Effects of the three obediences and four virtues ethics on Vietnamese women in the present time.

  • Số trang: 29 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 60 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
thuvientrithuc1102

Đã đăng 15346 tài liệu

Mô tả:

HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS NGUYEN THI VAN CONFUCIANISM “THREE OBEDIENCES AND FOUR VIRTUES” THEORY AND ITS IMPACTS ON VIETNAMESE WOMEN NOWADAYS Major : CNDVBC & CNDVLS Code : 62 22 80 05 Summary of doctoral thesis HANOI - 2014 The work has been completed at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: Prof. Dr. NGUYEN HUNG HAU Defender No. 1: Defender No. 2: Defender No. 3: The Thesis will be defended in front of Thesis Defense Committee at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At hour day month 2014 Further information: National Linbrary of Vietnam and Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Confucianism was born in Spring and Autumn- Warring States Period. This is the most turbulent time with significant fluctuations in Chinese history.In such context, Confucianismfollowers explained social matters and wished to find out the methods in order to bring the society frompolitical chaos to prosperity. One of those methods is human ethics education. Human ethics education of Confucianismfocused on fundamental categories such as ThreeBonds (King-teacher-father), FivePrecepts (Diligence - Temperance - Dignity - Integrity - Fortitude), and legitimacy theory. For women, the Confucianismeducated through Three Obediences and Four Virtues. Confucianism was brought to our country in the Chinese domination of Vietnam. When Confucianism came into Vietnam, it was modified to suit the the peaceful nature of the Vietnamese people. In the feudal period, Vietnam feudal class used Confucianismas a tool to establish the social stability and order, and to maintain thedomination of ruling class. Among ethics contents of Confucianism, Three Obediences and Four Virtues were fundamental ethics education categories for women. This ideology affected the role, position, and life of Vietnamese women intensively. Besides positive values, “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory had many negative impacts, which bound Vietnamese women into the fedal norm, and limited the development of women. However along the history, “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory still remains its values which contributes to the traditional beauty of Vietnamese women. Nowadays, fedal socio-economic basis no longer exists; however, the Confucianismideology in general; “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory in particular still existsto a certain extent and affects Vietnamese women in both positive and negative sides. Its negative impacts are relected through male supremacyand marriage imposition … which are the reasons for family violence and gender inequality in our country. Thirty years after the Doi Moi (1986), our country gained many significant achievements in different fields, among which economic renovation is the foundation. However, the Renovation of the Vietnamese Communist Party not only focuses on economic field but also on comprehensive renovation, including the renovation of human and human liberation. The Communist Party always considers the people as the most 2 important factor, in which the women account for large proportion and play an important role in families and the society. The renovation leads to changes in evaluation criteria of the society and family towards the women in order to meet new demands of the period. Nowadays, Vietnamese women must focus on comprehensive beauty andknowledge, be good at both public and family matters, and participate in social activities actively... If the rules and norms of “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory are used in an appropriate way, it will become an important factor to enhance the position and role of women in the Vietmanese modern society. It leads to the fact that it is necessary to study current status and impacts of Confucianism “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory among Vietnamese women nowadays in order to promote the positive values and to limit negative impacts on the women’sliberation. From the theoritical and practical basis above, I choose the topic: " Confucianism“Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory and its impacts on Vietnamese women" for my dotoral thesis 2. Objectives and tasks of research thesis 2.1. Research objectives In order to clarify main contents of Confucianism“Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory in China and Vietnam, analyze its impacts, this thesis proposes some view points and measures to promote its positive values and to limit negative impacts on Vietnamese women nowadays. 2.2. Research tasks - To clarify basic contents of “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory of Chinese confucianismand Vietnamese Confucianism. - To clarifu curent status of positive and negative impacts of Confucianism “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory on Vietnamese women in the past and nowadays. - To propose some measures for promoting its positive values and to limit negative impacts on Vietnamese women nowadays. 