Enhancing the effects of english teaching by classroom eye contact at dong thap university

  • Số trang: 73 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 12 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
nhattuvisu

Đã đăng 26946 tài liệu

Mô tả:

i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I certify that the work presented in this research report has been performed and interpreted solely by myself. I confirm that this work is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the B.A Degree and has not been submitted elsewhere in any other form for the fulfillment of any other degree or qualification. Dong Thap, April 2012 Nguyen Cong Danh ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During the process of carrying out the study, I have received a large amount of contribution and support from many people. First, I would like to send my wholehearted thanks to Dean and all the lectures of the Foreign Languages Department of Dong Thap University who gave me a chance to study the thesis. Second, I would like to express my greatest and sincerest appreciation to Mr. Nguyen Van Tam, M.A, my supervisor, for his precious pieces of advice, guidance, and support inn the pursuance of this study. Finally yet importantly, I am grateful to Mr. Pham Van Tac and Ms. Tran Thi Hien who did allow me to carry out my observation and to other teachers of English and all the students in the Department of Foreign Languages for what they have done to help me finish the study. iii ABSTRACT The study is conducted to investigate what is the reality of using classroom eye contact in English teaching and to raise students‘ awareness of the importance of nonverbal language, especially eye contact. The questionnaire for teachers and for students was delivered to seek essential information about the current use of classroom eye contact and the teachers of English and students‘ attitudes toward the technique. The observation was also later carried out at two classes to collect relevant data. Then the data obtained from the above tools was analyzed including table charts, pie charts and discussions. The results show that most of the teachers of English have awareness to use classroom eye contact and the students seem to be more excited joining the teachers‘ activities. Some other teachers, however, have failed to bring eye contact to play in class and to combine the speaking technique with other nonverbal means. In brief, the data gained from the students and the teachers‘ answers as well as the observation sheets confirmed that classroom eye contact brings great advantages to classroom management and motivate students‘ participation. iv TABLE OF CONTENT STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP ....................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................. ii ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... iii TABLE OF CONTENT ....................................................................................... iv INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1 1. Motivation of the study ................................................................................ 1 2. Aims of the study ......................................................................................... 2 3. Research methods ........................................................................................ 2 4. Scope of the study ........................................................................................ 3 5. Significance of the study .............................................................................. 3 6. Related previous studies .............................................................................. 3 7. Organization of the thesis ............................................................................ 3 CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................. 5 1.1 Nonverbal communication........................................................................ 5 1.1.1 Definition of nonverbal communication ................................................... 5 1.1. 2 The importance of nonverbal communication to language learners ........... 5 1.1.3 Components of nonverbal communication ............................................... 7 1.2 Eye contact communication ................................................................... 21 1.2.1 Definition of eye contact communication ........................................... 21 1.2.2 The importance of classroom eye contact ........................................... 22 1.2.3 Expressions of eye contact in teaching ............................................... 24 CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY ...................................................................... 26 v 2.1 Research questions ..................................................................................... 26 2.2 Research participants ................................................................................. 26 2.2.1 The researcher ........................................................................................ 26 2.2.2 The subjects ........................................................................................... 26 2.3 Research procedure and data collection.................................................... 26 2.3.1 Classroom observation ........................................................................... 26 2.3.2 Questionnaire ......................................................................................... 27 CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ................................................ 30 3.1 Results ......................................................................................................... 30 3.1.1 The observation sheets ........................................................................... 30 3.1.2 The questionnaires for students .............................................................. 35 3.1.3 The questionnaires for teachers .............................................................. 47 3.2 Discussions .................................................................................................. 56 3.2.1 Research question 1................................................................................ 