Factors affecting the helping behaviors of employees in ivac

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RESEARCH PROJECT (BMBR5103) FACTORS AFFECTING THE HELPING BEHAVIORS OF EMPLOYEES IN IVAC STUDENT’S FULL NAME : CHE THI ANH NGUYET STUDENT ID : CGS00018254 INTAKE : MAY, 2014 ADVISOR’S NAME AND TITLE : DR. NGUYEN THE KHAI August, 2015 Page 0 Advisor’s assessment .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. ________________ Advisor’s signature Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLE.......................................................................................................4 ABSTRACT ...............................................................................................................5 CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................6 1.1 COMPANY BRIEF INTRODUCTION ...................................................6 1.1.1. Name of the Company .............................................................................6 1.1.2. Headquarters ............................................................................................6 1.1.3. The structure of organization and management of the company. .....10 1.1.4. Characteristics of this particular company model ..............................11 1.1.5. Directorate, Councils and Officials.......................................................16 1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT ..............................................18 1.3 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH ...............................................................18 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH.........................................................18 CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................19 2.1 DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCT ...........................................................19 2.1.1. Helping Behaviors .................................................................................19 2.1.2. Perceived Person-Organization Fit.......................................................20 2.1.3. Supervisory Support ..............................................................................21 2.1.4. Procedural Justice ..................................................................................22 2.1.5. Overall Job Satisfaction .........................................................................22 Chapter 3: RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES ...................................24 3.1. RESEARCH MODEL ..............................................................................24 3.1.1. Dependent Variables: ...........................................................................24 3.1.2. Independent Variables: ........................................................................24 3.2. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES: ................................................................25 3.3. DATA COLLECTION.............................................................................25 3.4. MEASURE OF EACH CONSTRUCT ...................................................25 3.4.1. Helping Behaviors.................................................................................25 3.4.2 Perceived Person-Organization Fit .....................................................27 Page 2 3.4.3 Supervisory Support .............................................................................29 3.4.4 Procedural Justice ................................................................................30 3.4.5 Overall Job Satisfaction .......................................................................32 Chapter 4: RESULTS AND FINDINGS ...............................................................35 4.1 RELIABILITY STATISTIC ...................................................................35 4.2 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTIC ..................................................................35 4.3 HYPOTHESIS TESTING RESULT: .....................................................36 Chapter 5: DISCUSSION .......................................................................................39 REFERENCE ..........................................................................................................41 APPENDIX ..............................................................................................................45 Page 3 LIST OF TABLE Table 1: Measurement of Helping Behaviors………………………….... 27 Table 2: Measurement of Perceived Person-Organization Fit…………… 28 Table 3: Measurement of Supervisory Support…………………………. 30 Table 4: Measurement of Procedural Justice……………………………. 32 Table 5: Measurement of Overall Job Satisfaction………………………. 33 Table 6: Reliability statistics……………………………………………. 35 Table 7: Descriptive statistics…………………………………………… 36 Table 8: Model Summary………………………………………………... 