Factors afecting couple's decision amking in comtemporary wedding event decoration

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UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY International School of Business ------------------------------ Dinh Thi To Nhu FACTORS AFFECTING COUPLE’S DECISION MAKING IN CONTEMPORARY WEDDING EVENT DECORATION: FAMILY INFLUENCE, SOCIAL STATUS, AND PERSONAL VALUES MASTER OF BUSINESS (Honours) Ho Chi Minh City – Year 2014 UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY International School of Business ------------------------------ Dinh Thi To Nhu FACTORS AFFECTING COUPLE’S DECISION MAKING IN CONTEMPORARY WEDDING EVENT DECORATION: FAMILY INFLUENCE, SOCIAL STATUS, AND PERSONAL VALUES ID: 22110040 MASTER OF BUSINESS (Honours) SUPERVISOR: Dr. VO THI NGOC THUY Ho Chi Minh City – Year 2014 i Tables of Content Chapter 1: Introduction ........................................................................... 1 1.1 Research background ............................................................................ 1 1.2 Research objectives .............................................................................. 3 1.3 Scope of the study and methodology .................................................... 4 1.4 Research contribution ........................................................................... 4 1.5 Research structure ................................................................................ 5 Chapter 2: Literature review .................................................................. 7 2.1 Concept of contemporary wedding and wedding event decoration ..... 7 2.1.1 A contemporary wedding .................................................................. 7 2.1.2 Wedding event decoration ................................................................. 8 2.2 Definition of Consumer behavior and theories of factors affecting consumer purchasing decision .................................................... 8 2.3 Previous researches about factors affecting couple’s decision making and identifying hypotheses in this study ....................................... 10 2.3.1 Family influence ................................................................................ 11 2.3.2 Social status ....................................................................................... 15 2.3.3 Personal values .................................................................................. 16 Chapter 3: Research Methodology ......................................................... 21 3.1 Research process .................................................................................. 21 3.2 Research design .................................................................................... 22 3.3 Measurement scales .............................................................................. 23 3.4 Quatitative pilot research and results ................................................... 25 Chapter 4: Data Analysis ......................................................................... 29 4.1 Descriptive statistic of sample .............................................................. 29 4.2 Adjustment of hypotheses and research model .................................... 37 ii 4.3 Testing of normal distribution .............................................................. 38 4.4 Regression analysis .............................................................................. 39 4.5 Findings ................................................................................................ 42 Chapter 5: General conclusion ................................................................ 46 5.1 Contributions of research ..................................................................... 46 5.1.1 Theoretical contributions ................................................................... 46 5.1.2 Managerial implications .................................................................... 47 5.2 Limitations and further researches ....................................................... 48 5.3 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 49 References Appendix iii List of Figures and Charts Figure 2.1 Conceptual model: Factors affecting couple’s decision making in contemporary wedding event decoration: Family influence, social status and personal values ................................................................ 19 Figure 4.1: Adjustment model of the research ........................................... 37 Chart 3.1 Research process ......................................................................... 21 iv List of Tables Table 2.1 Theories of factors affecting consumer purchasing decision ..... 10 Table 2.2 Variables and previous researches ............................................. 11 Table 3.1 Cronbach alpha result of pilot test .............................................. 26 Table 3.2 KMO and Bartlett's Test result of pilot test ................................ 26 Table 3.3 Pattern Matrix result of pilot test ................................................ 27 Table 4.1 Demographic statistics result ...................................................... 30 Table 4.2 Cronbach’s Alpha result of all variables .................................... 32 Table 4.3 KMO and Bartlett's Test result of independent variables .......... 33 Table 4.4 Pattern Matrix of items ............................................................... 34 Table 4.5 KMO and Bartlett's Test result of Dependent variable .............. 36 Table 4.6: Pearson Correlation Coefficient result ...................................... 39 Table 4.7 Regression Analysis and Anova’s test Result ............................ 41 Table 4.8: Hypothesis testing ..................................................................... 