Factors affecting helping behaviors of employees at fpt corporation

  • Số trang: 62 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 13 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
nhattuvisu

Đã đăng 26946 tài liệu

Mô tả:

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM  RESEARCH PROJECT (BMBR5103) (FACTORS AFFECTING HELPING BEHAVIORS OF EMPLOYEES AT FPT CORPORATION) STUDENT FULL NAME STUDENT ID INTAKE ADVISOR NAME & TITLE : PHAM THI NGOC LAN : CGS00018252 : MAY, 2014 : DR NGUYEN THE KHAI HO CHI MINH CITY, August 2015 Business Research Methods 2 ADVISOR’S ASSESSMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ADVISOR’S SIGNATURE (August 2015) NGUYEN THE KHAI (DBA) Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My work on this dissertation could not have achieved without the support of the professors, colleagues, and friends in the Department of Management and Organization at the OUM- Hutech University, and the love and encouragement of my family. I am especially grateful to my professors, Dr. Khai Nguyen, who provided continuous support and help, offered constructive feedback and helpful advice for my research. Thanks to all professors and friends in the department who provided strong support and special care for me at the dissertation stage. Thanks to the participants of this study and the executives of the participating FPT company for their coöperation. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. 7 CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPANY BRIEF INTRODUCTION…………………………………….......8 1.2 FPT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE……………………………………..9 1.3 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT..…………………………………….10 1.4 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH………………………………….………….11 1.5 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH………………………………………………...11 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH…………………………………………….12 1.7 LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH…………………………………………12 CHAPTER II – LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCT……………………………………………..13 2.1.1 HELPING BEHAVIORS……………………………………………………13 2.1.2 JOB SATISFACTION RELATIVE TI EXPECTATION…………………...19 2.1.3 SUPERVISORY SUPPORT………………………………………………...20 2.1.4 PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT……………………………21 2.1.5 CAREER COMMITMENT………………………………………………….24 2.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES………………………………………………….25 2.3 CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH MODEL……………………………………….26 CHAPTER III – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 DATA COLLECTION………………………………………………………...27 3.2 MEASURE OF EACH CONSTRUCT………………………………………..28 3.2.1 HELPING BEHAVIORS……........................................................................28 3.2.2 JOB SATISFACTION RELATIVE TI EXPECTATION…………………...29 3.2.3 SUPERVISORY SUPPORT………………………………………………...30 3.2.4 CAREER COMMITMENT………………………………………………….31 3.2.5 PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT……………………………32 3.3 DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………….34 CHAPTER IV – RESEARCH FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 5 4.1 CRONBACH’S ALPHA………………………………………………………35 4.2 RELIABILITY STATISTICS…………………………………………………37 4.2.1 MAIN CONSTRUCT – HELPING BEHAVIORS………………………...37 4.2.2 CONSTRUCT - JOB SATISFACTION RELATIVE TI EXPECTATION…37 4.2.3 CONSTRUCT - SUPERVISORY SUPPORT………………………………38 4.2.4 CONSTRUCT - PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT………….38 4.2.5 CAREER COMMITMENT………………………………………………...38 4.3 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS…………………………………………………39 4.4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING RESULTS……………………………………........40 4.4.1 PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS H140 4.4.2 PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS H2……………………………………………...41 4.2.3 PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS H3…………………………………………..42 4.2.4 PROPOSED HYPOTHESIS H4…………………………………………..40 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………..44 TABLE Tables 1 Time table for data collection progress……………………………………...35 Tables 2 Cronbach's Alpha- Internal consistency……………………………………..36 Tables 3 Cronbach’s Alpha of Helping Behaviors…………………………………….37 Tables 4 Cronbach’s Alpha of Job satisfaction relative to expectation……………37 Tables 5 Cronbach’s Alpha of Supervisory support…………………………………..38 Tables 6 Cronbach’s Alpha of Perceived Organizational support………………….38 Tables 7 Cronbach’s Alpha of Career Commitment…………………………………..38 Tables 8 Reliability Statistic of Cronbach’s Alpha……………………………………39 Tables 9 Descriptive Statistics……………………………………………………………39 Tables 10 Model Summary .............................................................................. …... 41 Tables 11 ANOVA………………………………………………………………………….41 Tables 12 Coefficients …….………………………………………………………………42 Tables 13 Measurement of Helping Behaviours ………………………………………51 Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 6 Tables 14 Measurement of Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation ………………52 Tables 15 Measurement of Supervisory Support ………………………………………53 Tables 16 Measurement of Career Commitment ………………………………………54 Tables 17 Perceived Organizational support..