N P K . 2*. Co ba mau phan bon hoa hoc khong ghi nhan la: phan kali KCI, phan = 0 , 1 5 x 2 2 , 4 = 3,36 l i t . dam N H 4 N O 3 va phan superphotphat (phan Ian) Ca(H2P04)2. Hay nhan biet = 10 = 0,05mol; MKC103 ^ ^22,5 M^^Og = 1 0 1 ; moi mSu phan bon tren b§ng phu'o'ng phap hoa hoc. LOI 2K:NO3 ^ 2KNO2 + O2 2 mol Phu'o'ng p h a p h o a h o c n h a n b i e t K C I , N H 4 N O 3 v a C a ( H 2 P 0 4 ) 2 : 1 mol 0,1 mol 0,05 2KCIO3 2KC1 + C h o d u n g d i c h N a O H v a o cac o'ng n g h i e m chii'a b a m a u p h a n bon mol NH4NO3 + NaOH ^ 3 mol 2x0,05 ~— mol X 101 = o'ng n g h i e m n a o cho k e t t u a t r ^ n g la C a ( H 2 P 0 4 ) 2 , c h a t t r o n g 10,Ig can d u n g = ~ ~ X ong n g h i e m k h o n g p h a n u'ng l a K C I . 2x005 mKcio, > N H a t + H.O + NaNOs (mCii khai) C h o d u n g d i c h C a ( 0 H ) 2 v a o h a i o'ng n g h i e m c o n l a i , c h a t t r o n g 0,05 mol " ^ I W 0 3 can d u n g = 0,1 t r e n v a d u n n o n g , c h a t t r o n g o'ng n g h i e m n a o c6 m u i k h a i l a NH4NO3. 3O2 2 mol GIAI 2Ca(OH)2 + Ca(H2P04)2 122,5 = 4,08g. > Ca3(P04)2i + 4 H 2 O . 3. Mot ngu'oi lam vuon da dung 500g ( N H 4 ) 2 S 0 4 de bon rau. a) Nguyen to dinh duong nao c6 trong loai phan bon nay? Phan bon hoa hoc 1. Co nhu'ng loai phan bon hoa hoc: KCI, NH4NO3, Ca3(P04)2, Ca(H2P04)2, KNO3. b) Tinh thanh phan phan tram cua nguyen to dinh duong trong phan bon. NH4CI, c) Tinh khoi luong cCia nguyen to dinh duong bon cho ruong rau. (NH4)2S04, Ldl a) N g u y e n t o d i n h du'o'ng l a d a m (nito'). a) Hay cho biet ten hoa hoc cua nhung phan bon noi tren. b) Hay s i p xep nhung phan bon nay thanh hai nhom phan bon dOn va 34 GIAI -" b ) T h a n h p h a n p h a n t r a m cua N t r o n g (NH4)2S04: 35 > NaCl + H 2 O HCl + NaOH M(NH4)2S04 = 1 3 2 ; %N= — Ba(OH)2 + 2HC1 x 100% = 21,21%. B a ( 0 H ) 2 + H2SO4 c) K h o ' i liTo'ng cua n g u y e n to' d i n h du'o'ng b o n cho r u o n g r a u : + 2H2O > B a S 0 4 i + 2H2O. 3. V i e t phu'Ong trinh h o a h o c c h o nhu'ng c h u y e n ddi h o a h o c sau: T r o n g 1 3 2 g (NH4)2S04 c6 2 8 g N T r o n g 5 0 0 g (NH4)2S04 c6 x g N > BaCU => FeCIs x = ^^""^^^ = 1 0 6 g N . 132 b) CuO M o i q u a n h e giu'a c a c h o p c h a t v 6 cci 1. Mot t r o n g nhu'ng t h u o c thu' n a o sau d a y c6 the d u n g d e p h a n b i e t d u n g d i c h natri s u n f a t v a d u n g d i c h natri c a c b o n a t : a) D u n g d i c h bari c l o r u a b) D u n g d i c h axit c l o h i d r i c c) D u n g d i c h chi nitrat d) D u n g dich b a c nitrat a) (1) e) D u n g d i c h natri hidroxit. G i a i t h i c h v a viet phuo'ng trinh h o a h o c . LO'I GIAI Thuo'c t h u " b), d u n g d i c h a x i t c l o h i d r i c . - D u n g d i c h H C l t a c d u n g vd'i N a 2 C 0 3 cho l^ hi C O 2 b a y l e n con Na2S04 l i h o n g tac d u n g . 