56 3.2.2 Research question 2................................................................................ 56 3.2.3 Recommendations .................................................................................. 57 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................... 59 1. Overview of the thesis ................................................................................ 59 2. Limitations of the thesis ............................................................................ 59 3. Suggestions for further research ............................................................... 60 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... v APPENDIX 1 ....................................................................................................... vii APPENDIX 2 ........................................................................................................ ix OBSERVATION SHEET.................................................................................... xii 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Motivation of the study In the globalization, English is considered to be an international language to functionate communication as well as transform information and events. It is the fourth most widely spoken native language in the world and in terms of accurate number of speakers, it is the most official language in the world. Teaching and learning English, therefore, becomes a need of society. The fact is that even though all skills are equally important, people give different favor for different skills among the four ones: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Speaking skill is given more concern as we have to communicate with people in person at our job and in our normal life. Communication is regarded as the foundation of successful relationships both personally and professionally. As Liz & John Soars (1997) “We are great communicators”. We, human beings, communicate during our whole life for our own purpose. A child cries (communicates) to his parents as he needs changing his diaper or feeding. Family members communicate for help and emotional support and to maintain a good family relationship. At work, people communicate for the purpose of exchanging ideas, negotiating… We now are able to come to a conclusion that communication is very important in our lives, as Hybels (1992:5) claims ―Communication, then, is vital to our lives. To live is to communicate.‖ We, however, communicate much more than words. In the process of communication, people do not only send verbal messages but nonverbal ones as well. Nonverbal communication is understood as a way of communicating without the use of written or spoken language. People believe that the most effective way to communicate is verbal. However, nonverbal communication is still there even when people do not say a word. There is unexpectedly a sad fact that although important, most 2 teachers of English and even language learners, especially those major in English teaching do not always care much for this silent language. In this aspect, eye contact seems to be skipped most. We all know that eye contact is an especially important type of nonverbal communication since the visual sense is dominant for most people. The way we look at someone can communicate many things, including interest, affection, hostility, or attraction. Moreover, it is believed to be better to control a class, check students‘ understanding, etc. if teachers use eye contact in their classes. Most teachers, however, do not often care to use eye contact. Teachers, traditionally, just try to talk, explain, and ask questions, etc. in such a way that they even do not use any eye contact at their students to know whether they understand. This makes classes uncontrolled. Hence, by a lack of eye contact, classes gradually become less effective and students tent to be inattentive. This is seen as a signal of a failed class hour. It is, therefore, indispensable for teachers to prepare, use and teach with eye contact in class. For the sake of this, as an English major student, the researcher decided to do the study entitled ―Enhancing the effects of English teaching by classroom eye contact at Dong Thap University”. 2. Aims of the study The study aims to: - investigate what is the reality of using eye contact in English teaching at Dong Thap University; - raise the awareness of the importance of using nonverbal communication, especially eye contact in teaching English. - give suggestions for improvement. 3. Research methods In the process of doing the study, two research methods will be used to 3 collect relevant data are observation and questionnaires. First, the researcher will observe two classes to know how teachers use their classroom eye contact and its effects. Then questionnaires are employed to investigate the reality of the use of classroom eye contact in English teaching. 4. Scope of the study The scope of the study is about enhancing the effects of English teaching by using eye contact at Dong Thap University. 5. Significance of the study The findings of the study are expected to make a significant contribution to English teaching. Through the study, teachers may pay more attention to the use of eye contact and apply them more frequently in teaching. Besides, with the suggestions given, teachers may become more successful in controlling their classes with a new way ever by silent language. Additionally, the study is believed to be able to raise English majoring students‘ awareness of using eye contact in their future teaching. In short, no matter how the findings are, the study is hoped to bring certain benefits to students, teachers, and researchers. 