ENGLISH for Animal Science and Aquaculture

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HUA ENGLISH for Animal Science and Aquaculture Prepared by Nguyen Xuan Trach Hanoi University of Agriculture Introduction to the Course of English for Animal Science and Aquaculture This course of English is designed specifically for students of animal and aquacultural sciences at Hanoi University of Agriculture (HUA). The objective of the course is to help students to: • • • Get familiar with the key vocabulary usually used in animal and aquacultural sciences and use them appropriately in scientific writing and oral communication. Identify the most common grammar phenomena used in academic English for effective reading comprehension and scientific writing. Get used to the English writing styles in the literature of animal science andaquaculture, and apply them appropriately in scientific writing. The course consists of a series of lessons covering various topics, viz. Biology, Animal Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Nutrition, Genetics and Breeding, Reproduction, and Aquaculture. In each 5-teaching hour lesson, which is specified on a topic, students will study some of the key vocabulary and grammar phenomena which are usually used in academic English. Students will take part in discussion on some of the important issues related to the topic of the lesson and compare their information and ideas with fellow students. At the end of each lesson each student is required to write an assignment using some of the new vocabulary and structures they have studied in the lesson. Hanoi, 15 March 2007 Course designer Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Xuan Trach 2 Lesson 1: Biology In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talking about biology. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lesson you will write a short account of the biodiversity in our country or region using some of the new vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson. After completing this unit you should be able to: • • • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in agricultural writing. Use active and passive voices in sentences appropriately. Discuss issues related to biodiversity in our country or region using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned. Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words (key and technical vocabulary) that will be used in the lesson. The instructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. You should be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading. accelerate (v) - làm tăng tốc biodiversity -sự đa dạng sinh học biology (n) - sinh học breed (n) - giống (cây, con). degrade (v) - phân giải, huỷ hoại disappear (v) - biến mất diversity (n) - sự đa dạng domestication (n) - thuần hoá evolution (n) - tiến hoá extinct (adj.) - tiệt chủng flourish (v) - nở rộ, phát triển tốt gene - gen di truyền genetic material - vật liệu di truyền habitat (n) - môi trường sống identify (v) - xác định rõ (loài, giống cây, con) intensive agriculture - nông nghiệp thâm canh irreplaceable (adj.) - không thể thay thế, cực kỳ quan trọng organism - cơ thể sống replace (v) - thay thế selection - chọn lọc skill (n) - kỹ năng unprecedented (adj.) - chưa bao giờ xảy ra variety (n) - giống (cây trồng) 3 Grammar Verb Tenses The following reading introduces the Present Simple Tense. This is one of the six most common verb tenses in English. Others include the Present Continuous tense, the Future Simple tense, the Future with ‘going to’, the Past Simple tense, and the Present Perfect tense. These tenses describe when something happens. All of the sentences in the reading are in the ‘Present Simple Tense’. They describe things that happen every year, always, every day, usually or sometimes. The table below describes when to use each tense. Tense Example When? 1. Present Simple 2. Present Continuous 3. Future Simple 4. Future with ‘going to’ 5. Past Simple 6. Present Perfect People eat rice People are eating rice People will eat rice People are going to eat rice People ate rice People have eaten rice every day now in the future in the future in the past up to now Present Simple Used to describe things which happen every year, always, every day, usually or sometimes. Examples: 1. Most people in the Philippines eat rice. 2. She cooks rice everyday. Present Continuous Used to express an action in the present; something that is currently happening. Examples: 1. They are eating rice. 2. He is cooking rice for dinner Future Simple Used to express the future. Examples: 4 1. They will eat rice for breakfast. 2. I will cook more rice tonight. Future ‘with going to’ Also used to express the future except you use the verb to be + going to. The meaning is the same as the future simple. Examples: 1. They are going to eat rice for dinner. 2. She is going to cook more rice tomorrow. Past Simple Used to express a completed action in the past. Examples: 1. I ate rice for lunch. 2. They cooked rice. Present Perfect Used to show that an action was completed sometime before the present time. Used to indicate that an action started in the past and continues to the present time. Examples: 1. She has eaten rice every day of her life. 2. They have cooked rice over a fire for years. Reading Biodiversity Around 1.4 - 1.75 million species of animals, insects, plants and other organisms have been identified. However, scientists believe that there are over 13.5 million more species which have not yet been identified. The diversity of life on earth is essential to the survival of humanity, but this biological diversity is now being lost at an unprecedented rate. Natural habitats are being destroyed, degraded and depleted, resulting in the loss of countless wild species. Traditional crop varieties and animal breeds are being replaced with new ones that are more suited to modern agriculture. When natural diversity is lost, so is irreplaceable genetic material, the essential building blocks of the plants and animals on which agriculture depends. These plants and animals are the result of 3,000 million years of natural evolution - and 12,000 years of domestication and selection. 