2HC1 + N a 2 C 0 3 - > 2 N a C l + CO.'t +H2O K h o n g n e n d u n g t h u o c thuf d), d u n g d i c h A g N O a . V i h i e n tu^ang q u a n s a t se l i h o n g r o r e t : Ag2C03 l i h o n g t a n v a Ag2S04 i t t a n . 2. a) Cho cac d u n g d i c h sau day p h a n u n g vd'i n h a u tu'ng d o i m o t , hay ghi d a u (x) n e u c6 p h a n u'ng xay ra, daiu (0) n e u k h o n g c6 p h a n u n g : NaOH HCl . H2SO4 Fe2(S04)3 + SBaCh GIAI > 3 B a S 0 4 i + 2B^eCl3 (2) FeCls + 3 N a 0 H > Fe(0H)3i + 3NaCl (3) Fe2(S04)3 + 6 N a 0 H > 2Fe(0H)3i + (4) 2 F e ( 0 H ) 3 + 3H2SO4 > Fe2(S04)3 + 6H2O (5) 2Fe(OH)3 (6) Fe-zO, 3Na2S04 Fe203 + 3 H 2 O + 3H2SO4 — > Fe2(S04)3 + 3 H 2 O . b) (1) 2Cu + O2 (2) CuO + H 2 (3) CuO + 2HC1 (4) CuCl2 + 2 N a O H > CuCOH).! + 2 N a C l (5) Cu(0H)2 + 2HC1 > CuCl2 + 2H2O (6) Cu(0H)2 ^ > 2CuO Cu + H 2 O • . > CuCla + H 2 O 's' j , , CuO + H 2 O . 4*. Co nhu'ng chat: NagO, Na, N a O H , N a 2 S 0 4 , N a j C O a , N a C I . CUS04 a) DUa v a o moi quan he giu'a cac chat, hay sSp xep c a c chat tren thanh HCl pt day chuyen hoa. Ba(0H)2 b) Viet cac phu'Ong trinh hoa hoc cho m6i day chuyen hoa. b) V i e t c a c p h U o n g trinh h o a h o c ( n e u c 6 ) . LO'I LdlGIAI GIAI NaOH HCl H2S04 CUS04 X 0 0 HCl X 0 0 Ba( 011)2 0 X X CUSO4 + 2 N a O H a) D a y c h u y e n h o a cac c h a t da cho c6 t h e l a : Na Na20 > C u ( 0 H ) 2 i + Na2S04 NaOH Na2C03 - i i ' ^ ^ Na2S04 NaCl. b) Cac phu'Ong t r i n h h o a hoc: 4Na + O2 b) Phu'o'ng t r i n h p h a n li'ng: 36 Ldl NazO + H 2 O > 2Na20 > 2NaOH 37 2 N a O H + CO2 — > Na^COs + H , 0 b) H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 —> NaaSO, + C O , t + H 2 O NaaCOs + H2SO4 BaSO.,! + 2 N a C l . NaaSO,! + BaCla - 4. Luyen tapchudng 1 C a c loai h d p c h a t v 6 c d 1. C a n cu' v a o s o d o b i e u thj n h u n g t i n h c h a t h o a h o c c u a c a c h o p c h a t v6 b) Oxit b a z o + ... > m u o i + nu'dc a ) BazO + ... c) Oxit a x i t + ... > axit d) Oxit axit + ... > muoi +nude e) Oxit axit + oxit b a z o > m u o i + nU&c c ) B a z o + ... > muoi + bazo d ) B a z o — > oxit b a z o + n u d e e ) 2KC103 > A g C l i + NaNOa + Cu > FeSOi 2KC1 + 3O2T. 2. D e m o t m a u natri h i d r o x i t t r e n t a m k i n h t r o n g k h o n g khi, s a u vai n g a y c h a t rSn t h a y c d k h i t h o a t ra, k h i n a y l a m d u e nu'dc v o i t r o n g . C h a t ran m a u a) Oxit t r o n g k h o n g khf. b) H o i nu'dc t r o n g k h o n g k h i . a) M u o i + ... — > axit + m u o i b) A x i t + ... > m u o i + nu'dc b) M u o i + ... c) A x i t + ... > muoi + nude c ) M u o i + ... d) A x i t + ... > m u o i + axit d) Muoi LOI > F e ( 0 H ) 3 i + 3NaCl t h a y CO c h a t ran m a u t r a n g p h u n g o a i . N e u n h o vai g i o t d u n g d i c h H C I vao 4. Muoi a) A x i t + ... — - > m u o i + h i d r o Muoi t r a n g la s a n p h a m p h a n Lfng c u a natri h i d r o x i t v d i : \ 3. Axit > B a S 0 4 i + 2HC1 d) Fe + CUSO4 > m u o i + nuo'c b) BazO + ... > ... d) H2SO4 + B a C l 2 