6. Related previous studies 7. Organization of the thesis Introduction Chapter 1: Literature Review 1.1 Nonverbal communication 1.1.1 Definition of nonverbal communication 1.1.2 The importance of nonverbal communication to language learners 1.1.3 Components of nonverbal communication 1.2 1.2.1 Eye contact communication Definition of eye contact communication 4 1.2.2 The importance of classroom eye contact 1.2.3 Expressions of eye contact in teaching Chapter 2: Methodology 2.1 Research questions 2.2 Research participants 2.2.1 The researcher 2.2.2 The subject(s) 2.3 Research procedure and data collection 2.3.1 Classroom observation 2.3.2 Questionnaire Chapter 3: Results and Discussions 3.1 Results 3.1.1 The observation sheets 3.1.2 The questionnaires for students 3.1.3 The questionnaires for teachers 3.2 Discussions 3.2.1 Research question 1 3.2.2 Research question 2 3.2.3 Recommendations Conclusion References Appendix 5 CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Nonverbal communication 1.1.1 Definition of nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture. Speech may also contain nonverbal elements such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons. 1.1.2 The importance of nonverbal communication to language learners The silent language also aims to send messages to receivers by its own means. Nonverbal messages may communicate the exact same meanings as verbal messages. The same purposes that were identified for communication in general are served by nonverbal signals as well. People should take into consideration the following advantages of communicating nonverbally. First, nonverbal messages help us to discover to learn, to acquire information about the world and about other people. Nonverbal messages the smile, the focused eye contact, the leaning forward, and of course, the kiss also helps us to establish and maintain relationships. We signal that we like another person first through nonverbal signals; then, usually at least, we follow up with verbal messages. At the same time, of course, our nonverbal messages can help destroy and dissolve interpersonal relationships. When we avoid eye contact and touching, when we frown more than smile, and when our voice is without warmth, we are using nonverbal signals to distance ourselves from the other people. We can also use nonverbal messages to help. 6 According to Joseph A. DeVito (2002), gently touching an ill person‘s face, hugging someone who is in pain, or helping an old person walk are common examples. We use nonverbal messages to persuade; for example, when our posture and clothing communicate our self-confidence, when our steady gaze communicates assurance that we are right, or when our facial expression communicates that the advertised product tastes great. Nonverbal messages may also be used to play. Much of nonverbal communication, however, occurs in combination with verbal messages and serves a metacommunication function. That is, nonverbal messages often comment on or communicate something about other messages (often-verbal messages). Six general ways in which nonverbal communication blends with verbal communication have been identified and will illustrate the wide variety of metacommunication functions that nonverbal messages may serve (Knapp & Hall,1997). Nonverbal messages are often used to accent or emphasize some part of the verbal message. We might, for example, raise our voice to underscore a particular word or phrase, beat our fist on the desk to stress our commitment, or look thoughtfully into someone‘s eyes when saying, ―I love you.‖ We use nonverbal communication to complement, to add nuances of meaning not communicated by our verbal message. Thus, we might smile when telling a story (to suggest that we find it humorous) or frown and shake our head when describing someone‘s dishonesty (to suggest our disapproval). We may deliberately contradict our verbal messages with nonverbal movements, for example, by crossing our fingers or winking to indicate that we are lying. Movements may be used to regulate or control the flow of verbal messages, as when we purse our lips, lean forward, or make hand gestures to indicate that we want to speak. We might also put up our hand or 7 vocalize our pauses (for example, with ―um‖ or ―ah‖) to indicate that we have not finished and are not ready to let go by the floor to the next speaker. We can repeat or restate the verbal message nonverbally. We can, for example, follow our verbal ―Is that all right?‖ with raised eyebrows and a questioning look, or motion with our head or hand to repeat our verbal ―Let‘s go.‖ We may also use nonverbal communication to substitute for or take the place of verbal messages. For instance, we can signal ―OK‖ with a hand gesture. 1.1.3 Components of nonverbal communication Since it is said that as little as ten percent of communication takes place verbally, and that facial expressions, gestures and posture form part of our culture and language, it seems reasonable that we should at least raise learners‘ awareness of nonverbal communication in order to improve their use of natural language, increase confidence and fluency and help to avoid intercultural misunderstandings. On the grounds that ‗it‘s not what you say, it‘s the way that you say it‘, there is much to be said for teaching nonverbal communication either parallel to, or integrated with, a language and skills based syllabus, in the same way that phonology is often treated. Nonverbal communication is a system consisting of a range of features often used together to aid expression. The combination of these features is often a subconscious choice made by native speakers or even subgroups/ sub-cultures within a language group. According to Dilek Eryilmaz and Steve Darn in “A Nonverbal Communication Lesson”, the main components of the system are: Kinesics (body language): body motions such as shrugs, foot tapping, drumming fingers, eye movements such as winking, facial expressions, and gestures Proxemics (proximity): use of space to signal privacy or attraction Haptics: touch Oculesics: eye contact 8 Chronemics: use of time, waiting, pausing Olfactics: smell Vocalics: tone of voice, timbre, volume, speed Sound Symbols: grunting, mmm, er, ah, uh-huh, mumbling, Silence: pausing, waiting, secrecy Posture: position of the body, stance Adornment: clothing, jewellery, hairstyle Locomotion: walking, running, staggering, limping Of the above, body language (particularly facial expressions and gestures), eye contact, proximity and posture are probably those which learners most need to be aware of in terms of conveying meaning, avoiding misunderstandings and fitting in with the target culture. In terms of skills development, nonverbal clues should not be underestimated when developing both the listening and speaking skills. Like grammatical structures, nonverbal communication has form, function and meaning, all of which may vary from language to language. According to Joseph A. DeVito in “Human Communication”, 2002, nonverbal communication is probably most easily explained in terms of its various channels or components through which messages pass. Here we will survey 10 channels: body, face, eye, space, artifactual, touch, paralanguage, silence, time, and smell. 