…………………………………………55 FIGURE Figures 1 FPT Organizational Structure………………………………………………..9 Figures 2 Diagram decision of helping…………………………………………………17 Figures 3 Conceptual Research Model of Helping Behaviors……………………….27 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………...47 APPENDIX APPENDIX 1: SURVEY………………………………………………………….50 APPENDIX 2: PRESENTATION…………………………………………………………………58 Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 7 ABSTRACT The main aim of this research was to find variables that explain analyse relationship between Job Satisfaction Relative To Expectation, Supervisory Support, Perceived Organizational Support, Career Commitment and Helping Behaviors among employees in FPT company. That is way to find the factors influence to the Helping Behaviors of employees working at FPT company. This research project will use Business Research Methods to determine Helping Behaviors and what other main factors influences Helping Behaviors. And this research also was conducted by quantitative method with the data of 350 employees at FPT to collect the ideas and comments of employees on Helping Behaviors. Next, the result of these surveys shall be statistically analyzed by software SPSS version 20 (copyright of IBM) to analyse the data. Hypotheses used this research include five constructs: one dependent construct (Helping Behaviors) and four independent constructs (Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation, Supervisory Support, Career Commitment, Perceived Organizational Support ). I hope the results of this research help the CEO; managers of FPT have some reference angle in human resource management to improve and increase the quality of human resource based on Helping Behaviors of employees as well as clear perception that Helping Behaviors of employees will impact on working effectiveness, improving its policies in order to create a good working environment competitiveness of the company in the Vietnam market. Keywords: Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation, Supervisory Support, Perceived Organizational Support, Career Commitment and Helping Behaviors. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 8 CHAPTER I – INTRODUCTION FPT CORPORATION 1.1 COMPANY BRIEF INTRODUCTION Established on 9/13/1988, FPT Information Technology and Telecommunications is among the largest private enterprises in Vietnam. It leads the market with over US $ 1.2 billion in revenue (2012), with the core business areas in the field of Information Technology and Telecommunications, FPT provides service to 63 provinces in Vietnam, constantly expanding Global Marketplace. FPT has the presence in 19 countries around the world, such as Japan, USA, UK, France, Germany, Singapore, Australia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam,etc. After 26 years of operation, now, FPT is the No. 1 company in Vietnam in the fields of Software, System Integration, IT Services, Manufacturing and Distribution of IT products, IT products, IT Retail. Besides, FPT also owns a university specialized in training Information. FPT has developed the potentials and the cooperation spirit of all members, focus on attracting talents. December 31st, 2014, FPT’s total number of employees was over 24,000, in which there were more than 8,500 engineers, programmers and technology professionals with international qualifcations. FPT is proud to will be home of the largest community of IT engineers in Vietnam, IT engineers technology experts. FPT has strived to master related technologies in all operating segments and has achieved thousands of important certifcates granted by leading international technology corporations. This has established a solid ground for FPT to continuously create new value-added services for customers and consumers. FPT leading technology corporation in Vietnam, have young employees under the ages of 30 (57.6%), stable and highly qualified workforce. Human resources are the core value which enables FPT to constantly generate added value for customers. There were more than 600 foreign staff. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 1.2 FPT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Boad of shareholder meetings Boad of supervisors Boad of directors Boad of managements Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan 9 Business Research Methods 10 1.3 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT Today's service economy and the increased use of teams work skill in the workplace of FPT company, have led to increased expectations for FPT employees. Not only are FPT employees expected to be flexible, have problem-solving skills and good social skills, but they are also expected to have Helping Behaviors skills. These interpersonal Helping Behaviors characterize contextual performance. Evaluate the construct of Helping Behaviors, where the latter will be defined as behavior that is a part of one's prescribed work role. It will be intended to support the company and to help people who are the parts of the company. To keep helping employees on a long-term basis, Helping Behaviors in the form of team support from coworkers and supervisors is of utmost importance, as these two sources of support are related to enhance well-being, most often in the form of job satisfaction. Positive factors such as support from supervisors have a positive influence on engagement, a form of work-related well-being. Perceived Organizational Support helps to enhance this well-being by counteracting the negative influences of stress. People experience certain emotions because they subscribe meaning to events that are expected to influence well-being. When being applied to the context of supervisor Helping Behaviors, it can be hypothesized that the difference in meaning or motives people subscribe to these behaviors can evoke different emotions, which can be positive or negative. Since positive affect are components of a specific type of well-being - namely subjective well-being, different motives subscribed to Helping Behaviors is related to differences in well-being. In this research, Support Supervisors, Perceived Organizational Support, alongside consideration of Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation and Career Commitment to these situation and attitudes will be investigated in relations to Behaviors people. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Helping Business Research Methods 11 1.4 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH This research investigated the different factors which influence Helping Behaviours in humans. The interest in research within this FPT company. The research question raised based on background information was: what factors influence Helping Behaviours in humans. The investigation looked upon several different factors and found out the relationship between four main factors such as Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation, Supervisory Support, Perceived Organizational Support, Career Commitment and Helping Behaviors among employees in company. Another important study related to Helping Behaviors, and more specifically how situational and how strategy in human resource factors influence it, A survey of situational and variables in Helping Behaviors. The focus of this survey was very much on situational factors that helping, yet it also began to discuss why people help and what motivates them to intervene on behalf of others. It investigated the effects of level of satisfy in the working environment relate with Helping Behaviors. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH This research was conducted on all 275 employees in FPT telecom, FPT software company, FPT information systerm and FPT university. Each employee received with some questionnaires to fill in. Importance of understanding Helping Behaviors: It is important to gain an understanding of Helping Behaviors. Understanding why people help may help to understand how Helping Behaviors be increased. There may practical applications of Helping Behaviors at workplace. These studies have shown a positive association between Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation on the one hand and Helping Behaviors the other. The Helping Behaviors - Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation model provides an explanation for this association. According to this model, Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation are those parts of the job that required much mental and physical Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 12 energy. Examples of job satisfaction such as the progress you are making toward the goals you set for yourself in your present position Examples of such your present job when you consider the expectations you had when you took the job. On the other hand, when there are enough resources in the workplace, e.g. Supervisor Support, motivate of Helping Behaviors employees be enhanced. These studies have shown a positive association between Career Commitment and Perceived Organizational Support on Helping Behaviors relative to expectation model provides an explanation for this association. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH As we know, one of the key human characteristics is willingness to help others in need. As adults we do this routinely, often immediate personal gain and occasionally even at great costs to ourselves. It is often assumed that Helping Behaviors originate from cultural practices such as our parents having taught us moral norms or having rewarded us for being nice to others. Conversely, some idea that we might have basic tendencies to care about others, which do not depend on social norms alone. That is the reason we find out some hypothesis related to Helping Behaviors at a workplace. To let the company have clearer view of problems that affects the company’s working environment, that is the Helping Behaviors among employees. With the results of the research, management of the company can adjust the policy and set out a strategy to encourage employees to change their attitude to help other people at the workplace. 1.7 LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH This study has several limitations, the survey was conducted in a short time. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed out to 350 employees in 4 brands: FPT telecom, FPT software company, FPT information systerm and FPT university of the FPT corporation, at the end we collect 275 surveys. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 13 CHAPTER II – LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DEFINITION OF CONSTRUCT 2.1.1 HELPING BEHAVIORS  Definition Definition of Constructs Helping Behaviors It was developed by Van Dyne and LePin (1998). The concept of Helping Behaviors has been developed in many ways by many different researchers and practitioners. According to Thomas Ashby Wills, helping can be defined as an interaction between helper and other people that has the specific purpose of resolving the other people's presenting problem. The helper provides benefit to others but it is not beneficial for the person who carries benefit to others but it is not beneficial them out. According to Baron, R. A., Byrne, D., & Johnson, B. T. 1998 is called Altruism which is action intended solely to benefit another and not to gain external or internal reward. We perception the empathy was generally perceived to be a cause leading to Helping Behaviors. Empathy is compassionate feelings caused by taking the perspective of a needy other and it sometimes called sympathy which is a form of feeling sorry for a separate other and it is easily moved by other's suffering. According to Newcomb, Rabow and Wolfinger (1999), defined Helping Behaviors as a characteristic of care in a given situation. Based on different perceptions and situation it reflecting several reasons why people help. There are a number of interesting and important research findings on Helping Behaviors. First, one of the characteristic is empathy, in a similar situation that allows an individual to offer help because they would want the same done for them in future. If an individual wants to give honorably to the workplace, help may be offered because it is the right thing to do. That right for social perception so we may persuade people to help because it is good moralistic view. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 14 Next, we focus of control what is in fluent with individual internal, what is they thinking, which is the belief that one can influence situational factors to maximize good outcomes and minimize bad ones. Finally, As Baron, Byrne & Johnson (1998), self-absorbed or competitive individuals are very egocentric and often refuse to help.The reasons for helping or not helping seem clear, however it is not the reason behind the behavior that impedes implementation: it is the real situation that demands the help. As Li (1997) identified some different helping situations. First, casual helping occurred when the helper and helpee had no prior relationship. This implies that the helper can donate help to the helpee without cost. Neither is obligated to the other, in the second situation is in case of factors such as personal helping and emotional helping impose opposite obligations related moral and social obligation. The cost of not helping in these two situations could be harmful to the entire relationship. Third is in emergency situations, the focus is not on relationships at all. The need is believed too high for the helpee, and the cost, not as important as adhering to the plea for help. As Cialdini and Kenrick (1976) contended that negative moods lead just as much toward Helping Behaviors as positive moods, if not more so. This is because of the desire to relieve oneself from their negative mood. Reasons for helping: Altruism versus Egoistic Motivation Not all Helping Behaviors may show altruism. In some case Helping Behaviors may show altruism by motivated to help someone. In another case Helping Behaviors may reflect egoistic motiation. Egoistic motivation with respect to Helping Behaviors reflects selfish reasons for Helping Behaviors. For example, Helping Behaviors may reflect a concern about being viewed as a kind or nice person by others. As mentioned before, positive affect is a component of subjective well-being. The aforementioned relationship was explained by drawing on self-determination theory, which states that autonomous motives for helping satisfy certain Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 15 psychological needs, resulting in enhanced well-being. There is positive related between personal helping norms, individuals’ levels of self-monitoring and intentions to perform Helping Behaviors. High self-monitors may be more sensitive to others’ need for help since they pay more attention to their social context. It is interesting to note that the fact that self-monitoring was significantly associated with individuals’ intentions to help may not demonstrate an altruistic motive. As Flynn, F. J., Reagans, R., Amanatullah, E. T. & Ames, D. R. (2006) suggested that high self-monitors may perform more Helping Behaviors because they expect something in return, such as a position of higher status among their group members. According to Deutsch & Gerard, 1955, people to maintain their self-esteem those individuals with strong positive personal helping norms may exhibit of Helping Behaviors at high levels. Why did we choose this dependent Variable? Helping Behaviors means prosocial behavior, is a theory of social psychology. This is describes the actions that people do to benefit others. These actions affect others and all of activity that are not generally based on motivations but on how those run the actions. A person sharing helping, and comforting without any selfish expectations. psychology can be due to evolution. The purpose for helping other people is that the altruism Helping Behaviors: a. As Kin selection theory is one perspective on Helping Behaviors. Natural selection contributes to the survival idea. In this theory humans are screened out of the evolution process if they lack the ability to adapt to environmental changes. To survive among groups of people with a similar genetic composition, desirable behaviors are maintained. b. A second perspective of model Helping Behaviors. It states that the helpers want to reduce their own personal stress in similar situations so helping actions are done. So that Social psychology researchers use this perspective to explain how helping actions are egoistic. People help others in situations they may be facing on their Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 16 own, but they may avoid helping others who are experiencing situations that are not the same. c. The third, the theory related empathy-altruism that Helping Behaviors is triggered by empathy, the ability to identify with a person and understand what they are experiencing and feeling. Researches see a relationship between empathy and helping actions. According to this theory, the idea is that empathetic people are triggered into acting by their empathy. d. Reciprocal Helping Behaviors is a fourth perspective. In general, people help others without the thought of personal gains that may occur as a result. This theory states that people think about future benefits for themselves when they help others, as long as the benefit will outweigh the sacrifice. Future benefits can include similar repayment by the person being helped. e. The final perspective of Helping Behaviors is the social exchange theory. Although the concept of helping actions does not revolve around what a person may gain as a result, some instances are motivated by personal gain. Similar to the reciprocal theory, the social exchange theory is based on the idea that people help others for the rewards they receive. Rewards can be external, such as friendship, or internal, such as self-satisfaction. According to Daniel Batson (1991), the Empathy-altruism hypothesis by, the decision of helping or not depends primarily on whether you feel empathy for the person and secondarily on the cost and rewards or social exchange concerns. It can be illustrated in the following diagram: Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 17 I receive a favor from your I notice the favor I feel happiness I feel obligated to do you a  favor or I like you and want  to do you a favor I don't feel obligated to  do you a favor or I don't  want to do you a favor RECIPROCATION NO RECIPROCATION (Favor in return) (No favor in return) You like me You notice "cheating": lack  of reciprocation Positive reinforcement You don't like me You are likely to do me  favors in the future You are unlikely to do me  favors in the future In social psychology, the helping is an important topic the psychology. It is important to address reasons for Helping Behaviors, and how Helping Behaviors may be increased in workplace. So that it apply in the workplace to encourage people helping your partners and colleagues. That is one of the good ways to develop your company. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 18  Descriptive Individual Helping Behaviors in workplace In recent years, the subject of organizational citizenship behavior in the workplace has received increasing attention. According to Borman & Motowidlo (1993); Organ (1997), Organizational citizenship behavior has been defined as those behaviors that are enhanced and kept up with the social and psychological environment that supports task performance. According to Reno, Cialdini, & Kallgren (1993), descriptive norms show what most people do in a specific situation. It has been suggested that individuals use descriptive norms to find out proper behavior, as Cialdini, Kallgren, & Reno (1991). “If most people are doing this it must be the appropriate thing to do”. This is social proof to saves energy and individuals time and identifies a behavior with a high chance of being proper (Cialdini & Trost, 1998). As Bommer, Miles, and Grover (2003) identified two theories to explain the mechanism through which group norms influence individuals’ decision to exhibit Helping Behaviors: social learning theory and social information-processing theory. Social learning theory (Bandura, 1986) asserts that people learn acceptable behavior by observing others’ behavior. Social information processing theory developed by Salancik & Pfeffer, (1978), support that people seek information and social cues in their social context to help them know which behavior is right. Thus, both theories indicated that if group members see others performing Helping Behaviors they are likely to view such behaviors as typical and proper and should, in turn, show such behaviors. So to check how descriptive norms affect cooperative behavior, As Cress and Kimmerle (2007) found that to conform the behavior of their group members each individuals used information about others’ behavior to adjust their own behavior to suitable with group. Specifically they found that individuals who were exposed to a positive descriptive norm of highly cooperative group members demonstrated higher levels of their own cooperative behavior than those exposed to a negative descriptive norm. I propose the following hypothesis: Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 19 Hypothesis 1: Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation is positively related to Helping Behaviors. Hypothesis 2: Supervisory Support is positively related to Helping Behaviors. Hypothesis 3: Perceived Organizational Support is positively related to Helping Behaviors Hypothesis 4: Career Commitment is positively related to Helping Behaviors. 2.1.2 JOB SATISFACTION RELATIVE TO EXPECTATION Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation was measure, developed by Bacharach, Bamberger, and Conley (1991). Another recent definition of the concept of job satisfaction is: According to Hulin and Judge (2003), job satisfaction includes multidimensional psychological responses to an individual's job. The affective of job satisfaction is representing an emotional feeling people have about their job. That we can check these personal responses have cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. Level job satisfaction difference to which they access the affective feelings about the job or the cognitive assessment of the job. Thus, affective job satisfaction for people reflects the degree of pleasure or happiness their job in general induces. Cognitive job satisfaction is a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction can n-dimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one facet of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction shows the extent to which those job facets are judged by the job holder be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they set or with other jobs. While cognitive job satisfaction might help to bring about affective job satisfaction and have different antecedents and consequences. Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectation can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which affect an individual's experience of work, or when you compare it to others in the organization, or your career expectations, or toward the goals you set for yourself in your present position, or their quality of working life. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan Business Research Methods 20 Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions. 2.1.3 SUPERVISORY SUPPORT Supervisor Support is developed by Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley (1990). It includes nine items. That includes career guidance, performance feedback, challenging work assignments, work opportunities that promote employee development and visibility. Supervisor Support is defined as the extent to which leaders value their employees’ contributions and care about their well-being. Some supervisors aloof and too many uncaring and you could see the effect it had on their employees. They were more unmotivated, they didn’t have as much company pride, and they seemed much more isolated from other groups A leader with high Supervisor Support is one that makes employees feel heard, valued, and cared about. It sounds simple, was it easy? That providing this kind of support is one of the hardest transitions to make when promoted from employee to supervisor. The move from “process expert” to “motivational leader” is possibly one of the largest steps one can take in his/her working life. A supervisor, spending a minute to show how you should handle this hurdle. The important is Supervisor Support for effective leadership. Because it is one of the key behaviors that effective leaders develop as soon as they move from individual contributor to manager. In fact, it leads to positive outcomes at all levels of leadership. In specific terms, organizational research has identified a myriad of positive outcomes associated with high Supervisor Support, including:  Increased organizational citizenship behaviors. Student: Pham Thi Ngoc Lan
- Xem thêm -