44 Abstract Many recent years, Vietnamese young couples tend to organize their wedding event including many items of decoration such as photo booth, gallery table, aisle décor, stage backdrop, guest tables’ decoration and lighting system. This absolutely generate more expense for their wedding; however they still determine to use the service. So, what factors really affect consumption in wedding reception decoration? The aim of this thesis is to investigate and identify the real impacts on couple’s decision making in contemporary wedding event decoration, and to provide practical contributions for all suppliers of this field in Ho Chi Minh City for the next years. This study was conducted in from September 2013 to April 2014 in inner areas of the city. 135 couples who have just married within three years that used wedding event decoration served as subjects in a study designed to investigate. All responses of the questionnaires were made on a 5-point Likert scale with the five elements that required investigating, including family relations, wife/husband attitudes, social status, conformity and the need of uniqueness. The results reveal that social status is the most important impact on the decision making of couples to use the wedding event decoration. In addition, the communication of family members with couples makes a strong effect on their final decision. Factors of conformity, the need of uniqueness and wife/husband attitudes also effect on couple’s decision making. Keywords: couple’s decision making, family relations, husband/wife attitudes, social status, conformity, need of uniqueness, wedding event decoration, Ho Chi Minh City 1 Chapter 1: Introduction This chapter is a beginning of the thesis that includes five sections. The research background is firstly presented. Then, the research objectives of the thesis are discussed. The chapter also introduces the contribution and scope of the study. Finally, the research structure is presented. 1.1 Research background Gidoni (2000) states that a contemporary Japanese wedding consists of traditional customs and Western-style ceremony because of economic motivations. Similarly, a contemporary Vietnamese wedding combine the two parts. After wearing traditional outfits to join in a traditional wedding ceremony with a list of rituals, bride and groom are ready to change their custom to Western style ones to celebrate their wedding event with their friends, colleagues and relatives in a public institution. In this event, many items of a Western-style wedding can be applied such as white wedding gown, wedding cake, champagne fountain, dancing performance (Nguyen & Belk, 2012) and decoration. Because of generating many things for a wedding event, budget for a contemporary wedding is certainly higher than in the past. According to a report of Home Credit group, an average of wedding budget of a couple is around VND100 million for 300 guests (Le, 2013). Wedding industry is more attractive for investors such as wedding event and convention, photography, wedding dress and make up, and decoration. A report of Doanh Nhan Sai Gon (2013) provides information of VND ten thousand billion of profit in wedding event and convention field, an increase of 15% compared to the last year. More and more wedding dress stores and studios have opened with many updated-Western styles in their showrooms. Particularly, in ten 2 recent years, wedding decoration field have developed very fast with many big suppliers like Vietnam Wedding Planner, Bliss, Confetti, V-Party, Hajime, Marry Me, Lemon Tree, Cleo, and so on. Most of the decoration styles currently tend to follow Western wedding concept from photo booth, gallery table to the stage backdrop with many candles, fresh flowers, glasses and crystals. A couple easily search on the Internet through Google or Bing to find out the common style of wedding event decoration and choose one supplier to make it on their wedding day. Couples recently express their interesting on decoration in wedding event in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) for a more pleasure and memorable wedding, as the author observed through the Internet, online newspapers and social media and the real experience of communications between the author and friends who have just married. However, wedding event decoration surely generates an amount of budget that leads to find hard for them to determine to consume the service. The number can increase to 10% of intend budget for a wedding (Le, 2013). So, what factors really affect consumption in wedding event decoration? A recent research of Nguyen & Belk (2012) mentions about the changes of wedding consumption in Vietnam after Doi Moi from some aspects such as social values, social relations, and gender roles. Especially, in the research, they state that filial piety is still one of the most important fundamental values of Vietnamese kinship. That can affect wedding consumption because couples respect opinions of their elder members in the family. In addition, as a study of Cotte and Wood (2004), “family socialization is a rich field in consumer behavior” (p.78). The research of Nguyen & Belk (2012) also points out the social status element in wedding consumption when young couples include Western wedding concept into their weddings to show the social status or family status by spending some luxury services. Another research shows that couples 3 focus on their wedding as a performance day of their status, society level or the wealth instead of happiness of the day they can share their lives together (Adrian, 2003). According to the research of Nguyen & Belk (2012), values also make an effect on wedding consumption because of the importance and unique of a wedding as Vietnamese rituals. Clawson and Vinson (1977) suggest that personal value is considered as one of the strongest impacts on consumer behavior. Particularly, Partner (2001) states about a vital role of lifestyle in a special event such as weddings. These results of researches which were conducted in many countries as well as in Vietnam found out factors affecting to consumer decision making in general. Many weddings recently have been included decoration that opens opportunities for event decoration suppliers to provide many services in Ho Chi Minh City. This study raises research objectives about exploring the real factors affecting on final decision making of couples that can create more suitable services to save time of consultancy and persuasion to improve competitive advantage in market. 