3. Research objects and scope of study 3.1. Research objects The thesis focuses on clarifying some basic contents in Confucianism“Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory and its impacts on Vietnamese women nowadays 3.2. Scope of study - The thesis focuses on studying the impacts of “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory on Vietnamese women nowadays 3 4. Theoritical basis and research methodology 4.1. Theoritical basis - The thesis relies on the theoritical basis of Marxism and Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s Thoughts, guidlines and view points of the Communist Party, and State policies on women. - The thesis refers to classic works of Confucianismand previous researches. 4.2. Research methodology The thesis uses the methodology of Marxism and Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s Thoughts; close combination of theories and practice, analysis, logics, history, statistics, comparision, and pratical summary... 5. Scientific contribution of the thesis - The thesis give an overview about basic contents of “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory in ChineseConfucianismand Vietnamese Confucianism. - The thesis further analyzes the positive and negative impacts of “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory on Vietnamese women nowadays. - From positive, negative impacts and contradictions that exist in real social issues, the thesis proposes some points of view and measures in order to promote the positive values and to limit the negative impacts of “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theoryon Vietnamese women nowadays. 6. Theoritical and practical meanings of the thesis 6.1. Theoritical meanings The thesis clarifies “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory of Confucianismand its impacts on Vietnamese women nowadays. 6.2. Practical meanings - The research results of this thesis may be used as reference for planning and executing policieson women affairs by the Communist Party and the State nowadays. - The thesis many be used as reference for studying Confucianismin Vietnam, role, and position of Vietnamese women nowadays. 7. Structure of the thesis In addition to the preamble, conclusion, and reference, this thesis is consisted of 4 chapters, 11 sections. Chapter 1 OVERVIEW ON TOPIC-RELATED STUDIES 4 1.1. Research work on Confucianism ethics and “Three Obedience and Four Virtues” theory in Confucianism Studies on Confucianism ethics in general and “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory in particular: Dao Duy Anh (1938), Confucianism Essay Reviews,Quan Hai Tung Thu Publisher, Hue; Tran Trong Kim (2006), Confucianism,Culture and Information Publisher, Hanoi; Phan Boi Chau (1998), Confucianism, Culture and Information Publisher, Hanoi; Quang Dam (1994),Confucianismin the past and nowadays, Literature Publisher, Hanoi; Tran Van Giau (1985),Traditional spiritual Value in Vietnam, Social science Publisher, Hanoi; Quang Dam (1994), Confucianismin the past and nowadays, Literature Publisher, Hanoi; Phan Dai Doan (1998), Some Confucianismissues in Vietnam,National Political Publisher, Hanoi; Nguyen Dang Duy (1998), Confucianismand Vietnamese Culture, Hanoi Publisher, Hanoi; Nguyen Hung Hau (2010), Introduction to philosophy history in Vietnam,National Political Publisher, Hanoi; Vu Ngoc Khanh (1998), Vietnamese family culture, Ethnic Culture Publisher; Vu Khieu (1991), Confucianismin the past and nowadays, Social science Publisher, Hanoi; Vu Khieu (1995), Confucianismand families, Social science Publisher, Hanoi; Nguyen Thi Nga - Ho Trong Hoai (2003), Confucianismconcept on human education, National Political Publisher, Hanoi. 1.2. Studies on “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory’s impacts on Vietnamese women nowadays “Three obediences, four virtues” theory has considerably affected Vietnamese women nowadays. Therefore, there have had a number of research works related to this matter. Typical examples for this are the works of authors Phan Manh Toan (2011)Benevolence and propriety’s effects on the current ethical lives in Vietnam , Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation; Phan Huy Le – Vu Minh Giang (chief editor) (1994), Traditional values and Vietnamese people,Volume 2, State-level science and technology program KX 07, theme KX 07-02, Hanoi. Tran Nguyen Viet (2002) is the author of writing titled "Vietnamese traditional ethical values and ethical all-humankind universality in the market economy”, Philosophical Journal, (5); Nguyen Tai Thu (2002) is the author of writing titled "Confucianism and current industrialization and modernization in Vietnam” , Philosophical Journal, (5); Le Thi Quy 1993) is the author of writing titled “Confucianism and current family culture”, Cultural and Art Research Journal, (4-112); Le Van Quan (1997) is known as 5 the author of writing titled "Lễ giáo Nho gia phong kiến curbing the current development of Vietnamese women",Cultural and Art Journal, (01-151); Nguyen Thi Kim Loan(2003) is known as the author of writing titled "Confucianism and cultural behavior of Vietnamese common people in the marital relationship and family", Cultural and Art Journal, (04-226). 