Factors affecting overall job satisfaction in meinhardt viet nam ltd

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MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM  BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT (BMBR5103) FACTORS AFFECTING OVERALL JOB SATISFACTON IN MEINHARDT VIET NAM LTD. STUDENT’S FULL NAME : PHAN MINH TRI STUDENT ID : CGS000016265 COURSE : MBAOUM0514 – K14C ADVISOR : DR. KHAI NGUYEN Ho Chi Minh City, August 2015 Advisor’s Assessment --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Advisor’s signature Page 1 of 52 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Khai Nguyen for his dedicated teaching and advising during this wonderful study time at Hutech University, and the library staffs of Hutech for providing the support and information I needed. I would like to thank all employees and my partners at Meinhardt VN Ltd. for providing me with all the attention and information I needed for this study. I would also like to thank my classmates who studied along with me and helped me in one way or the other. Page 2 of 52 Table of Contents ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 7 1. 1 Company Description .......................................................................................................... 7 1.2 Organization structure........................................................................................................... 7 1.3 Company Services ................................................................................................................ 8 1.4 Business Sector ................................................................................................................... 10 1.5 Company problem ............................................................................................................... 14 1.6 Purpose of study.................................................................................................................. 15 CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................. 16 2.1 Goal and Process clarity and overall job satisfaction ......................................................... 16 2.2 Procedural Fairness ............................................................................................................. 18 2.3 Fairness in skill-based pay .................................................................................................. 20 2.4 Perceived Person-Organization Fit ..................................................................................... 21 2.5 Overall Job Satisfaction ...................................................................................................... 23 CHAPTER III. HYPOTHESIS MODEL & RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................... 26 3.1 Hypothesis model................................................................................................................ 26 3.2 Research Methodology ....................................................................................................... 28 3.2.1 Data collection ............................................................................................................. 28 Page 3 of 52 3.2.2 Measurement of constructs .......................................................................................... 29 CHAPTER IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING RESULT .................. 34 4.1 Reliability Test .................................................................................................................... 34 4.2 Descriptive statistic ............................................................................................................. 35 4.3 Correlation statistic ............................................................................................................. 35 4.4 Overall Hypothesis Testing Result ..................................................................................... 37 4.4.1 Hypothesis 1 result ....................................................................................................... 38 4.4.2 Hypothesis 2 result ....................................................................................................... 38 4.4.3 Hypothesis 3 result ....................................................................................................... 38 4.4.4 Hypothesis 4 result ....................................................................................................... 38 CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION ................................................. 39 5.1 Discussion ........................................................................................................................... 39 5.2 Limitation ............................................................................................................................ 40 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 42 APPENDIX: RESEARCH QUESTIONAIRES ...................................................................... 47 Page 4 of 52 LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1. Meinhardt VN’s organization chart .............................................................................. 