1.2 Research objectives Because consumer behavior is a rich field that need to be explored, many researches were conducted to find out the factors that affecting consumer behavior decision making. These researches help managers, businesses can understand thoroughly about the customer insight and offer the best products and services for them. Thus, based on the literature review of consumer behavior and affecting of some factors, and especially in the context of wedding event decoration in Ho Chi Minh city, the study aims:  To propose a model that predicting some factors affecting wedding event decoration in Ho Chi Minh city 4  To explore the real impacts on couple’s decision making in contemporary wedding event decoration  To evaluate how each factor affects to couple’s decision making The author would like to provide the findings for wedding decoration suppliers in Ho Chi Minh City to understand more about their customers and the problems in the competitive market, then constantly design a suitable service for couples to save time and expense. 1.3 Scope of the study and methodology The data collecting will be divided into two parts including pilot test and main test. The pilot test is conducted with 20 respondents to pre-test how they understand the variables and questionnaire. The main test is then conducted with 135 respondents. This research will be conducted in inner areas of Ho Chi Minh City, included District 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, Tan Binh, Phu Nhuan, Go Vap, and Binh Thanh. The interviewees will be couples that have just married within three years that used wedding event decoration. The purpose of the research is to examine the conceptual model. The measurement scales are estimated using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to test the reliability and validity. The multiple regressions in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 would be conducted to evaluate correlation between dependent and independent variables. 1.4 Research contribution The research is intended to contribute twofold contribution including theoretical contributions and managerial implications. The research is expected to reach new 5 aspects of influent factors on consumption of wedding event decoration based on the previous researches and provide some managerial implications for businesses in this field in Ho Chi Minh City. First, the research will apply the knowledge of Kotler and Armstrong (2011) of factors affecting consumer purchasing decision to new product, a wedding event decoration by performing family influence, social status and personal values and how much they affecting. Although many international researchers expressed their interests in these factors affecting on wedding consumption; however, they have not examined thoroughly the effects of three factors that mentioned above to couple’s decision making on wedding event decoration. In Vietnam several researches also were conducted with social status, social relations and gender roles factors (Nguyen & Belk, 2012) to analyze their impacts on wedding consumption. Therefore, this study has been quite new to contribute the way of measuring factors affecting to using wedding event decoration in Vietnam, particularly in Ho Chi Minh city, especially examine deeply about influence of family influence and social status on couple’s decision, and explore new aspect of personal values that adopted by from global researches. Second, the research can help wedding event decoration companies understanding about real factors can affect directly to final decision of couples. Based on customer insight, they can offer them more flexible and diversified services to choose and determine, save time and budget for a pleasure wedding as customers could wish. In addition, through this study, marketing managers of wedding services can create more interesting and attractive marketing campaign to reach more customers in the competitive market. 1.5 Research structure This study includes five chapters that listed as below, 6 Chapter 1 – Introduction: This chapter is a beginning of the thesis that includes five sections. The research background is firstly presented. Then, the research objectives of the thesis are discussed. The chapter also introduces the contribution and scope of the study. Finally, the research structure is presented. Chapter 2 – Literature review and hypothesis development: This chapter includes a concept of a contemporary wedding and wedding event decoration, theories of consumer decision making and consumer, the model of process of making decision and some relevant researches and identifying significant factors affecting to final decision making of couples as well as the conceptual model and its hypothesis. Chapter 3 – Research methodology: This chapter consists four sections. First, research process is presented for clear steps to follow in the study. Next, the research design is discussed and measurement scales are listed as adopting from previous researchers. Final, the chapter includes the pilot test and results to support for measurement scales. Chapter 4 – Data analysis: This chapter describes how each measurement scale was evaluated and the result of testing hypothesis, including sample description, measurement scale data analysis, and regression analysis. The findings are next discussed. Chapter 5 – General conclusion: This chapter presents the theoretical contributions and managerial implications of the research, the limitations, some directions for further research and conclusion. 