36 Table 9: Coefficients a…………………………………………………… 37 Page 4 ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to discuss factors affecting to the helping behaviors of employees in Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) through a questionnaire. This study analyses whether or not there are the significant relationships between Perceived Person-Organization Fit and Helping Behaviors, Supervisory Support and Helping Behaviors, Procedural Justice and Helping Behaviors, Overall Job Satisfaction and Helping Behaviors in IVAC The theoretical framework of this study was tested by collecting data from employees in IVAC. Questionnaires were given personally to 308 employees; in which 275 questionnaires were returned and used for the statistical analysis. The reliability analysis, descriptive analysis, and hypothesis testing were employed to analyze the data. Although there are some limitations, the research outcomes are expected to be a possibly constructive source for IVAC to refer in building strategies and polities to enhance helping behaviors among employees. Keywords: Helping Behavior, Perceived Person-Organization Fit, Supervisory Support, Procedural Justice, Overall Job Satisfaction Page 5 CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPANY BRIEF INTRODUCTION 1.1.1. Name of the Company - Vietnamese name: Vien Vac xin va Sinh pham Y te - English name: Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals - Abbreviation: IVAC 1.1.2. Headquarters - Address: 9 Pasteur Street, Nha Trang City, Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam - Phone: (84.58) 3822408 - Fax: (84.58) 3823815 - Website: www.ivac.com.vn - Email: ivac@dng.vnn.vn IVAC is a non-business unit which self-finance all or part of its operations, under the Ministry of Health. It was founded under the Minister of Health‟s Decision No. 1395 BYT/QD dated November 23, 1978 and rearranged under the Government‟s Decree No. 49/2003/ND-CP dated May 15, 2003 and the Prime Minister‟s Page 6 Decision No. 621/QD-TTg dated April 18, 2006. Since 1990, IVAC has successfully produced and sell Diptheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine, Tetanus vaccine, and vaccine for Tuberculosis to the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Nowadays, There are 13 kinds of vaccine have been produced in IVAC. IVAC has built its facilities to become a relatively complete and integrated production unit from additional technical services to main production lines. It has a large breeding farm for laboratory animals and crucial source technology with modern equipment for important functions such as: biofermentation technology; freeze-drying technology; antigen and antibody purifications; serum preparation technology from horses - plasmapheresis; vaccine fill - finish technology; production technology of influenza vaccine based on embryonated chicken egg; microbiological, chemical-immune techniques and cell culture for quality control of products. Functions: IVAC has such functions as research, manufacture, business, consultancy and service, cooperation in vaccines and medical biologicals; personnel training. Responsibilities: - Scientific and technological research - Doing research and applying scientific and technological advances in the production of vaccines and medical biologicals. - Trial production, technological transfer, investment cooperation in developing new vaccines and medical biologicals with domestic and foreign individuals and organizations. - Making scientific research theses of all levels - Involved in making and giving directions for the use of vaccines and medical biologicals Page 7 Production, business, consultancy and service operation - Production of vaccines, sera and medical biologicals for domestic supply and export. - Business, import, export of semi finished and finished products of vaccines and medical biologicals - Consultancy and service operation, including injection relevant to vaccines and medical biologicals within the competence of IVAC. Training - Post-graduate training: involved in post-graduate education for masters‟ degrees, PhD degrees (in cooperation with universities) in such specialties as epidemiology, medical microbiology, immunology, biotechnology and other specialties in accordance with the law; - Involved in graduate education at universities, colleges and high schools specialized in epidemiology, medical microbiology, immunology and biotechnology; - Retraining and sharpening technical staffs professional skills. - Compiling materials for teaching, reference books, preventive health magazines and disseminating specialist knowledge. International cooperation - Establishing and maintaining the relationships with countries, governmental and nongovernmental organizations and individuals in the region and around the world in the training and research in the field of vaccines and medical biologicals in accordance with the law; - Making plans and organizing the implementation of international cooperation programs and projects on vaccines and medical biologicals; seeking for international aid in the fields of scientific research, labor Page 8 training, basic construction and equipment supply prescribed by the law; - Organizing and co-organizing training courses, workshops and international scientific seminars within the framework of law; - Making plans for delegates under the international cooperation programs with IVAC; sending staff to attend training courses or do research abroad and receiving foreign trainees to do research and exchange experience at IVAC in accordancc to the lawful regulations on international cooperation. IVAC must be responsible in law for the workforce sent or allowed by IVAC to go abroad and for the management of the delegates‟ arrival and departure. Management: - Giving direction on and supervising the operation of enterprises under IVAC founded in accordance to the law; - Making and implementing operation