1.1.3.1 The Body Two areas of the body are especially important in communicating messages. First, the movements we make with our body communicate; second, the general appearance of our body communicates. Body Movements Researchers in kinesics or the study of nonverbal communication through face and body movements, identify five major types of movements: emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors (Ekman & Friesen, 1969; Knapp & Hall, 1997). 9 Emblems are body gestures that directly translate into words or phrases, for example, the OK sign, the thumbs-up for ―good job,‖ and the V for victory. We use these consciously and purposely to communicate the same meaning as the words. However, emblems are culture specific, so it is advisable to use our culture‘s emblems carefully in other cultures. For example, when President Nixon visited Latin America and gestured with the OK sign, intending to communicate something positive, he was quickly informed that this gesture was not universal. In Latin America, the gesture has a far more negative meaning. Below are a few cultural differences in the emblems we may commonly use (Axtell, 1993): • In the United States, to say ―hello‖ we wave with our whole hand moving from side to side, but in a large part of Europe that same signal means ―no.‖ In Greece, such a gesture would be considered insulting. • The V for victory is common throughout much of the world; but if we make this gesture in England with the palm facing our face, it is as insulting as the raised middle finger is in the United States. • In Texas, the raised fist with little finger and index finger held upright is a positive expression of support, because it represents the Texas longhorn steer. Nevertheless, in Italy it is an insult that means, ―Your spouse is having an affair with someone else.‖ In parts of South America, it is a gesture to defend against evil, and in parts of Africa, it is a curse: ―May you experience bad times.‖ • In the United States and in much of Asia, hugs are rarely exchanged among acquaintances; but among Latins and southern Europeans, hugging is a common greeting gesture, and failing to hug someone may communicate unfriendliness. Illustrators enhance (literally ―illustrate‖) the verbal messages they accompany. For example, when referring to something to the left, we might gesture toward the left. Most often, we illustrate with our hands, but we can also illustrate with head and general body movements. We might, for example, turn our head or our entire body toward the left. We might also use 10 illustrators to communicate the shape or size of objects we are talking about. Body Appearance Our general body appearance also communicates. Height, for example, has been shown to be significant in a wide variety of situations. Tall presidential candidates have a much better record of winning the election than do their shorter opponents. Tall people seem to be paid more and are favored by interviewers over shorter applicants (Keyes, 1980; Guerrero, DeVito, & Hecht, 1999; Knapp & Hall, 1997). Our body also reveals our race (through skin color and tone) and may give clues as to our more specific nationality. Our weight in proportion to our height will also communicate messages to others, as will the length, color, and style of our hair. Our general attractiveness is also a part of body communication. Attractive people have the advantage in just about every activity we can name. They get better grades in school, are more valued as friends and lovers, and are preferred as coworkers (Burgoon, Buller, & Woodall, 1996). Although we normally think that attractiveness is culturally determined—and to some degree it is—research seems to indicate that definitions of attractiveness are becoming universal (Brody, 1994). A person rated as attractive in one culture is likely to be rated as attractive in other cultures—even in cultures whose people are widely different in appearance. 1.1.3.2 Facial Communication Throughout our interactions, our face communicates various messages, especially our emotions. Facial movements alone seem to communicate the degree of pleasantness, agreement, and sympathy felt; the rest of the body does not provide any additional information. However, for other emotional messages, for example, the intensity with which an emotion is felt—both facial and bodily cues are used (Graham, Bitti, & Argyle, 1975; Graham & Argyle, 1975). So important are these cues in communicating our full meaning that graphic 11 representations are now commonly used in Internet communication. In graphic user interface chat groups, buttons are available to help us encode our emotions graphically. Table 1.1 below identifies some of the more common ―emoticons,‖ icons that communicate emotions. TABLE 1.1 Some Popular Emoticons Here are a few of the many popular emoticons used in computer communication. The first six are popular in the United States; the last three are popular in Japan and illustrate how culture influences such symbols. That is, because Japanese culture considers it impolite for women to show their teeth when smiling, the emoticon for a woman‘s smile shows a dot signifying a closed mouth. Emoticon Meaning :-) Smile; I‘m kidding Emoticon Meaning *This is important* Substitutes for underlining or italics :-( Frown; I‘m feeling down * Kiss Grin; I‘m kidding Grin; I‘m kidding {} Hug ^.^ Woman‘s smile {*****} Hugs and kisses _This is important_ Gives emphasis, ^_^ Man‘s smile ^o^ Happy calls special attention to Some researchers in nonverbal communication claim that facial movements may express at least the following eight emotions: happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest (Ekman, Friesen, & Ellsworth, 1972). Facial expressions of these emotions are generally called primary affect displays: They indicate relatively pure, single emotions. 