7 Chapter 2: Literature review This chapter includes a concept of a contemporary wedding and wedding event decoration, theories of consumer decision making and consumer, the model of process of making decision and some relevant researches and identifying significant factors affecting to final decision making of couples as well as the conceptual model and its hypothesis. 2.1 Concept of contemporary wedding and wedding event decoration 2.1.1 A contemporary wedding Leeds (2002) defines that a wedding marks a happy ending of a romantic love of two persons, who want to share their life together. In this event, couples also make their commitments and devotion in front of their families, relatives and friends. In Vietnam, a wedding is certainly considered as one of the most important ceremonies. Based on traditional rituals, cultural values and family perspective, a wedding generates many stages for both bride and groom to prepare and implement for a long time (Nguyen & Belk, 2012). There are a variety of things to determine to purchase or rent for a wedding with a big intended budget for the two families of bride and groom as the Vietnamese culture. In addition, a contemporary wedding is organized more complicated than in the past because of enculturation of Western wedding style in the two biggest cities of Vietnam, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city. In the transition period to modernization economy, Vietnamese wedding day is influenced by the global flow consumer goods such as wedding gowns, wedding cakes, fresh flower decoration, photographs and so on (Nguyen & Belk, 2012). When media, the Internet and social website are improved and popularized, information about 8 lavish wedding are updated through movies, bridal magazines, celebrity weddings, and advertising, Vietnamese brides dream about a fantastic wedding ceremony. Thus, wedding event decoration is focused on and developed extremely fast in recent years that followed the Western-style wedding. 2.1.2 Wedding event decoration A contemporary wedding including event decoration can create a romantic, or interesting, or artistic atmosphere for guests’ feeling (Ying, Di & Mahui, 2012). In this study, wedding event decoration is a term of making photo booth, gallery table, aisle and stage backdrop decoration, guest table’s decoration and lighting system in the hall of wedding event, that based on what wedding service suppliers in Ho Chi Minh city and Hanoi are offering for young couples. 2.2 Definition of Consumer behavior and theories of factors affecting consumer purchasing decision According to Schiffman and Kanuk (2007), consumer behavior is the behavior that consumers find ways to search for, purchase, use, evaluate and transfer products or services can satisfy their needs and expectation. Among four types of goods including consumable goods, durable goods, specialty goods and industrial goods, wedding is considered as a special service package because of its ritual characteristics and a kind of nondurable goods (Hai, Krueger & Postlewaite, 2013). A wedding can be organized just a time in couple’ lifetime, so it needs to be consumed a huge budget for many things of preparation to have perfection, impression or celebrity-like event (Daniels & Loves, 2007). Especially, brides tend to spend for a dream wedding because of affecting by their children fairy stories or they can spend more intend budget than they could afford if having much pressure from their family or their reference group, shared by Daniels & Loves (2007). 9 People make decisions every day to consume goods or services to satisfy their needs. Based on the theory about “what they buy”, “where they buy”, “how much they buy”, “when they buy”, and “why they buy”, suppliers can find out their characteristics of consumer buying decisions. However, the reason why consumers choose to buy a product or use a kind of service is relatively difficult (Kotler & Armstrong, 2011). Kotler and Armstrong (2011) also said that consumers do not realize an exact reason for their buying and how much factors affecting on their choice. The theory proposed by Philip Kotler in his book “A Principle of Marketing” in 2011 presses the four strong factors affecting consumer purchasing decision making including cultural factors, social factors, personal factors and psychological characteristics (see more in Appendix). The implication from this theory is useful for marketers to understand why consumers would like to purchase their products or services, especially pay attention about many levels of factors from broad cultural and social influences to motivation, beliefs, and attitudes of a person, but cannot control these elements. In social factors, it includes family, reference groups, and roles and status for the impacts on consumer behavior. Cultural factors consist of culture, sub culture, and social status. Personal factors include age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, personality and self-concept. Motivation, perception, learning and beliefs and attitudes are elements of psychological characteristics. 