regulations of IVAC prescribed by the law; - Managing and using effectively all resources. The staff, salaries, finance and equipment of IVAC are managed in accordance with law; - Implementing the lawful regulations on the state budget revenue and expenditure of IVAC; - Establish State enterprises under IVAC when needed to produce and trading in vaccines and medical biologicals and provide scientific and technical services related to the functions and responsibilities of IVAC prescribed by the law; - Implementing scientific, technical and preventive health services in its allowed scope of specialty, developing domestic and international cooperation projects prescribed by the law to support professional activities and raise funds for IVAC to improve its staff s living standards; Page 9 - Making reports on all the activities of IVAC in accordance with the law. 1.1.3. The structure of organization and management of the company. Director Moral council Scientific council Logistics Vice Director directoror Production Vice Director Quality Vice Director Personnel and Administration DPT vaccine Department Quality Assurance Department Planning and Finance BCG vaccine Department Quality Control Department Sales Department Sera Department Research and Development Supply Department Final Product Department Equipment technique Media Department Suoi Dau Breed Farm Influenza vaccine Department Probiotic Department P a g e 10 Total IVAC‟ s manpower: 328 persons Bachelor : 32,6% Master & PhD: 20 persons Ass. Professor: 2 persons Technician: most skilled technician Average age: ≤ 40: 51%; ≤ 50: 43%; < 60: 6%. This is the strength of IVAC with the experienced, qualified team in producing, controlling, managing vaccines as well as in breeding animals for quality control. In current 5 years, 200 staffs have been educated at some developed countries to upgrade technical/professional skills and Quality Assurance knowledge. 1.1.4. Characteristics of this particular company model IVAC has authority to autonomy and self-responsibility for implementing the government‟s Decree 43/2006/ND-CP. IVAC is responsible for being led and managed by the Minister of Health and technically directed in by State authorities. IVAC is allowed to cooperate with agencies and individuals inside and outside the medical department from central to local levels to implement functions and responsibilities assigned by the Minister of Health. IVAC may cooperate with foreign organizations and individuals in the fields assigned by the Minister of Health and abide by international cooperation regulations on healthcare. IVAC is under the territorial management of the provincial peoples‟ committees of Khanh Hoa in accordance with the law and takes responsibility for cooperation with the local and relevant organizations to fulfill assigned functions and tasks. IVAC is entitled to: P a g e 11 - Decide on property procurement, investment in construction of material foundations with non-business operation development funds and mobilized capital according to the plans approved by the Minister of Health authorities; participate in bidding for service activities in accordance with its professional domains; use property for joint venture, cooperation or contribute capital to joint-ventures with domestic and foreign organizations and/or individuals for construction investment, procurement of machinery and equipment for service activities. - Decide on its payroll; to sign labor-hiring or package contracts for the performance of jobs which need no regular staffs on the payroll, to sign contracts or other forms of cooperation with domestic and foreign experts as well as scientists so as to meet the IVAC‟s professional requirements. - Decide on recruitment of cadres and civil servants through examination or consideration; decide on appointment of civil servants (for titles equivalent to senior experts or lower titles), sign working contracts with recruits who satisfy all criteria of the concerned ranks and are compatible with the structure of professional titles; decide on mobilization, detachment, retirement, job severance, termination of working contracts, commendation or discipline of cadres and civil servants under IVAC management; decide on the raising of salary grades on time or ahead of time for cadres and civil servants in the same rank and receive, transfer holders of titles equivalent to senior experts or lower titles; decide to invite foreign specialists for professional jobs, send its cadres to work or study abroad in order to raise IVAC‟s professional qualifications. IVAC must register, declare and pay all taxes and other amounts (if any), enjoy tax exemption or reduction. IVAC may borrow capital from credit institutions, mobilize capital from its cadres and civil servants for investment in expansion and raising of quality operations, P a g e 12 organization of service activities in line with its functions and tasks, and have to pay debts by itself. IVAC has a legal status and a private stamp with an account at the State Bank and Treasury. Financial source of IVAC is from: - State budget allocations for: performance of scientific and technological tasks; implementation of personnel training programs; implementation of national target programs; performance of orders placed by competent state agencies (investigation, planning, survey or other tasks); performance of urgent tasks assigned by competent authorities; implementation of