1.3. Research works specifying viewpoints and solutions for the promotion of positive effects and limitation of negative effects by the “Three obediences, Four virtues” theory on Vietnamese present women Disseminating and educating quality and ethics of Vietnamese women in the cause of national industrialization and modernization- Program 343, The Ministry of Education and Training; Hard-working, good appearance, well-spoken, well-behaved nowadays by Le Thi Bung, Nguyen Thi Van Huong ; Effects of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory on Vietnamese in ancient and present times- University-level scientific research theme by Hoang Thi Thuan; Duong Thi Minh (2004) – University of Education , the Book titled “Vietnamese family and roles of women in present time”, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi; Le Minh(1997), the Book titled “Vietnamese women in the family and society”, Labor Publishing House; Le Thi (2004), the Book titled “ Family, Vietnamese women and population, culture and sustainable development”, Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi; (2006). The works has clarified basic categories and principles of the Confucianism: concepts and contents of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in the development history of the Confucianism in China and Confucianism in Vietnam; summarizing some traditional ethical characteristics of Vietnamese people and specifying remains of Confucianism ethics required to eliminate in the cause of building socialism in Vietnam; demonstrating causes of feudal ethical remains and several orientations for eliminating its negative effects and promote its positive effects on Vietnamese present women. Nevertheless, there have not had any independent, systematic and indepth works summarizing and analyzing the “three obediences, four virtues” theory and its positive and negative effects on Vietnamese women. Besides, there have not had any synchronizing and effective works proposing viewpoints and solutions for the promotion of its positive effects and limitation of its negative effects on Vietnamese people. This is a space requiring the author to continue studies and clarification. 6 Chapter 2 CONFUCIANISM-BASED “THREE OBEDIENCES, FOUR VIRTUES” THEORY 2.1. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of Confucianism in China 2.1.1. Origin of Confucianism 2.1.1.1. Socio-economic bases for the formation of Confucianism Confucianism was founded at the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period in China. It is considered as the period of the most changes. This period appeared a number of social conflicts making social orders be upsetted; therefore, it is required to build a new social model towards a disciplinary society. Moreover, it also marked the establishment and development of many philosophical schools including Confucianism. The Confucianism founded is for establishing a feudalism-concentrated social management model 2.1.1.2. Political, cultural and ideological premises for the formation of Confucianism in China The Confucianism was founded based on inheriting cultural and ideological premises previously developed at the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period in China. Firstly, cultural premises. In this period, China soundly developed inventions in a series of aspects like astronomy, mathematics, medical science and political ideologies. Secondly, ideological premises are the ideologies related to religion, ethical thoughts of Zhou Dynasty. Zhou Dynasty highly appreciated the thoughts of “God-worship”, “reception of peoples”, “virtuous’, “dutiful”. These ideologies have affected the Confucian, as bases for building basic categories over their theories such as Three bonds – Five Precepts, True name, Three obediences – Four virtues, etc. 2.1.1.3. Confucius- founder of the Confucianism theory Confucius (551 - 479 B.C) is the founder of Confucianism. He often travelled to of preach the methods of national governance. In the upset socio-economic situations of Zhou Dynasty, he founded the Confucianism theory in the aim of directing human beings towards their true name. Thereby, a new society is disciplinary, peaceful and prosperous. 2.1.2. Positions of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in Confucianism ethics in China and their relationship 7 2.1.2.1. Position of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in Confucianism ethics in China Firstly, Confucianism focuses on building gentleman for social ruling, thereby not discussing women a lot. Nonetheless, “three obediences, four virtues” theory was still mentioned when integrating it with other categories such as three bonds, five precepts, true name. Secondly, Confucianism considers family as a minimized society and society as an extended family; therefore, the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in the system of Confucianism ethics has been founded to stabilize social order. Thirdly, underlying purpose of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory is for protecting status of the ruling class. Fourthly, the “three obediences, four virtues” theory is the most important standard, the most basic requirement of Confucianism ethics over women. There is the integral relationship between them, helping women possess a finished beauty under the Confucianism’s standards 2.1.2.2. Relationship between