Factors affect taking charge at vingroup corporation

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RESEARCH PROJECT (BMBR5103) FACTORS AFFECTING TAKING CHARGE AT VINGROUP CORPORATION STUDENT’S FULL NAME STUDENT ID INTAKE ADVISOR’S NAME & TITLE : NGUYEN DINH NHU HA : CGS00018247 : MAY 2014 : NGUYEN THE KHAI (DBA) August, 2015 ADVISOR’S ASSESSMENT ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ADVISOR’S SIGNATURE NGUYEN THE KHAI (DBA) Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Truthfully speaking, I would like to acknowledge the assistance of individuals who guide and help me for completing this research. Firstly of all, I am very grateful to professor Dr. Khai Nguyen. I would like to send truthful thanks to Dr. Khai Nguyen for the patience, time, comments and support me during the research. Besides, I would like to thank to the board of managers and all employees of Vingroup Corporation for their precious comments and helps to collect data for this thesis. I also wish to give my sincerest and deepest gratitude to my family and all of my sweet friends for their encouragement, and great support. With best regards Ho Chi Minh City, August 2015 Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ............................................................................................................... page 5 Chapter 1: Introduction 1. Company Brief introduction ............................................................................ page 6 2. Organizational Structure of Vingroup ............................................................ page 10 3. Corporate Culture of Vingroup ...................................................................... page 11 4. Motivation of The Research ........................................................................... page 12 5. Research Problem Statements ........................................................................ page 13 6. Purpose of The Research ................................................................................ page 13 7. Scope of The Research ................................................................................... page 14 8. Significance of The Research ......................................................................... page 14 9. Limitation of The Research ............................................................................ page 14 Chapter II: Literature Review 1. Job Demand and Decision Latitude ............................................................... page 15 2. Supervisory Support ....................................................................................... page 16 3. Distributive and Procedural Justice ................................................................ page 17 4. Organizational Commitment .......................................................................... page 20 5. Taking Charge ................................................................................................ page 21 Chapter III: Research model and hypotheses 1. Research Model .............................................................................................. page 23 2. Hypotheses ...................................................................................................... page 24 2.1. Job characteristics .................................................................................... page 24 Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 3 2.2. Organizational Commitment .................................................................... page 26 2.3. Organizational Justice .............................................................................. page 28 2.4. Workplace Behaviors ............................................................................... page 31 3. Research Participants ..................................................................................... page 34 4. Data Collection Procedure ............................................................................. page 34 Chapter IV: Analysis and results 1. Cronbach’s Alpha ........................................................................................... page 35 2. Descriptive Statistic ....................................................................................... page 36 3. Hypothesis Testing 3.1. Hypothesis 1 Testing Results ................................................................... page 36 3.2. Hypothesis 2 Testing Results ................................................................... page 37 3.3. Hypothesis 3 Testing Results ................................................................... page 38 3.4. Hypothesis 4 Testing Results ................................................................... page 39 Chapter V: Conclusion 1. Summary of The Results ................................................................................ page 40 2. Discussion and Recommendation .................................................................. page 40 3. Limitation ....................................................................................................... page 42 References ......................................................................................................... page 43 Appendix Appendix 1: Survey Questionnaire ..................................................................... page 46 Appendix 2: Presentation Slides ......................................................................... page 51 Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 4 FIGURES AND TABLES Figures Figure 1: Vingroup’s Corporate Structure ......................................................... page 11 Figure 2: Hypothesized Research Model ........................................................... page 24 Tables Table 1: Vingroup’s Profile ................................................................................. page 9 Table 2: Data Collection Process ....................................................................... page 35 Table 3: Cronbach’s Alpha – Internal Consistency ........................................... page 36 Table 4: Cronbach’s Alpha of all Variables ....................................................... page 36 Table 5: Descriptive Statistics ............................................................................ page 37 Table 6: Model Summary (H1) .......................................................................... page 37 Table 7: Coefficients (H1) ................................................................................. page 38 Table 8: Model Summary (H2) .......................................................................... page 38 Table 9: Coefficients (H2) ................................................................................. page 38 Table 10: Model Summary (H3) ........................................................................ page 39 Table 11: Coefficients (H3) ............................................................................... page 39 Table 12: Model Summary (H4) ........................................................................ page 40 Table 13: Coefficients (H4) ............................................................................... page 40 Table 14: Summary of Hypothesis Testing Results ........................................... page 40 Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 5 ABSTRACT Factors impacting on the willingness of employees’ taking charge are considered to be very important and vital for the improvement and success of any organizations. In this study, I suppose that Job Demand and Decision Latitude, Supervisory Support, Distributive and Procedural Justice, and Organizational Commitment are significant factors that affect Vingroup’s employees’ Taking Charge. The results based on the data collected from 250 employees at Vingroup largely supported the proposed theoretical framework. The findings in this study are expected to assist Vingroup managers to have more sharpened and effective strategies for the process of developing the Group as well as improving the management of human resource. Key words: Job Demand and Decision Latitude, Supervisory Support, Distributive and Procedural Justice, Organizational Commitment, Taking Charge. Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 6 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1. Company Brief Introduction Vingroup Joint Stock Company (“Vingroup”) is a leading private economic corporation in Vietnam, engaging in the fields of tourism and high-end real estate with two strategic brands, Vinpearl and Vincom. Joining in the market in 2002, Vincom spared no efforts to become Vietnam’s premier upmarket real estate brand with a number of shopping mall, office and apartment complexes, and large-scale modern mixed-use townships, spearheading the trend of high-end ecological urban zones in Vietnam. In the current downturn economy, Vingroup’s projects still stand out from the market thanks to the Group’s commitment to progress and quality, which has established its strong brand and excellent reputation. After joining the market in 2001, Vingroup’s hospitality brand, Vinpearl, soon became the flagship of the Vietnamese tourism sector, featuring five-star and five-star plus hotel and resorts, as well as beachfront villas, amusement parks and golf courses under the Vinpearl Resort, Vinpearl Luxury and Vinpearl Villas brands. Vingroup also aims to develop ten hotel, resort and recreation complexes at the most popular tourist destinations in Vietnam over the next half-decade. In addition to the two above-mentioned strengths, Vingroup has recently begun operating top quality healthcare, and fitness and beauty care facilities under two new strategic brands, Vinmec and Vincharm. The first Vinmec International Hospital in Hanoi, featuring 600 single in-patient rooms and clinics, was officially inaugurated in January 2012. Vingroup has always played the role of the pioneer and driver of consumer trends in all its business sectors through offering top quality and five-star international standard products. Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 7 In January 2012, Vinpearl JSC was merged into Vincom JSC, marking the official operation of Vingroup Joint Stock Company, ranking among the top major companies on Vietnam’s stock market in terms of market capitalization. The new structure ensures sustained development and allows Vingroup to focus on developing its strategic brands: • Vinhomes (Luxury serviced apartments and villas) • Vincom (Premium shopping malls) • Vinpearl (Hotels & Resorts) • Vinpearl Land (Entertainment) • Vinmec (Healthcare services) • Vinschool (Education) • VinEcom (E-commerce) • Vincom Office (Offices for lease) • Vinmart (Supermarket) • Vinfashion (Fashion) • Vincharm (Fitness and beauty care) • Almaz (The International Cuisine & Convention Center) • VinPro Vingroup is also known on the international capital market as the first Vietnamese enterprise to have successfully issued international convertible bonds listed on the Singapore Exchange (SGX). By 2012, the Group had raised a total of US $400 million. Operating with four strategic brand names: Vincom, Vinpearl, Vinmec and Vincharm, owing and controlling interest in numerous high-end real estate and tourism projects, Vingroup has become one of the leading private economic groups in Vietnam, boasting Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 8 dynamic and sustainable growth as well as significant potential for integration into Asia and the world. CORPORATION’S PROFILE Corporate’s English name Vingroup Joint Stock Company No.7, Bang Lang Street, Viet Hung Ward, Long Head office Bien District, Hanoi Phone – Website +84 4 39749999 – www.vingroup.net Table 1: Vingroup’s profile Vision Guided by its pioneering aspirations as well as a sustainable investment - development strategy, Vingroup has been striving to become Vietnam’s and the regions’ leading multisectoral business group, which aims to become a Group of international stature and standards. Vingroup aspires to establish its Vietnamese brand, demonstrating Vietnamese intellectual prominence and pride in the international arena. Missions For the market: To provide premium products and services of international standards that are original, highly creative and embedded with local identities. In addition to its outstanding quality, each product - service contains a cultural message with a view to best cater for customers’ legitimate needs. For shareholders and partners: To enhance the collaborative spirit for mutual development; to strive to become “The Number 1 companion” of partners and shareholders; to generate attractive and sustainable investment values for shareholders and partners. Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 9 For employees: To develop a professional, dynamic, creative and humane working environment, enabling high income and equal development opportunities for all employees. For society: To harmonize the company’s and society’s benefits; to make active contributions to community-oriented activities, and to demonstrate citizens’ sense of responsibilities and national pride. Core values “Trust – Responsibility – Knowledge – Speed – Quality – Humanity”  Trust: to put a premium on Trust and protect Trust as protecting its pride, always be well-prepared for execution and spare no effort for honoring its commitments.  Responsibility: to take Responsibility as a foundation, to strictly observe the law and maintain ethics, to be committed to a customer-centric policy.  Knowledge: to highly value creativity as vitality and development leverage, to appreciate courage and determination, to advocate the building of a “learning business”.  Speed: to set the principle “Speed and efficiency in every activity”, to practice “quick decision – quick investment – quick execution – quick sale and quick adaptation”.  Quality: to pursue the goal of “Quality personnel, quality products/services, and quality life and quality society”.  Humanity: to develop relationships based on the spirit of humanity and treating staff as the most treasured asset, to build “mildness” based on fairness, honesty and solidarity. Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 10 2. Organizational Structure of Vingroup Figure 1: Vingroup’s corporate structure Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 11 3. Corporate Culture of Vingroup Vingroup brings together the most capable Vietnamese and international professionals who possess intellect and discipline, talent and determination, patriotism and ethnic pride, charity, good intentions and intense work ethics. Each Vingroup employee must be proactive, eager to learn, constantly strive for self-improvement and internalize the Group’s culture and its six core values as a guideline for his or her actions. Innovation must be constant and continuous to accomplish the goals of "Best People - Best Products & Services - Best Life - Best Society". With each passing day, all across Vietnam, day and night, rain or shine, projects bearing the Vingroup brand continue to rise. This non-stop effort is to ensure sustained development of the Group and bring future generations a better life. With the utmost respect for discipline, Vingroup's corporate culture - a culture of professionalism and trust is built on the six core values: "Credibility - Integrity Creativity - Speed - Quality - Humanity". The emphasis on speed, efficiency and adherence to company policies is imbued in all employee actions, creating a collective force that ensures strong success and development in all sectors in which the Group participates. The Group applies its determination and passion not only in the workplace, but also in its cultural and community activities. To promote the "Healthy Body - Happy Spirit – Nimble Mind" campaign, each Friday afternoon the company organizes a “Healthy Living Festival” where employees participate in active entertainment activities such as Flash mob dancing and intramural sports such as volleyball, soccer and tennis. To instil and reinforce the six core values, the Group holds award contests and training campaigns such as "Good People, Good Deeds", "Efficiency, Profitability" and Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 12 "12-Hour Transformation for Success". These campaigns entertain, boost morale and reinforce the core values while helping employees to change their thinking and work more efficiently with better results. For timely dissemination of corporate information as well as activities taking place across the country, an internal magazine called "The House of Vingroup" provides common space for employees to exchange ideas and to learn about and gain pride in the history of the Group. At Vingroup, each employee considers the Group a second home, a place to engage and spend the majority of each day to live and work. In any role and any position, we are proud to be a member of the Vingroup family. 4. Motivation of The Research As it is known, Vietnam is a developing country with a potential variety of businesses as well as potential competition of domestic and foreign firms. As a fact of increasing living standard, more and more organizations are taking part in the service sector. This type of sector has been merging in Vietnam recently and as it is said by World Bank that Vietnam’s service sector has emerged as the largest sector in the economy and the biggest contributor to the overall growth rate. Vingroup is one of the largest firms in Vietnam taking advantages of people’s increasing needs to expand and develop its business sectors. The success of Vingroup in service sector has been confirmed by successful projects in retailing, tourism, real estate and health care services. Without a doubt, with the fast and stable development, Vingroup can be proud to say that it has a dedicated and professional staffs. However, to effectively survive on the aggressive market, Vingroup needs to consolidate and sharpen its employees for the process of conquering the market. More specifically Vingroup needs to pay attention to factors affecting the employee’s Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 13 taking charge at work. As it is said men and woman want to do a good job, and if they are provided with proper environment, they will do so (Bill Hewlett, 2001). 