5 Of the thousands of plant species that can be used for food, only 15-20 are of major economic importance. In fact, only a handful supply the dietary energy needs of most of the world's population. However, since 1900, about 75% of the genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost. In India, there will soon be only 30-50 rice varieties covering an area where 30,000 once flourished. Half of the animal breeds that existed in Europe one hundred years ago are now extinct. One quarter of the livestock breeds in the rest of the world are now at high risk of loss. The traditional knowledge and skills of indigenous peoples - who selected, bred and cultivated such varieties over thousands of years - are also disappearing. The loss of genetic resources has accelerated with the spread of intensive agriculture and high-yielding crop varieties to large parts of the developing world, replacing the traditional diversity of crops with monocultures. The varieties being lost may contain genes that could be used to develop even more productive varieties or to improve resistance to pests. Discussion Discuss the importance of biodiversity in our country. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. The following questions may help you get started. - What is 'biodiversity'? - Which countries do you think have a lot of biodiversity, and which countries have little? - Why is the preservation of biodiversity considered to be so important? - How does the world's biodiversity today compare with the biodiversity that existed a few hundred years ago? - What are the main factors affecting biodiversity in today's world? Assignment Write a short description of biodiversity in your country (about 100 words). Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. Please try to use active and passive sentences. Email the description to your instructor for comments and feedback. The following questions may help you get started: - How many different types of animals do you think there are in your country? - What about insects / trees / birds / wild plant species? - Which areas of your country have the greatest number of living things which have not yet been touched by people? 6 - Do you think these areas should be left in their natural state or should they be used by people? Why? 7 Lesson 2: Animal Anatomy In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talking about anatomy. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lesson you will write a short account of anatomy using some of the new vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson. After completing this unit you should be able to: • • • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. Use ………………….in sentences appropriately. Discuss issues related to anatomy using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned. Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. The instructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. You should be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading. Anatomy muscular system Greek nervous system head reproductive system chest respiratory system systems skeletal system circulatory system comparative anatomy digestive system histology morphology endocrine system Pathological anatomy excretory system organs immune system integumentary system lymphatic system medical surgical gynaecological artistic superficial 8 races physical anthropology Grammar Active voice/Passive voice When sentences are constructed in passive voice, they often do not have an 'agent' - they do not tell us WHO or WHAT caused the action. This can be because WHO or WHAT is not important, or because we already know WHO or WHAT. In passive voice, the emphasis is on what is done, not on who or what did it. Whereas, in the active voice, there is more emphasis on who is 'doing' the action. Passive voice is very common in academic English, especially in writing. Active and Passive Voice Constructions Structure Active Voice subject + verb + object Farmers feed cattle Passive Voice object changes to + verb + 3rd subject 'to be' verb Cattle are fed (by farmers) Using the above illustration, please note that: • • The '3rd verb' is often called the 'past participle'. In passive voice we often leave out who/what does the action (in this case, farmers) because we are more interested in what was done than who did it. Furthermore / In addition / Moreover Look at the followig sentences: 1. The seed oil repels insects and nematodes. Furthermore, it acts as an antifeedent. (note the prefix: 'anti...' means 'opposed to', 'against', 'preventing') 2. Its strong trunk and branches help it withstand strong winds. Moreover, it resists decay and insect attacks. 