10 In addition, there are some theories are proposed as table below: Table 2.1 Theories of factors affecting consumer purchasing decision Authors Stanton Factors Year of study Attitudinal factors, Physical factors, 1997 Social factors Lancaster and Reynold Physical factors, Social factors and 1999 Cultural factors Straughan and Roberts Life Style and Demographic factors 1999 Pride and Ferrell Physical factors, Social factors and 2000 Attitudinal factors Kotler and Armstrong Physical, Social, Cultural factor and 2007 Personal factors Fatimah Furaiji, Cultural factors, Social factors, Malgorzata Personal factors, Physical factors and Latuszynska, Agata Marketing mix 2012 Wawrzyniak 2.3 Previous researches about factors affecting couple’s decision making and identifying hypotheses in this study These theories above were applied in afterwards researches to find out main factors affecting to consumer buying decision in each specific situation and field. In general and wedding consumption segment, there are three factors were applied many times to conduct the researches. Based on these elements, hypotheses will be built in order to clarify and evaluate their effect levels in couple’s decision making in wedding event decoration in Ho Chi Minh city context. 11 Table 2.2 Variables and previous researches No. Variables Authors Childers & Rao, 1992; Cotte & Wood, 2004; Heckler, Childers & Arunachalam, 1989; Pimpa, 1 Family influence 2009; Jung & Kau, 2004; Grusec, 2008; Su, Zhou, Zhou & Li, 2008; Baber & Axxin, 1998; Nguyen & Belk, 2012. Kamolwan & Wiwatchai, 2010; Daniels & Loves, 2 Social status 2007; Adrian, 2003; Nguyen & Belk, 2012. Caprara et al., 2006; Kamolwan & Wiwatchai, 2010; Weidmann, Hennigs & Siebels, 2007; Wong 3 Personal values & Ahuvia, 1998; Ghazzai & Lahmandi-Ayed, 2009; Tian, Bearden & Hunter, 2001; Nguyen & Belk, 2012. 2.3.1 Family influence Family influence is one of the most important factors to consumer buying decision (Childers & Rao, 1992; Cotte & Wood, 2002; Kotler & Armstrong, 2011). According to Heckler, Childers and Arunachalam (as cited in Childers & Rao, 1992), family members can affect “norms, attitudes, and values” of consumers (p.199). In addition, consumers can be transmitted buying characteristics, manners and preferences of brand to from their parents (Cotte & Wood, 2002). Moore and her colleagues mention that family influence is “the within family transmission of information, beliefs, and resources from one generation to the next” (Moore et al. 2002, p.17). Kotler and Armstrong (2011) mentions that roles of purchasing, between wife and husband change with evolving of separate consumer lifestyles. There are two aspects of family 12 influence including family relations and husband/wife attitudes that need to be examined in this study.  Family relations In the relation of family, parents play an important role to individuals’ decision making through communication, interaction, and financial aid (Pimpa, 2009). Carlson and Grossbart (1988) also state that family influence become strongly affecting is a result of how they communicate or interact based on their relation. Moreover, if consumers depend on finance of their parents for purchasing new product can be more pressure to decide what they really want (Jung & Kau, 2004). The attitudes of parents are also examined to make an effect on consumer behavior as Grusec (2008) proposes that : the attitudes most frequently considered have to do with the degree of warmth and acceptance or coldness and rejection that exists in the parent-child relationship, as well as the extent to which parents are permissive or restrictive in the limits they set for their offspring (p.1). Nguyen and Belk (2012) also suppose that in Vietnamese culture, parents have responsibility of giving birth to children, bringing up them, support them to get married and continuing to take care of their children. Therefore, the relations of parents and their children are very close and can affect much on a child’s decision making, especially a special goods like a wedding, one of the most important event of a couple as well as their families. Before Doi Moi, parents’ relation with their children is just one way in decision of purchasing a product. However, there are many changes in Vietnamese wedding within ten recent years. Accordingly, Nguyen and Belk (2012) conclude couples often tend to communicate much with their parents and elder family members to make decision 13 for their wedding consumption. Some of couples find good jobs and earn much money than their parents can afford for their wedding, even adding luxury services are less affected by their parents. As the research of Nguyen & Belk (2012), in some circumstances, Vietnamese young people who do not depend on their parents’ finance, can have more freedom in making decision to purchase goods. However, they still would like to share their opinions with their parents and listen to them because of filial piety. Especially, some couples are still follow opinions of their parents because of their finance support. According to a survey of Home Credit Group, total budget of a Vietnamese wedding is estimated to spend about a hundred million VND for 300 wedding guests at a normal wedding restaurant. About 71% of wedding events are subsidized by parents of couple, thus their roles of determination is, of course, more powerful (Le, 2013). Based on these theories and afterward researches, the author proposes a hypothesis: H1: There will be a positive influence of family relation on couple’s decision making in wedding event decoration.  Wife/husband attitude In this study, because of wedding is a special goods for a couple, so final decision is made based on joining of both, wife and husband. Because of its characteristics of selling to couples, maintaining harmony and mutual support are important to make decision for purchase (Mitchel, as cited in Su, Zhou, Zhou & Li, 2007). In this situation, it is important and necessary to find out if there is an impact of wife/husband attitude to couple’s decision making in wedding event decoration. Wife/husband attitude is a term of concerning how they face with conflicts, solve problems and reach the result of purchase or not (Kim & Lee, 1996; Park, 1982;
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