the “three obediences” theory and the “four virtues” theory over Confucianism in China The similarity between the “three obediences” theory and the “four virtues” theory is rules and standards compulsory for women. The differences between them are shown on scope and the mentioned subject. Three obediences (三從) were originated from Rituals and Funeral Clothing. Tu Ha story wrote: 1. Submission to her father before her marriage (在家從父): She must submit to her father before her marriage; 2. Submission to her husband during her marriage (出嫁從夫): she must submit to her husband during her marriage; 3. Submission to her son when being widowed (夫死從子): if her husband dies, she must submit to her son. Four virtues includehard-working (婦功), good appearance (婦容), well-spoken (婦言) and well-behaved (婦行): 1. Hard working: She is clever for cooking and housework. Nevertheless, jobs for ancient women include sewing, embroiling, cooking and trading work. A good woman possesses musical instrument playing, chess playing, poem composing and painting abilities. 8 2. Good appearance: A woman must be affable, neat and respects her outward appearance. 3. Well-spoken: Spoken words must be gentle and deliberate. 4. Well-behaved: At home, she must be well-mannered, respects older people and gives up to younger people, pampers her husband and loves her children, gets on with relatives of her husband’s family. In the society, she must be modest, mature and snobbish. 2.1.4. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory in the development history of Confucianism in China 2.1.4.1. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of primitive Confucianism Confucius and Mercius established the “three obediences, four virtues” theory to teach women. In terms of four virtues, Confucius especially appreciated the “virtue” of women. Virtue is the base of Hardworking- Good appearance- Well-spoken. In terms of virtues for parents, Confucius especially respects the dutifulness. Mercius also requested the women to “obey” their husband and human’s family. 2.1.4.2. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of Confucianism in Han Dynasty In late Warring States period, Qin Dynasty used “legal ruling” to unify and rule the country. Dong Trong Thu was the person making considerable contributions to the restoration of Confucianism after “burning books and burying scholars” by Qin Shi Huang. In terms of women’s roles, Dong Trong Thu put forward the thought of “obeying their husband in everything" – the wife must obey anything that her husband has said regardless of rightness or wrongness. Confucianism in Han Dynasty became an effective mental ruling tool of the centralized autocratic state. Therefore, the “three obediences, four virtues” theory is more strict to women, known as a base with paternalistic and patriarchal thoughts. 2.1.4.3. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of Confucianism in Song Dynasty For women, Confucianism strengthens the ideology “Male Supremacy” (to value men above women)", "Father - Husband - Son". More unfortunately, Confucianism has the extreme view about a woman's virginity. Cheng Yisaid that: "starve is the little, losing the virginity is the biggest." This isthe most typical evidence for the grim and strict Confucian for women. 9 2.2. The theory of “Father - Husband - Son” (three submissions) and “Work-Appearance- Word- Character” (four virtues) in Vietnamese Confucianism 2.2.1. Overview of Confucianism introduction into Vietnam Confucianism was introduced into Vietnam during the Chinese domination for a thousand of year. Especially, for each different historical period and each different dynasty, the position and role of Confucianism are different. In one thousand year of feudalism, Confucian in general and the theory of “Father - Husband - Son” and “Work-Appearance- WordCharacter” in particular had a profound influence on the Vietnamese life and people. Confucian contributed to build the national traditions, ideology and culture and the image of Vietnam women from traditional style to modern style. The most noteworthy thing is that when it existed in Vietnam, Confucianism was not completely stereotyped as Chinese Confucian that it has been modified to fit the Vietnamese tradition. 2.2.2. Factors changing the content of the theory of “Father Husband - Son” and “Work-Appearance- Word- Character” in Vietnamese Confucianism First, Vietnamese has had the tradition of respecting the women for thousands of year. Second,the practical history of building and protecting our country as well as Vietnam’s cultural tradition has regulated the receiving way and changed the theory of three submissions and four virtues of Confucianism. Third, during the process of Confucianism introduction into Vietnam, Confucians have received and applied this content in accordance with the country’s situation. Fourth, during the process of Confucianism’s introduction into Vietnam, Buddhism and Taoism have been also introduced into our country. Fifth, Vietnamese traditional families are very different from the Chinese patriarchy ones. The aforementioned fundamental factors have changed the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism. Those were also the foundation to regulate the contents and features of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism. 2.2.3. Overview of the content and feature of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism 10 2.3.3.1. The contents of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism The contents of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism have been shown in the family songs, feudal laws. In general, this content is very little different from Chinese Confucianism. 