3. Neem oil can be used as a natural insectiide. In addition, neems makes a good fertilizer. Pelase note that: 9 • • • 'Furthermore', 'In addition', and 'Moreover' all mean 'also' All 3 devices have exactly the same meaning and usage. That they are used to start sentences, give extra information and are followed by a comma (,). Reading Branches of Anatomy Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν anatemnein, to cut up, cut open), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things. It can be divided into animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). Furthermore, anatomy can be covered either regionally or systemically, that is, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest for the former, or studying by specific systems. For the latter, the major body systems include circulatory system, digestive system, endocrine system, excretory system, immune system, integumentary system, lymphatic system, muscular system, nervous system, reproductive system, respiratory system, skeletal system. Major branches of anatomy include comparative anatomy, histology, and human anatomy. Animal anatomy may include the study of the structure of different animals, when it is called comparative anatomy or animal morphology, or it may be limited to one animal only, in which case it is spoken of as special anatomy. Pathological anatomy (or morbid anatomy) is the study of diseased organs, while sections of normal anatomy, applied to various purposes, receive special names such as medical, surgical, gynaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy. The comparison of the anatomy of different races of humans is part of the science of physical anthropology or anthropological anatomy. Discussion Discuss the importance of anatomy in animal and veterinary sciences. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. The following questions may help you get started. Assignment Write a short account of anatomy as a subject in the training program at your faculty (about 100 words). Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. Please try to use …………... Email the description to your instructor for comments and feedback. 10 11 12 Lesson 3: Biochemistry In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talking about biochemistry. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lesson you will write a short account of the biochemistry using some of the new vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson. After completing this unit you should be able to: • • • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. Use relative pronouns in sentences appropriately. Discuss issues related to biochemistry using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned. Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. The instructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. You should be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading. advance (n) tiến bộ mới extract (v) chiết suất, chắt lọc aging (n) sự lão hoá facet (n) khía cạnh biochemistry (n) hoá sinh function (n) chức năng cell (n) tế bào genetics (n) di truyền học chemistry )n) hoá học heredity (n) sự di truyền component (n) thành phần cấu tạo impact (n) tác động death (n) sự chết information (n) thông tin, tín hiệu due in large part to phần lớn nhờ vào interaction (n) sự tương tác ecology (n) sinh thái laboratory (n) phòng thí nghiệm energy (n) năng lượng matter (n) vật chất experimental (adj.) thuộc thí nghiệm medicine (n) y học expression (n) sự biểu hiện metabolism (n) sự trao đổi chất 13 molecular (adj.) thuộc về phân tử science (n) ngành khoa học nutrition (n) dinh dưỡng structure (n) cấu trúc occur (v) xảy ra substance (n) chất, cơ chất reaction (n) phản ứng surroundings (n) môi trường xung quanh reproduction (n) sự sinh sản, tái tạo tissue (n) mô bào research (n) sự nghiên cứu Grammar Reading The Goals of Biochemistry Biochemistry is a science which seeks to describe the structure, organization, and functions of living matter in molecular terms. What are the chemical structures of the components of living matter? How do the interactions of these components give rise to organized super-molecular structures, cells, multi-cellular tissues, and organisms? How does living matter extract energy from its surroundings in order to remain alive? How does an organism store and transmit the information it needs to grow and to reproduce itself accurately? What chemical changes accompany the reproduction, aging, and death of cells and organisms? How are chemical reactions controlled inside living cells? These are the kinds of questions being asked by biochemists; the research for the answer is the study of the chemistry of life. Biochemistry can be divided into three principal areas: (1) the structural chemistry of the components of living matter and the relationship of biological function to chemical structure; (2) metabolism, the totality of chemical reactions that occur in living matter; and (3) the chemistry of processes and substances that store and transmit biological information. The third area is also the province of molecular genetics, a field that seeks to understand heredity and the expression of genetic information in molecular terms. Biochemistry is an experimental science, and the remarkable recent advances in biochemistry are due in large part to the development of powerful new laboratory techniques. Biochemistry has had major impacts on medicine, agriculture, nutrition, ecology, and many other facets of life. 14 Discussion Discuss the aim of biochemistry and its importance in animal and veterinary sciences. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. The following questions may help you get started. - What is 'biochemistry'? - What is the aim of biochemistry? - What are the common questions being asked by biochemists? - What are the main areas of biochemistry? Assignment Write a short account of biochemistry as a subject in the training program at your faculty (about 100 words). You may also use the drawing below for writing your assay. Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. Please try to use relative pronouns. Email your work to your instructor for comments and feedback. 15 Lesson 4: Animal Physiology In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talking about animal physiology. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lesson you will write a short account of animal physiology using some of the new vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson. After completing this unit you should be able to: • • • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. Use ………………….in sentences appropriately. Discuss issues related to animal physiology using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned. Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. The instructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. You should be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading. Grammar Suffixes and Prefixes A 'suffix' is a letter or a group of letters added at the end of a word to make another word. Example: '...dy' added to the noun mud to make the adjective 'muddy' A 'prefix' is a letter or group of letters placed in front of a word to make another word. Example: 'un..' added to important to make 'unimportant' Look at the following sentences: The hard wood is brownish. Young branches are yellowish. 16 same as: The wood is quite brown, but not totally. The color of the young branches is similar to yellow. Please note that on the first two sentences, the suffix '...ish': • • indicates 'similar to', 'nearly', 'rather', 'fairly', 'somewhat' or 'quite' can be used to qualify many adjectives, especially colors. More examples: In parts of the Philippines, the most important use of neem is for reforestation. Please note the difference between: deforestation - the destruction or degradation of forests (The prefix 'de...' means 'opposite' or negative of) reforestation - planting trees in an area where the forest has been destroyed or degraded (The preifx 're...' means 'again') afforestation - planting trees to make a new forest in an area which did not have forests in the past Reading Animal Physiology Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells. Animal physiology is the study of how animals’ bodies function in their environment. An understanding of the physiological problems animals face and how they solve those problems can be achieved only in an evolutionary context. Knowledge of certain aspects of the natural history, morphology, behavior, and environment of an animal is necessary to fully appreciate the importance of its physiological mechanisms. 17 The study of animal physiology includes topics such as: gas exchange, feeding and digestion, circulation, metabolic rate, water and solute regulation, temperature regulation, excretion of wastes, and movement. The comparative approach can help us to develop a general evolutionary framework in which to address physiological problems. By comparing how different animals solve related problems in various environments, we can begin to gain insight into physiological principles that apply across levels of organisms and environments. Discussion Discuss the importance of the study of animal physiology in animal and veterinary sciences. Use some of the language and grammar you have learned in this lesson. The following questions may help you get started. - What is physiology? - What is animal physiology? - What are the main topics of the study of animal physiology? Assignment Write a short assay on a topic of animal physiology (about 100 words). Try to use at least 10 terms introduced in this lesson. You may describe the milk letdown reflex based on the drawing given below. Email the assignment to your instructor for comments and feedback. 18 Lesson 5: Animal Nutrition In this lesson you will study some of the key vocabulary we use when talking about animal nutrition. You will discuss some of the important issues involved and compare your information and ideas with those of your fellow students. At the end of the lesson you will write an assay on a topic of animal nutrition using some of the new vocabulary and structures you have studied in this lesson. After completing this unit you should be able to: • • • Define the key words introduced in this lesson and use them appropriately in scientific writing. Use infinitives and gerunds in sentences appropriately. Discuss issues related to animal nutrition using the vocabulary and grammar that you have learned. Key Vocabulary This section introduces the important words that will be used in the lesson. The instructor will give examples using each of the terms properly during the lecture. You should be sure that you understand these terms before you continue to the Reading. Grammar Verbs followed by infinitive Verbs followed by gerund Some verbs can be followed by other verbs. Examples: 1. I hope to arrive on Wednesday. 2. Do you enjoy studying English? It is important to know: • • • which verbs are always followed by the infinitive (to arrive) which verbs are always followed by the gerund (studying) which verbs can be followed by the infinitive or the gerund These verbs are always followed by the infinitive: 19 agree ask attempt claim decide demand desire fail forget hesitate hope intend learn need offer plan prepare pretend refuse seem strive tend try want wish Examples: 1. The Rockafeller and Ford Foundations decided to use semi-dwarf varieties. 2. Modern varieties tend to be shorter than traditional ones. 3. Plant breeders strive to keep ahead of the changing environment. These verbs must always be followed by the gerund: admit appreciate avoid can't help consider delay deny encourage enjoy finish mind miss postpone practice quit recall regret report resent resist resume risk suggest support promote Examples: 1. The government delayed introducing the new variety as it wanted to conduct more trials. 2. Farmers who use high levels of pesticide risk being exposed to a variety of ailments. 3. We suggest doing this a different way. These verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or the gerund: begin can't stand continue hate like love prefer start Examples: Farmers in that area started to use improve varieties. Farmers in that area started using improved varieties. We should continue to study this problem. We should continue studying this problem. Many consumers prefer to buy familiar rice types. Many consumers prefer buying familiar rice types. 20
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