12 Other emotional states and other facial displays are combinations of these various primary emotions and are called affect blends. We communicate these blended feelings with different parts of our face. Thus, for example, we may experience both fear and disgust at the same time. Our eyes and eyelids may signal fear, and movements of our nose, cheek, and mouth area may signal disgust. 1.1.3.3 Eye Communication Research on the messages communicated by the eyes (a study known technically as oculesis) shows that these messages vary depending on the duration, direction, and quality of the eye behavior. For example, in every culture there are strict, though unstated, rules for the proper duration for eye contact. When eye contact falls short of this amount, we may think the person is uninterested, shy, or preoccupied. When the appropriate amount of time is exceeded, we may perceive the person as showing unusually high interest. The direction of the eye also communicates. In much of the United States, we‘re expected to glance alternately at the other person‘s face, then away, then again at the face, and so on. The rule for the public speaker is to scan the entire audience, not focusing for too long on or ignoring any one area of the audience. When we break these directional rules, we communicate different meanings—abnormally high or low interest, self-consciousness, nervousness over the interaction, and so on. The quality of eye behavior— how wide or how narrow our eyes get during interaction—also communicates meaning, especially interest level and such emotions as surprise, fear, and disgust. 1.1.3.4 Space Communication Our use of space to communicate—an area of study known technically as proxemics—speaks as surely and as loudly as words and sentences. Speakers who stand close to their listeners, with their hands on the listener‘s 13 shoulders and their eyes focused directly on those of the listeners, communicate something very different from speakers who stand in a corner with arms folded and eyes down. Spatial Distances Edward Hall (1959, 1963, 1976) distinguishes four proxemic distances: types of spatial distances that define the types of relationships between people and the types of communication in which they‘re likely to engage (see Table 1.2). In intimate distance, ranging from actual touching to 18 inches, the presence of the other individual is unmistakable. Each person experiences the sound, smell, and feel of the other‘s breath. We use intimate distance for lovemaking, comforting, and protecting. This distance is so short that most people do not consider it proper in public. Personal distance refers to the protective ―bubble‖ that defines our personal space, ranging from 18 inches to 4 feet. This imaginary bubble keeps us protected and untouched by others. We can still hold or grasp another person at this distance, but only by extending our arms; this allows us to take certain individuals such as loved ones into our protective bubble. At the outer limit of personal distance, we can touch another person only if both of us extend our arms. This is the distance at which we conduct most of our interpersonal interactions, for example, talking with friends and family. 14 TABLE 1.2 Relationships and Proxemic Distances Relationship Intimate relationship Distance Intimate distance 0-------------18 inches close phase Personal relationship Personal distance 11 ⁄2---------------------4 feet Close phase Social relationship far phase Social distance 4-------------------12 feet Close phase Public relationship far phase far phase Public distance 12---------------25+ feet close phase far phase At social distance, ranging from 4 to 12 feet, we lose the visual detail we have at personal distance. We conduct impersonal business and interact at a social gathering at this social distance. The more distance we maintain in our interactions, the more formal they appear. In offices of high officials, the desks are positioned so the official is assured of at least this distance from clients. Public distance, from 12 to more than 25 feet, protects the speaker. At this distance we could take defensive action if threatened. On a public bus or train, for example, we might keep at least this distance from a drunken passenger. Although at this distance we lose fine details of the face and eyes, we are still close enough to see what is happening. 15 Influences on Space Communication Several factors influence the way we relate to and use space in communicating. Below are a few examples of how status, culture, subject matter, gender, and age influence space communication (Burgoon, Buller, & Woodall, 1996). People of equal status maintain shorter distances between themselves than do people of unequal status. When status is unequal, the higher-status person may approach the lower-status person more closely than the lowerstatus person would approach the higher-status person. Members of different cultures treat space differently. For example, people from northern European cultures and many Americans stand fairly far apart when conversing; those from southern European and Middle Eastern cultures stand much closer. It is easy to see how people who normally stand far apart may interpret the close distances of others as pushy and overly intimate. It is equally easy to appreciate how those who normally stand close may interpret the far distances of others as cold and unfriendly. When discussing personal subjects we maintain shorter distances than with impersonal subjects. In addition, we stand closer to someone who is praising us than to someone criticizing us. Our gender also influences our spatial relationships. Women generally stand closer to each other than men do. Similarly, when someone approaches another person, he or she will come closer to a woman than to a man. With increasing age, there is a tendency for the spaces to become larger. Children stand much closer to each other than do adults. These research findings provide some evidence that maintaining distance is a learned behavior. The evaluation we make of a person (whether positive or negative) will also influence our space. For example, we stand farther from enemies, authority figures, and higher-status individuals than from friends and peers. We maintain a greater distance from people we see as different from ourselves,
- Xem thêm -