5. Research Problem Statements With the stable development of Vingroup, human resources are regarded to be a valuable assets. Therefore, retaining and developing the staff is the first priority that Vingroup needs to pay attention to and try its best for the process of conquering the Vietnamese market. In the aggressive market, Vingroup is competing with large competitors not only domestic firms but also foreign competitors who have power and prestige on the market like Lotte Group, Maximark, Big C, Satramart and so on. As the result of aggressive competition in the industry, Vingroup needs a skilled and dedicated staff who are willing to adopt changes and do their bests without the orders from the Board of Directors. However, there is a fact that a number of employees working at Vingroup are tending to reject changes and not willing to complete their responsibilities for the following reasons: - They are afraid of changing their traditional working habits. - They are afraid of learning and adopting new procedures at work. - They don’t receive thoughtful cares from the Board of Directors. - Even though they work in an active and professional working environment, they are sometime unfairly treated. - Some employees aren’t willing to dedicate their skills, knowledge and physical health to the development of the Group. 6. Purpose of The Research The purpose of the study is to examine the factors like Job Demand and Decision Latitude, Supervisory Support, Distributive and Procedural Justice, and Organizational Commitment related to the willingness of employees’ Taking Charge at work. Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 14 With the findings from the study, it is expected to give empirical evidences in the aspects of how these factors impacting on the taking charge of employees and in what way the Board of Directors can help to improve these factors. Last but not least, it is expected from the study that the findings and results will help to improve policies so that employees can have more professional working environment. 7. Scope of The Research The research was conducted on 250 employees who are currently working at the Group. The questionnaires were sent to the employee in 25 days to fill in. 8. Significance of The Research The research is conducted to give the Board of Directors a deep understanding of factors impacting on the employee’s taking charge. In addition, as it is mentioned above, the research will help the Board of Directors have a clearer view of problems that are causing the employees not willing to adopt changes and dedicate to the work. 9. Limitations of The Research Conducted in three days at Vingroup with just 250 employees, the research cannot have overall and specific views of most of employees. Besides that Vingroup is operating with lots of branches all over Vietnam. Properly speaking, working condition in some areas can cause employees have different viewpoints. Unexpected limitations can cause the problems for the findings to be correct and more meaningful. These ones can be time, physical condition of employees. However, with the hope to find out the viewpoints of employees to help the Group to develop much more in the future. Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 15 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Job Demand and Decision Latitude Well-known organizational case studies have indirectly referred to the important interactive effects of job demands and job decision latitude. Whyte’s restaurant workers (1948) experienced the severest strain symptoms when they faced heavy customer demands which they were not able to control. Gouldner (1954) notes that personal and organizational tensions increase when close supervision is applied to miners under heavy workloads; and Crozier (1964) and Drabek and Hass (1969) discuss organizational strain which arises among groups of workers simultaneously facing heavy workloads and rigid rule structures of limited decision alternatives. Unfortunately, these case studies and their consistent findings have had little influence on survey analyses of mental strain among large group of working individuals. Research traditions have emerged to deal with the psychosocial effects of work environments. One tradition focuses on job decision latitude (decision authority or skill level), the other treats “stressors” on the job. Most of the vast literature on job satisfaction and mental strain focuses primarily on job decision latitude (for example, Kornhauser, 1965; even Hackman and Lawler, see p.290), while the “life stress” tradition of epidemiological studies of mental health (for example, Holmes and Rahe, 1967; Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend, 1974) focuses on the illnesses induced by environmental stressors or job stressors along (for example, Sundbom, 1971; Caplan et al., 1976; Theorell, 1976). Unfortunately, job decision latitude research rarely includes systematic discussion of job demand and the job demand literature rarely includes systematic discussion of decision latitude (Karasek, 1978a). Karasek (1979) defined “decision latitude” as “the working individual’s potential control over his tasks and his conduct during the working day” (pp.289-290). This factor has frequently been shown to influence aspects of employee well-being and physical health; for example, reviews by Ganster and Fusilier (1989). Parkes (1989), and Warr Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 16 (1987), Karasek also drew attention to the importance of job demands, these being defined as “psychological stressors involved in accomplishing the work load” (p.291). He demonstrated through secondary analyses of data from the USA and Sweden that variables such as job satisfaction, exhaustion, and depression could be predicted from the combination of these two job characteristics. Specifically, he found that employee in jobs perceived to have both low decision latitude and high job demands were particularly likely to report low well-being. 