8 Fig 2. Hypothesis model ....................................................................................................... 26 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Measure of goal and process clarity ....................................................................... 30 Table 2. Measure of procedural fairness ............................................................................... 31 Table 3. Measure of fairness in skill-based pay.................................................................... 31 Table 4. Measure of perceived person-organization fit ........................................................ 32 Table 5. Measure of overall job satisfaction ......................................................................... 33 Table 6. Cronbach’s alpha testing values ............................................................................. 35 Table 7. Descriptive statistic results ..................................................................................... 35 Table 8. Correlation statistic ................................................................................................. 36 Table 9. Model Summary ..................................................................................................... 37 Table 10. ANOVA results..................................................................................................... 37 Table 11. Coefficients results ............................................................................................... 37 Page 5 of 52 ABSTRACT Real estate industry in Viet Nam is growing back after falling down due to the economic crisis. Construction companies are also growing back following the industry. In Viet Nam, we have several famous international companies participating in construction service, and Meinhardt VN Ltd. is one of those. The company provides services of construction consultancy such as project management, project supervision, project bidding etc. The company business was very successful from 2000 to 2010, but has been slowing down lately even though the real estate is growing back. This study examines factors affecting the employee’s overall job satisfaction at Meinhardt VN and its relationship with overall job satisfaction. Four factors affecting are goal and process clarity, procedural fairness, fairness in skill- based pay and perceive person – organization fit. Through this study, it is tested and resulted that there is a positive relationship between goal and process clarity, procedural fairness, fairness in skill- based pay and perceive person – organization fit and overall job satisfaction in Meinhardt Viet Nam Ltd. Key words: Goal and process clarity, procedural fairness, fairness in skill-based pay, perceive person-organization fit, overall job satisfaction. Page 6 of 52 CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Company Description Meinhardt Group commenced operation in Australia in 1955, in Asia in 1973 and now employs in excess of 3,500 permanent staff. The Group currently operates in 30 countries worldwide and maintains permanent offices in USA, UK, UAE, India and Pakistan and throughout the Asia Pacific regions. Ranked among the largest independent engineering consulting firms globally by revenue, Meinhardt Group, with over 42 offices worldwide. In Viet Nam, Meinhardt Viet Nam Ltd. (Meinhardt VN) was established in Ho Chi Minh City in 1995. The company has been granted a full license of engineering consultancy under 100% Foreign Owned Company status and has been admitted as a member of Vietnam Engineering Consultant Association (VECAS). Representative offices are established in Hanoi and Da Nang to execute projects in the north of the country. Through its close links with the other offices of the Group, the firm is able to obtain external support and particular specialist expertise when required, so as to combine the Group global presence and knowledge base with local experience. 1.2 Organization structure The company has currently over 300 full time employees with a variety of expertise and a strong combination of international staff, Vietnamese with overseas qualifications and experience, and well qualified Vietnamese nationals. This allows the company to provide engineering services that meet either Vietnamese or International Standards. Page 7 of 52 Although the company is part of Meinhardt Group, however, the general director can decide all the decisions by himself, meaning the general director has full power to ma make ke decisions. The company structure consists of departments with its own directors. Department directors d are directed by a specific deputy general director of the company. Fig 1. Meinhardt VN’s organization chart 1.3 Company Services Meinhardt VN Ltd. is fully licensed with variety ranges of consultancy services. Some main services of the company are:  Architectural design - Concept Design: Sketches/ drawings with different options for the building layout and general perspectives. - Basic Design: Provide general detail after completion of concept design - Detail Design and Documentation: Complete set of architectural Page 8 of 52 drawings and specifications suitable for construction.  Civil & Structural design - Concept Design: Concept on structural components, design parameters and design standard report. - Detail Design: Develop detail civil, structural and foundation design, calculations, drawings and specifications.  