c) AgN03 + NaCl 2. B a z d > bazo > Ca(N03)2 + H 2 O b) FeCl3 + S N a O H cho moi hop chat: a) Oxit b a z o + ... c) 2 H N O 3 + CaO a) Ca(N03)2 + H 2 S O 4 . - — > CaS04 + 2 H N O 3 CO, c a c e m h a y c h o n nhu'ng c h a t t h i c h h o p de v i e t c a c phu'Ong t r i n h h o a h o c 1. Oxit > CaS04 ( i t tan) + 2 H 2 O c) C a c b o n dioxit v a oxi t r o n g k h o n g khf. > muoi + bazo d) C a c b o n dioxit v a hdi nu'dc t r o n g k h o n g k h i . >muoi + muoi > ... + ... e) C a c b o n dioxit t r o n g k h o n g k h i . GIAI G i a i t h i c h v a v i e t phu'Ong t r i n h h o a h o c m i n h h o a . Ldl GlAl 1. O x i t a) CaO + H 2 O > Ca(0H)2 b) M g O + 2 H C 1 b) SO3 + I I 2 O e ) CaO + CO2 > CaCOa a) 2 N a O H + H2SO4 b) Ca(0H)2 + CO2 > CaCOg + I L O c) 2 N a O H + CuCL > Cu(OH)24 + 2 N a C l Fe203 + 3 H 2 O Axit a) H C I + Z n 38 > Na.SO.i + 2 H 2 O > NaaCOg + H 2 O 2HC1 + Na2C03 > Na.COs + I L O 2. BazoT 3. 2 N a O H + CO2 > H2SO4 d) CO2 + 2 N a O H d) 2 F e ( O H ) 3 ^ Cau e d u n g . > MgCh + H2O > 2 N a C l + CO2T + H 2 O N a O H CO tac d u n g v d i H C I n h a n g k h o n g g i a i p h o n g k h i . D e c6 khi bay r a l a m due ntrdc v o i t h i N a O H tac dung v d i CO2 t r o n g k h o n g khi cho NaaCOa n e n k h i cho c h a t n a y tac dung v d i H C I m d i cho k h i (CO2) l a m due nu'dc v o i t r o n g . 3*. I r o n m o t d u n g d i c h c d hoa t a n 0,2 m o l C u C l g v d i m o t d u n g d i c h c d hoa t a n 2 0 g N a O H . L o c h o n h d p c a c c h a t s a u p h a n u'ng, du'dc k e t t u a v a n d d c loc. N u n g k e t t u a d e n khi k h o i IdOng k h o n g dd'i. a) V i e t c a c phu'Ong t r i n h h o a h o c . b) Ti'nh kh,6i lu'Ong c h a t ran t h u du'dc s a u khi n u n g . > ZnCla + H2T c) T i n h k h o i lu'Ong c a c c h a t c d t r o n g n u d e loc. 39 LCJI n N a O H = - — = 0,5 CHUONG GIAI KIM LOAI mol 40 2 a) PhLro'ng t r i n h hoa hoc cua phan iJng: 2 N a O H + CuCl2 2 mol 1 mol Cu(0H)2 ^ > Cu(0H)2i + 2NaCl 1 mol CuO + H2O 1 mol I. HE THONG HOA KIEN THLfC (1) 1. T i n h c h a t c h u n g c i i a k i m l o a i (2) ' 1 mol Kim loai Tinh chat vat li - Din dien va dan nhiet tot. b) K b o i luo-ng chat r a n t h u duUc sau k h i nung: - De dat mong, de keo sgi. Theo phu-o'ng t r i n h (1): nNaOH = ^"^CMCI^ ~ 0,2 X 2 - 0,4 Tinh chat hoa hoc mol Vdi kim loai n N a O H di( - 0,5 - 0,4 = 0,1 mol don chat T i n b k h o i lu'o'ng chat r a n CuO, theo (1) va (2) t a c6: ncuo = ncu{0H)2 m c u o = 0,2 " "CuCl2 ^ X 80 = 0,2 m o l - Thuting xet phan ung voi CI2, O2, S. V6i H2O Mot so kim loai phan ii'ng v6i H2O: 2Na + 2H2O -> 2NaOH + H2T - HCl va H2SO4 loang: kim loai dung tru'6c hidro. Vcii axit - H2SO4 d3c va HMOs vfli moi kim loai tru' Pt va Au. = - H2SO4 dac, nguoi va HNO3 dac, nguoi khong phan ung v6i Al va Fe. 4g Kho'i luo'ng N a C l t r o n g nu'o'c loc: n N a c i = n N a O H = 0,4 mNaCi = 0,4 X - Tac dung v6i hau het cac kim loai 5 nhiet do cao. phi kim K h o i lu'o'ng N a O H du: X 40 Khong c6 phan u'ng. 16g. c) Kho'i lu'o'ng cac chat t r o n g nUo'c loc: m N a O H = 0,1 - Co anh kim. mol 58,5 = 23,4g. ^ Vcii bazo va oxit bazo Chi xet phan u'ng vo'i Al,.Zn... V6i muoi Kim loai manh day kim loai yeu hon ra khoi dung dich muoi cua chung. Tru' cac kim loai phan ung du'Oc v6i nu'o'c (l\la, K, Ca...). 