2. Supervisory Support Supervisory support is often defined as the extent to which supervisors encourage employees to attend training and apply the training on the job (Facteau et al., 1995; Switzer, Nagy & Mullins, 2005). The burgeoning literature suggests that support emanating from the supervisors play an important function in promoting transfer of training (Baldwin & Ford, 1988; Elangovan & Karakowsky, 1999; Nikandrou, Brinia & Bereri, 2009). Colquitt et al. (2000), in their quantitative review on factors affecting training motivation and transfer outcomes based upon 106 articles published since 1975, found similar result. They posited that the extent to which supervisors provided sufficient support had robustly correlated with the employees’ ability to transfer what they learned on the job. The meta-analytic study was fully supported by other comprehensive reviews of training transfer literature (e.g., Elangovan & Karakowsky, 1999; Cheng & Ho, 2001; Merriam & Leahy, 2005; Burke & Hutchins, 2007). Many researches have scrutinized the importance of supervisor support and found that employees also expect supervisors to be caring and supportive (Eisenberger et al., 2002; Kottke and Sharafinski, 1988). Griffton et al., (2001) found that supervisor’s support have strong relationship with job satisfaction and Ogilvie (1986) confirmed that supervisors’ actions directly impact the commitment of employees. Armstrong-Stassen (1998) proved that organizational support has more impact on organizational Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 17 commitment. Hutchison, (1997) concluded that although both organizational support and supervisor support have positive effect on organizational commitment, organizational support will help employees more. Also, Xiao (1996) conducted a quantitative study on transfer of training based on a sample of 1023 women employees working in four electronic manufacturing companies located at Shenzhen, China. Through the analysis of survey results, the researcher discovered that support from supervisors was the most influential factor that correlated with transfer of training. Janssen (2003) found evidence that employees responded more innovatively to higher levels of job demands when they perceived that their efforts were fairly rewarded by their supervisor. Oldham and Cummings (1996) found that supportive, noncontrolling supervisors created a work environment that fostered creativity. Open interactions with supervisors and the receipt of encouragement and support lead to enhanced employee creativity (Tierney, Farmer, and Graen 1999). 3. Distributive and Procedural Justice Distributive justice was found to be a more important predictor of two personal outcomes, pay satisfaction and job satisfaction, than procedural justice, whereas the reverse was true for two organizational outcomes-organizational commitment and subordinate’s evaluation of supervisor. However, procedural and distributive justice also interacted in predicting organizational outcomes. We discuss limitations of this study and directions for future research. Folger and Konovsky captured the key distinction regarding justice in work organizations, noting that “distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of the amounts of compensation employees receive; procedural justice refers to the perceived fairness of the means used to determine those amounts” (1989: 115). However, few studies have examined how both distributive and procedural justice affect outcomes (e.g., Folger & Konovsky, 1989; Greenberg, 1987a; Konovsky, Folger, & Cropanzano, Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 18 1987). In addition, most research has focused on legal rather than work-related issues. For example, Greenberg and Folger (1983) showed that defendants viewed trial verdicts (distributions) positively if they were seen as the result of fair procedures, an effect called the “fair process effect” (cf. Musante, Gilbert, & Thibaut, 1983). Folger and Konovsky pointed out that this research has suggested different predictive roles for procedural and distributive justice. In particular, studies have found distributive justice to predict satisfaction with specific, personal outcomes, like case verdicts, better than procedural justice. The reverse is true, however, when people make more general evaluations of, for instance, legal institutions or their representatives (Lind & Tyler, 1988). In fact, the few studies that have been done in organizational settings have tended to support the notion that the predictive roles of procedural and distributive justice depend, at least in part, on the nature of the outcome in question. For example, Alexander and Ruderman (1987) found procedural justice accounted for more variance in management evaluations, job satisfaction, and perceived conflict than distributive justice. Konovsky and colleagues (1987) found that procedural justice predicted organizational commitment, but not pay satisfaction, whereas the reverse was true for distributive justice. Similarly, Folger and Konovsky (1989) found that procedural justice accounted for more variance in organizational commitment and trust in a supervisor than distributive justice, whereas the reverse was true for satisfaction with a pay raise. An allocation process consists of a distribution (an outcome) and a procedure, i.e., a set of rules that the allocator may apply when deciding the manner in which the outcome should be accomplished (Thibaut and Walker, 1975). The introduction of procedural fairness initiated a considerable amount of research in which the combined effects of distributive and procedural fairness were investigated. The main question was how distributive and procedural justice interacted to form justice judgments. It was assumed that people are motivated to attain fair outcomes, and some research was directed towards answering the question how procedural fairness might increase or Research Project - Student: Nguyễn Đình Như Hà 19
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