Mechanical & Electrical - Water supply & storage and distribution system. design - Power supply & distribution and lighting system. - Telecommunication system. - Ventilation and air conditioning system. - Fire fighting and protection system.  Project Management - Co-ordinate designers. - Arrange Government approvals and liaise with government authorities.  Construction Supervision - Construction management and site supervision. - Examine and supervise quality of construction materials and equipment used for the project. - Check construction methods of construction contractor. - Regularly and systematically supervise construction procedures of the contractor on the site. - Organize the acceptance of the project. - Holding meetings, cooperate with other relating parties to settle all misgivings, matters arising during the construction of the project.  Cost Management (QS) - Preliminary cost estimates. Page 9 of 52 - Development budgeting. - Detailed construction cost estimates. - Quantity surveying services prior to and during construction.  Tendering consultancy services - Tender management. - Pre-Qualification. - Package procurement strategy. - Tendering. - Evaluation and negotiation. 1.4 Business Sector There is a wide range of construction sector such as aviation construction, education construction…For Meinhardt VT Ltd., the company has provided above mentioned services to the following construction sectors: a. Infrastructure sector Provision of infrastructure is a core activity in development. The provision of proper utility services in water, sanitation, waste disposal, electricity, gas and others, together with transportation is a long-term. The company has been responsible for some recent key developments in local infrastructure in Vietnam such as: Ben Thanh Central Station (Contract Package 1-A) under Ho Chi Minh City Urban Railway Construction Project Line 1: The Ben Thanh Station is a fully integrated public transport interchange linking 4 lines of MRT, which are line 1, 2, 3a and 4 and an underground bus station. Meinhardt VN Ltd. signs the sub-contract with the Association to provide M&E design service for the project. Client: Ho Chi Minh City Urban Railway PMU Page 10 of 52 Completion year: 2015 Saigon International Terminal Project: Provide design services and construction audit for a container port including a wharf of 730m long and a container yard with an area of 33,700m2 together with all ancillary buildings. Project Cost: USD95 million Year of completion: 2010 Phu My Bridge Extension Road Project: Provide project management and construction supervision for three traffic projects invested under the form of BT contract (Building – Transfer Contract) linking Districts 9, 2 and 7: The Eastern ring road stretching from Phu My Bridge to Rach Chiec Bridge with length of 8.7km and width of 67m, the road linking Phu My Bridge to traffic intersection South Saigon A with length of 1,655m including an elevated road with length of 1,587m and width of 23.7m,and the South Saigon A traffic intersection. Client: Phu My Bridge B.O.T Joint Stock Company Year of completion: 2009 Tan Son Nhat – Binh Loi Outer Ring Road Project: Provide Construction Supervision and Project Management Services, the total length of project is 13.6 km. Project Cost: USD340 million Year of completion: 2013 Page 11 of 52 b. Building sector Critical to Meinhardt VN ’s approach and development in Viet Nam.The company provides the full range of design services for buildings of all types and for all engineering disciplines. Typical projects are: Kumho Asiana Plaza, HCM: Provided preparation of tender documentation, tender processing services and construction supervision for Kumho Asiana Plaza project located at 39 Le Duan Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City. The project constructed on an area of 13,632m2 consists of a 21-storey hotel tower, a 32-storey apartment tower, a 21-storey office tower and a 2-storey shopping center with underground car-park. Client: Kumho Asiana Plaza Saigon Co. Ltd. Construction cost: US$200M Completion year: 11/2009 “Saigon Paragon” Complex Building: provided project management – preconstruction, cost estimation and tender documentation, review the design of M&E aspect and project management and construction supervision for the USD 15M project. Client: Kim Cuong Joint Stock Company Completion year: 2008 EverRich Residential and Commercial Centre: Provided project management, construction supervision, preparation of tender documents and contract for Everrich Residential and Commercial Centre Project which comprises 2 towers with 20-storey in height of each (excluding 2 basements and 5 podiums). The project is located at 940B Ba Thang Hai Street, Ward 15, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City. Page 12 of 52 Client: Phat Dat Company Completion year: 11/2009 c. Leisure and recreation sector Including resorts and hotels across Viet Nam such as: MGM Grand Ho Tram Tourist Complex Project: Provided general and detailed study and design for this project. The Ho Tram Tourist Complex covers an area of 169 ha in Xuyen Moc Commune of Ba Ria – Vung Tau Province. Construction of the Project 1 (phase 1 and 