2.3.3.2. Some fundamental features of the theory of the three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism Firstly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues have been admitted and appreciated by Vietnamese feudal laws. In the feudal period, most laws had the content relating to women, especially Hong Duc Law and Gia Long Law. In general, although there were a lot of advantages in comparison with Chinese, these laws still had the ideology of Male Supremacy. They had forced women to depend on men. “Nguyen dynasty” was significantly influenced by Confucianism; therefore they had the extreme view about the women’s virginity and appreciated “virginal women” Secondly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues has been built by the Confucianism trend and under the form of family songs. Some people say that: “It is difficult to teach women” and they also slight women because of their illiteracy, from those, in the feudal period, Confucians trended to write the theory of three submissions and four virtues under the form of poems, family songs - those to teach women. In those family songs, Confucians gave much content to force women to learn and follow. In addition to those, they also gave the content of prohibitions to women and all of them related to the theory of three submissions and four virtues. Thirdly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues had been shown in the regulations of Vietnamese communes Those regulations were the social conventions of the communes written by Confucians. In those regulations, Confucians gave the rules of the family to men and women. If they had done contrary to those regulations, they would have been fined Fourthly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues had been shown in folklore, particularly folk songs and proverbs. Fifthly, the status of Vietnamese women had "softened" the theory of three submissions and four virtues. 11 Compared with China, the status of Vietnamese women has been raised a lot and assigned the important tasks. In Vietnam, women are considered "Internal Queen" of the family. The reason for this is that Vietnamese family model is different from the Chinese family model. Vietnam family model typically includes two generations; therefore the wife's status was enhanced. But in China, the family model mainly includes multiple generations; so it is necessary to have the head man to direct all the work and maintain order and discipline in the family Sixthly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism respected the practice rather than the theory. Seventhly, during the period from the thousands of years ago until now, Vietnamese women in all levels have positively participated in social, cultural and political activities. The Vietnamese history and culture have always recorded the names of women who contributed to the success of the nation, such asTrieu Thi Trinh, Duong Van Nga, Y Lan, Bui Thi Xuan, Ms.Ba Cai Vang, etc. Those good examples are always in hearts of the people. The noble beauty of Vietnamese women have made the theory of three submissions and four virtues change in Vietnam and have fundamental differences with this ideology in China Conclusion of Chapter 2 As a political, social and moral theory, Confucianism became a tool to protect the status of the ruling class. Confucianism advocates to educate the morality for people to bring the society from chaos statement from peaceful and prosperous statement. The category of moral education of women is mentioned primarily in the theory of three submissions and four virtues. The theory of three submissions and four virtues gave the moral standards that women have to listen. Besides the positive values, such as teaching women to complete their appearance beauty and spirit beauty, the theory also brought a lot of negative effects that included the idea: “Male Supremacy” being deeply into social life. Etiology of this thought is that Confucian would like to educate women under their standards to maintain family order and more importantly social order and the final aim is to protect the status of the ruling class. Confucianism has deeply affected the social life of the East Asian countries, including Vietnam. It is worth noting that Confucianism in Vietnam was converted with a number of contents or in other words, it was "softened" and "refracted" to suit Vietnamese life. Therefore, in Vietnam, the negative nature of this theory has decreased more than Confucian in 12 China. In Vietnam, the status of women is respected than women in other Asian countries. 