the policy on payroll streamlining under the state regime; construction investment, procurement of equipment, overhaul of fixed assets in service of non-business operations according to projects approved by competent authorities within the annually-assigned estimates; and reciprocal capital for implementation of projects funded with foreign capital sources which have been approved by competent authorities; - Revenues from operations, including: the revenue from service activities; the revenue from other operations; profits gained from joint-venture or cooperation activities, interests on bank deposits. - Aids, financial supports, gifts, presents and donations provided for by law. - Other sources, including: capital borrowed from credit institutions, capital mobilized from cadres and civil servants within the units; and joint-venture and cooperation capital of domestic and foreign organizations and individuals provided for by law. Expenditure of IVAC include: a) Regular expenditures, including: - Salaries and allowances P a g e 13 - Operations according to the functions and tasks; - Service activities (including those on fulfillment of obligations towards the state budget, fixed asset depreciation under regulations, and payment of loan principals and interests according to the provisions of law). b) Irregular expenditures, including: - Performance of scientific and technological tasks; - Implementation of personnel training and fostering programs; - Implementation of national target programs; - Performance of orders placed by the State (investigation, planning, survey or other tasks) according to prices or price brackets set by the State; - Reciprocal capital for implementation of projects funded with foreign capital sources according to regulations; - Performance of urgent tasks assigned by the Ministry of Health authorities; - Payroll streamlining according to the state-prescribed regime; - Capital construction investment, procurement of equipment, overhaul of fixed assets for implementation of projects approved by the Ministry of Health authorities; - Implementation of projects funded with foreign aids; - Joint venture and cooperation activities; - Expenses for rewards; - Other expenditures under regulations. Management of assets, materials, equipment and basic construction in IVAC: - Every year, IVAC uses the current fund for maintaining, repairing and testing equipment and machinery; upgrading and improving the infrastructures of IVAC. P a g e 14 - With regard to fixed assets used in service activities, depreciation must be made to recover capital. IVAC may retain fixed asset depreciation sums and proceeds from the liquidation of assets belonging to the state budget for supplementation of non-business operation development funds. - Fixed asset depreciation sums and proceeds from the liquidation of assets belonging to loan capital sources shall be used for debt payment. Where all debts have been paid, IVAC may retain the remainder for supplementation of its non-business operation development funds. With regard to activities of performing the functions and tasks assigned by the State, IVAC shall calculate expenditures on wage and remuneration paid to its cadres, civil servants and laborers according to the rank and position-based wage levels stipulated by the State Annually, after paying expenditures, taxes and fulfilling other financial obligations under regulations, the units shall be entitled to use positive differences between revenues and expenditures in the following order: - Deducting at least 25% for setting up the nonbusiness operation development fund; - Paying increased incomes to laborers. The payment of increased incomes to laborers comply with the principle that who work with higher productivity and make more contributions to increasing revenues and reducing expenditures shall be paid more than others. - Making deductions for setting up the reward fund, the welfare fund and the reserve fund for income stabilization. With regard to the reward fund and the welfare fund, the maximum deduction level shall not exceed the average of 3 months' increased wages, remunerations and incomes actually paid in the year. Every year, IVAC must estimate revenues, expenditures; manage and use sources P a g e 15 of existing funds in accordance with the law. The director is responsible for reporting the general estimate and account in accordance with the law in force. IVAC must make financial disclosure in accordance with the law. IVAC executes self-examination and supervision activities according to assignments and level; and is under supervision of the Ministry of Health and State authorized agencies. 