2) – including the two five-star hotels, Vietnam’s first Las Vegas-style casinos and the specially designed Greg Norman golf completed by 2011. The entire 169 hectares of the Ho Tram Strip, featuring five Las Vegas-style integrated resorts, is scheduled to be completely developed and operational within ten years. The total investment capital of the project is worth of US$ 4.2 billions, the biggest FDI project of its kind in Vietnam. Meinhardt VN. Client: Asian Coast Development (Canada) Ltd. Completion year: (ACDL) 2010 Hilton Hotel and Resort, Cam Ranh Town, Khanh Hoa Province: Provided Civil and Structural Design Services. The Hilton Hotel & Resort will include a hotel complex with 240 rooms and 45 hotel villas. The project also 190 residential villas and 3 apartment blocks between 10 and 15 storey high set upon a 23 hectare site Client: Mesa Group Completion year: 2013 Page 13 of 52 d. Sport sector Meinhardt VN won the First Prize in the contest of Planning, Descriptive Design and Tender Document Preparation consultancy services for the Olympic Village in Jaber AL-Ahmed Housing City, Kuwait selected by the Public Authority for Housing Welfare, State of Kuwait in 2012. Olympic Village Project-Kuwait: The project site covers 23.6ha and has a mix of sporting, residential and international facilities to enable the holding of International sporting competitions over 27 sports. The main buildings with Gross Floor Area of approximately 250,000 sqm and external landscaped and civil works of 117,000 sqm. Meinhardt VN is appointed to provide Project Design Management as well as complete Architectural and Engineering Design Consultancy Services. Client: Public Authority for Housing Welfare Construction cost: approx. USD 1 billion Award: 1st prize in the Design contest selected by the State of Kuwait, Public Authority for Housing Welfare Year of completion: 2014 1.5 Company problem Employees of Meinhardt VN have recently had a tendency to drop out of the company, and the quality of current employees is also reduced, i.e coming late, not fulfill duty…. Before this, the employees had suffered salary deduction and late in monthly payment due to real estate crisis, however, not much employees left the company during that time. When asked the reasons why they left the company, the reasons are varied from aspects of salary, work environment, careers Page 14 of 52 etc. especially, they mentioned how dissatisfaction about their current job/position within the company. As human resources is the main power of the company, keep losing employees and poorworkers harm significantly to the company business. Therefore there is a need to change this situation. 1.6 Purpose of study To resolve the above problem, the aim of this study is to examine factors affecting the employee’s overall job satisfaction at Meinhardt VN, thus finding a way to increase their overall job satisfaction. This study will focus on four factors and its relationship with the overall job satisfaction in Meinhardt VN. These factors are: - Goal and Process Clarity. - Procedural Fairness. - Fairness in Skill-based Pay. - Perceived Person-Organization Fit. Page 15 of 52 CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Goal and Process clarity and overall job satisfaction Inspired by Sawyer (1992), this factor is belong to the role ambiguity such as clarity about a job’s outcome goals and objectives, and certainty about a job’s process or how it should performed respectively. In 1957, Smith conducted an experimental study with 140 college students systematically varied the amount of role ambiguity and measured the effects on problem solving. The study showed that when groups were asked to solve problems without clarification of the role each member was to perform, their efficiency was significantly less than when the roles were made clear; secondly, role ambiguity markedly reduced group satisfaction with the experience; and thirdly, the hostility level was significantly higher for groups under conditions of role ambiguity as compared to control groups. Kahn et al (1964) expressed that to have an adequately perform employee’s role, they must know what the expectations of the role set are (such as rights, duties, and responsibilities), what activities will fulfill the role responsibilities, and what the consequences of role performance are to themselves, others, and the organization. Conflict or uncertainty may occur when the three types of information do not exist or when they are inadequately communicated. He suggested that role ambiguity where lack of the adequately information available to a given job position will result in coping behavior by the role incumbent, which may take the form of attempts to solve the problem to avoid the stress, or to use defense mechanisms which change the reality of the situation; thus, unclearly goal and process clarity could increase the probability that a person will be dissatisfied with his role, will experience anxiety, will distort reality, and will thus perform less effectively. A study showed that high degrees of role ambiguity resulted in Page 16 of 52 increased tension, anxiety, fear and hostility, decreased job satisfaction, and loss of selfconfidence, often with lower productivity (Kahn et al, 1964). Later on, Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970) extended the definition of role ambiguity in terms of the expected outcome or responses to one’s behavior and the existence or clarity of behavioral requirements. These items reflect certainty about duties, authority, allocation of time, and relationships with others. Another study of goal clarity by Gladstein (1984) demonstrated that the clarity of team goals and individual members’ roles they communicate more effectively with each other, which in turn serves to integrate each team member’s tasks with those performed by others on the team. This mutual understanding facilitates the emergence of a shared vision of their subgoals, team goals, and the processes needed for accomplishing tasks. Locke & Latham (1990) also provided a goal-setting theory suggesting that clear goals will lead to improvement of team performance due to their role in directing team members’ attention and encouraging members to be persistent. Lately, Stewart (2006) showed that a high level of goal clarity indicates that members as a whole clearly understand their goals and the connection between their work and the objectives. As well as a high level of process clarity implies that members clearly understand the procedures that must be followed in order to achieve goals. Thus previous survey and experimental evidence suggests that uncertainty of goal and process clarity would have undesirable impact for both members and for organizational performance. Page 17 of 52 2.2 Procedural Fairness This factor is to assess employee perceptions about the fairness of the procedure used for making pay-related decisions including pay determination, pay communication, performance appraisal and appealing (Scarpello and Jones, 1996). In considering pay issues, there are commonly two types of fairness that are distributive justice and procedural justice. While distributive justice refers to the degree to which employees perceive their pay amount as fair, procedural justice is concerned with the perceived fairness of the means or methods used to determine the amount of pay. Greenberg & Folger (1983) defined distributive justice is concerned with the fairness of the amount of resources distributed, procedural justice focuses on the fairness of the rules and processes governing how such decisions are made. Folger and Konovsky (1992) defined that distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of the amounts of compensation employees receive while procedural justice refers to the perceived fairness of the means used to determine those amounts. In the field of procedural justice, the most generally accepted and best-documented finding is that allowing people an opportunity to voice their opinion about a decision enhances their judgments of the fairness of the decision-making procedure. Hom and Griffeth’s (1995) study showed that both perceived fairness of pay procedures and perceived fairness of pay amounts were proposed as predictors of satisfaction with pay. Welbourne (1998) also concluded that both distributive and procedural fairness affected satisfaction. Other research also supports a relationship between procedural fairness and pay satisfaction. A theory called fairness heuristic made a number of novel predictions about the psychology of procedural justice and distributive justice. Fairness heuristic theory stated that in several Page 18 of 52 situations fairness is a significant issue. More specifically, the theory demonstrated that people especially need fairness judgments when they are concerned about potential problems associated with social interdependence and socially based identity processes. An experimental example developed by Lind, Kanfer and Early (1990) was that participants are requested to complete tasks. Furthermore, it is communicated to subjects that the experimenter will decide on the number of tasks they will have to complete. After a practice trial, the procedure that subjects receive is manipulated: they are either allowed or not allowed an opportunity to voice their opinion about the number of tasks to be completed. Findings of Lind, Kanfer and Early (1990) showed a voice effect: subjects judged the procedure to be more fair when they were allowed voice than when they were not allowed voice. Furthermore, the experimental manipulations affected subjects’ task performance: subjects who were allowed voice completed more tasks than subjects who were not allowed voice. In terms of outcome favorability, high procedural fairness also increase the effect of outcome favorability, relative to when procedural fairness is low (Gilliland, 1994; Ployhart, Ryan, & Bennett, 1999; Schroth & Shah, 2000). There is more likely to be a positive relationship between procedural fairness and self-esteem when outcomes are favorable rather than unfavorable. Schroth & Shah (2000) proved that in the face of unfavorable outcomes, procedural fairness may actually be negatively related to self-evaluations. Generally, many researchs (Folger, 1977; Folger, Rosenfield, Grove, & Corkran, 1979; Walker, La- Tbur, Lind, & Thibaut, 1974) has discovered that there is a positive relationship between procedural fairness and how people react to the outcomes and satisfaction they may receive. Page 19 of 52
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