2AI + 2NaOH + 2H2O ' : 2NaAi02 + 3H2 2. D a y b o a t d p n g h o a h o c c i i a k i m l o a i • Do boat dong boa hoc ciia k i m loai g i a m dan: 1 Li, K, Ba, Ca, Na, IVlg, Al, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pt, Au TCr M g t r d di k i m loai m a n h day k i m loai yeu r a k h o i dung.dich muoi ciia chiiiig. Kim loai dilng tru'o'c H phan li'ng v o l dung dich H C l , H2SO4 loang g i a i phong H2. Lu'u y : H2 k h o n g k b i i diio'c cac oxit k i m loai ciia k i m loai boat dong boa hoc m a n h tCr A l t r o ' v e tru'o'c. 40 ' . 41 3. S o s a n h t i n h c h a t c i i a A l v a F e Ti'nh chat Tinh chat vat li Al (NTK: 27) Fe (IMTK: 56) - Kim loai mau trang c6 anh kim, - Kim loai CO mau trang xam, c6 nhe, dan nhiet tot, nhiet do nong anh kim, d i n dien, dan nhiet tot chay 660°C. nhung kern nhom, nhiet do nong - Co tinh deo, de dat mong. chay 6'1539°C. - Co tinh deo nen de ren, la kim loai nana. Tinh chat hoa hoc V6i phi kim 2AI + 3S -> AizSj Vo'i axit 2AI + 6HCI -> 2AICI3 + 3H,r 2Fe + 3CI2 Fe + 2HCI Al va Fe khong tac dung v61 H,SO. dac. nnnni 2FeCl3 FeCIo + H . t v.i mn. - • • -C • ri.v nn„ni Vo'i dd muoi 2AI + 3FeS04 -> Ai2(S04)3 + 3Fe Vo'i dd kiem Fe + 2AgN03 2AI + 2NaOH + 2H?0 -> 2NaA102 + 3H2 Hop chat AI2O3 CO tinh Iu8ng tinh: Fe + NaOH -> khong nhan unn Ai.Os + 6HCI ^ 2AICI3 + 3H2O AI2O3 + 2l\laOH ^ 2IMaAI02 + H2O FedMO,), + 2Aasl - FeO, Fe203 va Fe304 la oxit bazo khong tan trong nu'o'c. - Fe(0H)2i mau trang. - F e ( 0 H ) 3 i mau do nau. 4. Hofp k i m sat: G a n g , t h e p , a) Hop kim L a chat r a n t h u du'o'c sau k h i l a m nguoi hon ho'p nong chay cua n h i e u k i m loai khac nhau hoac h o n hop k i m loai va p h i k i m . Ho'p k i m ciia sat c6 nhieu uTng dung l a gang va thep. b) Nguyen tdc sdn xudt gang, tliep (1) Nguyen tic san xuat gang: Dung cacbon khii' oxit sAt d n h i e t do cao t r o n g 15 cao. (2) Nguyen tac san xuat thep: L o a i k h o i gang p h a n 16'n cac nguyen to cacbon, silic, mangan, photpho, luu h u y n h . . . c) Qua triiiJi sdn xudt gang, thep - Oxi trong Ichong Idii phan u'ng vol than coc tao thanh khi CO: CO2 + C 2C0 - K h i CO khuf oxit sat t r o n g quang t h a n h sAt: SCO + Fe.Oa 42 SCO. + 2Fe Sat nong chay hoa tan cacbon, silic, photpho, luU huynh tao t h a n h gang. (2) K h o n g k h i giau oxi hoac oxi se oxi hoa I a n lUo't cac t a p chat t r o n g gang nong chay Si ^ Si02; M n -> M n O ; C ^ CO; S SO2; p _> P2O5. Sau k h i cac t a p chat t r o n g gang b i oxi hoa h e t se c6 m o t phan Fe b i oxi hoa. Luc