1.1.5. Directorate, Councils and Officials a) Directorate There are 4 members (the director and 3 vice directors) in directorate. They are appointed, re-appointed and dismissed by the Minister of Health according to the law. They are accountable before their immediate superior agencies and before law for his decisions in exercising the right to autonomy with regard to the tasks, organizational apparatus, payroll and finance of IVAC. Duties of Directorate - To organize the implementation of the State's regulations on environmental protection, security, social order, maintenance of safety and state secrets in IVAC‟s operations. To fulfill obligations towards the State and implement preferential policies towards policy beneficiaries. - To elaborate plans for exercise of the right to autonomy and selfresponsibility according to the provisions of this Decree and report them to superior agencies. - To elaborate and organize the implementation of internal spending regulations under the guidance of the Finance Ministry. - To organize the management and use of cadres and civil servants according to the provisions of law; ensure regimes for, and interests of, laborers in terms of wages, remunerations, social insurance, health insurance, P a g e 16 professional training and retraining in accordance with the provisions of law. - To organize the bookkeeping accounting, statistics, management of assets in strict compliance with the provisions of law, reflecting fully and promptly all revenues and expenditures of the units in accounting books. To comply with the regulations on the regime of information and reporting on nonbusiness operations of the units in accordance with current regulations. - To observe regulations on grassroots democracy and financial publicity in accordance with current regulations. - To implement the State's and Party's regulations on activities of Party and mass organizations. To be responsible for coordinating with, and creating conditions for, Party and mass organizations to join in supervision and management of all aspects of the units' operations. b) Councils There are 2 councils in IVAC. The scientific council and the moral council in medical and biological research provide advice for the director on the strategy on scientific and technological research, personnel training and preventive health service. The organization and operation of the scientific council and the moral council in medical and biological research adhere to the regulations of the Ministry of Science & Technology and the Ministry of Health. c) Officials The officials of IVAC are recruited and appointed to a classification scale prescribed by the law. They have the right to be provided favorable working conditions, appointed to work positions suitable to their ability and competence, further training to improve their professional skills, attend an exam to get higher classification scales when P a g e 17 eligible and enjoy all the rights prescribed by the law. 1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT IVAC is the largest manufacturer of vaccines and sera in Vietnam. To maintain its competitive position, IVAC has equipped itself a staff of highly qualified and experienced. However, in recent years many skilled and experienced employees have reached retirement age so IVAC has to recruit new employees. There is not any university in Vietnam has specialized training in vaccine and serum production. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors influence helping behavior that helps IVAC greatly reduces the cost of training abroad. 1.3 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH This study was conducted on all employees of IVAC with managers excepted. Each employee was sent with a questionnaire to fill in. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH This study examined the relationships between Perceived Person-Organization Fit and Helping Behaviors, Supervisory Support and Helping Behaviors, Procedural Justice and Helping Behaviors, Overall Job Satisfaction and Helping Behaviors in IVAC With the results of study, the managers of the IVAC could adjust strategies and policies to strengthen helping behaviors. This study could also serve as a reference for other managers to improve helping behaviors for their department. P a g e 18 CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCT 2.1.1. Helping Behaviors Helping behavior refers to voluntary actions intended to help the others, with reward regarded or disregarded. It is a type of prosocial behavior (voluntary action intended to help or benefit another individual or group of individuals, such as sharing, comforting, rescuing and helping). According to Penner, Louis A., John F. Dovidio, Jane A. Piliavin, and David A. Schroeder. (2005) humans‟ survival relied strongly on the processes of giving and helping. Those who displayed prosocial dispositions were thus met with evolutionary success. Group selection evinces that if two groups are in direct competition with one another, the group with the larger number of altruists will have an advantage over a group of mainly selfish individuals. Kin selection theory is one perspective on helping behavior. In this theory, helping behavior psychology can be due to evolution. Natural selection contributes to the survival idea, and humans are screened out of the evolution process if they lack the ability to adapt to environmental changes. To survive among groups of people with a similar genetic composition, desirable behaviors are maintained. A second perspective is called negative-state relief model helping behavior that people help because of egoism. Egoistic motives lead one to help others in bad circumstances in order to reduce personal distress experienced from knowing the situation of the people in need. Helping behavior happens only when the personal distress cannot be relieved by other actions. The model explains also people‟s avoidance behavior from people in need: this is another way of reducing distress. Fultz J., Schaller M., and Cialdini R.B. (1988) found that people who are anticipating positive events (listening to a comedy tape), will show low helping P a g e 19
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