n a y t a ngUng n e n k h i vao 16. San p h a m t h u du'o'c l a thep. 5. S\i a n m o n k i m l o a i a) T/ie ndo Id siC an mon kim loai? Sq pha hiiy k i m loai, ho'p k i m trong moi trLf6ng t q nhien du'o'c goi la sq an m6n k i m loai. b) Nliiing yeu to anh hu'dng den su' an mon kim loai (1) A n h hu'o'ng cua cac chat trong moi trUo'ng: Sq an m 6 n k i m loai xay r a nhanh, cham hoac khong xay r a phu thuoc vao moi tru'6ng. K i m loai b i a n m 6 n do k i m loai tac dung vo'i cac chat nhU nu'o'c, oxi (khong khi) cac chat hoa hoc khac... trong moi tru'6ng. V i du: d i n h sSt b i g i nhieu t r o n g khong k h i am, 6' vung bien... (2) A n h hu'o'ng t h a n h phan k i m loai: Sq an mon k i m loai xay ra nhanh hay cham phu thuoc vao t h a n h phan ciia k i m loai. (3) A n h hu'o'ng cua nhiet do: (5 nhiet do cao, sq a n mon k i m loai xay r a nhanh ho'n. c) Lam the ndo de bdo ve kim loai khong bi an mon . (1) Ngan khong cho k i m loai tiep xiic vo'i moi tru'6'ng. , {2) Che tao hop k i m i t bi a n mon. V i dq: Thep khong gi (inox). Thep chufa 12% Cr khong b i an m6n... 6. Hu'o'ng d a n g i a i mpt so b a i t a p (1) - Quang, t h a n co'c, da v o i c6 kich thuo'c vifa p h a i dUa vao m i e n g 16. C + O2 — ^ CO2 ; M o t so oxit khac c6 t r o n g quang n h u M n O , Si02... cung b i khuf tao t h a n h M n , Si. ,,,,,,, a) Tradng hop gap bai toan cho biet lu'Ong cua ca hai chat t h a m gia va yeu cau t i n h lu'o'ng chat tao t h a n h . Trong so h a i chat t h a m gia phan ijfng se CO m o t chat phan ilng het, chat k i a c6 the phan ufng het hoac du'. Lu'Ong chat tao t h a n h t i n h theo lu'Ong chat nao phan tfng het, do do phai t i m xem trong hai chat cho bi§'t, chat nao phan ufng het. Cdch gidi: Lap t i so', v i dq phuo'ng t r i n h phan u'ng: A + B C+D 43 So" mol (hoac kho'i lu'o'ng) cha't A (theo de bai) So' mol (hoac kho'i lu'o'ng) chat A (theo phu'o'ng t r i n h ) c) Nhom duoc dung lam vat lieu che tao v6 may bay la do So' mol (hoac Idio'i lu'o'ng) chat B (theo de bai) So' mol (hoac k h o i lu'o'ng) chat B (theo phu'o'ng t r i n h ) e) So sanh hai t i so, t i so nao 16'n ho'n chat do du', chat k i a phan ufng he't. T i n h lu'o'ng cac chat theo chat p h a n u'ng het. b) T r n d n g ho'p bai toan t h a n h k i m loai m a n h day k i m loai yeu r a k h o i dung dich muo'i ciia chiing, neu do bai cho k h o i lu'o'ng t h a n h k i m loai t a n g hoac g i a m so vo'i k h o i lu'o'ng ban dau, t h i e t lap m o i quan he a n so vo'i gia t h i e t de bai cho: (1) Neu de bai cho l - x - X 1 3 = 10cm Thu'c h i e n tu'o'ng t\i vo'i K va Cu. 5. Hay ke ten ba kim loai du'o'c su dung de: • a) Lam vat dung gia dlnh. b) San xuat dung cu, may moo. Ldl GIAI a) Ba k i m loai du'o'c sii' dung de lam vat dung trong gia dinh: sat, nhom, dong. b) Ba k i m loai du'o'c sd' dung l a m dung cu, may moc: sSt, nhom, niken. 45
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