13 Chapter 3 EFFECTS OF THE THEORY OF THREE SUBMISSIONS AND FOUR VIRTUES TO VIETNAMESE WOMEN NOWADAYS– THE STATUS AND EMERGING ISSUES 3.1. Negative effects of the theory of three submissions and four virtues to Vietnamese women nowadays 3.1.1. Negative effects of the theory of three submissions and four virtues to Vietnamese women in family nowadays 3.1.1.1. The theory of three submissions and four virtues causing thepsychology: “Male Supremacy” Firstly, the “Male Supremacy” psychology is expressed clearly through the theory. The first thought of three submissions was that women had not got married; they had to listen their father. The thought still deeply affects the Vietnamese cultural lives. In the Vietnamese family nowadays, most men play an important role and all other members must obey them. Accordingly, when the daughter has not got married yet, they must strictly obey her father’s arrangements on the issue of studying, career and mate choice. The negative sides of “her husband as a wife” thought have much influence on women. Compared with the husband, the wife has much more the disadvantages. Firstly, in some families, the husband remains the decisive role in issues relating to children Secondly, the husband holds the financial source in family; therefore he has right to decide all expenses in the family Thirdly, there are still many opinions that show the housework must be done by women and men have no responsibility for doing that work. Fourthly, in production, the wife often takes on the tasks which are time-consuming and effort-consuming but less income than men, such as embroidery, sewing, farming, and cattle-breeding… Fifthly, in a family, women have less time to rest than men. Sixthly, there is inequality in reproductive health care and family planning. Seventhly, there is inequality in accessing to resources and opportunities for development. Eighthly, there is inequality in internal and external affairs. 14 Ninthly, many husbands still have serious paternalism that leads to domestic violence, gratuitous jealousy, binding the wife with household chores, prohibiting the wife from expanding her social relationships. Tenthly, there are some men who are indifferent to academic and fame career of their wife. Nowadays, although the Law regulates that if husband is dead, wife is allowed to get married another man, she still has responsibility for her children; the negativity of ideology “her sons in widowhood” actually still has some effects although its influence is not too much high. That is in the case of husband’s death, the wife is afraid of public opinion so she doesn’t dare to marry again. Besides that, the woman whose husband died has lived alone and sacrificed her own happiness to bring up her children but her children are undutiful to her. Secondly, the psychology of Male supremacy (to value men above women) is also reflected clearly in the need of male birth. The paternalism and male-supremacy of Confucianism have been rooted in people’s life, therefore, people in families highly evaluate malebirth and find any way to be born a son. These radical thoughts and actions make our country become one of countries having the highest abortion rate and gender imbalance rate in the world. Thirdly, the psychology of Male supremacy is also reflected through the property division and investment level for children. Many families focused investing education, property division for boys more than for girls. The reason of this matter is that the son is considered as an heir and the daughter will get married and serve for her husband’s family, thus investment for girls is not as much as for boys. 3.1.1.2. Three obediences and Four Virtues have obstructed the policy of free marriage The psychology of “her father as a daughter” has respected decided role of father to his daughter. In which, the father has the right to decide his daughter’s marriage. The daughte’s chance of choosing her husband is affected by her father. On the other hand, in a marriage, wife is always dependent on her husband. Today, although the Law proposes the monogamous marriage, actually in many areas (some locals nearby Hanoi) there is phenomenon that a man can get married with many wives at once and the former wives must accept it. This is negative consequence of threeobedience theory and it has still affected until now. 15 3.1.1.3. Theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues creates dependent and passive psychology of wife to her husband, which has obstructed the development of woman today Firstly, the woman has accepted to live smugly. Secondly, women themselves have weak reactions to Domestic violence. Thirdly, women themselves have not appreciated their position and their role in family and society, so they are dependent, passive and not trying to overcome difficulties in studying and social work, in fighting for equal rights on their side. 3.1.1.4. Theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues is one of reason that causesDomestic violence Although Law of gender quality was issued and came into force from 2007, as a result of negative influence of theory of three obediences and four virtues, so our country is still the country with high Domestic violence, in which mainly are that husband beating his wife, father beats his children. Significantly, in cases of domestic violence from the husband to the wife, there are few wives denouncing their husbands because they are afraid the public opinion that “to be ashamed as husband as wife” or “air your dirty linen in public” 3.1.2. The negative effects of theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues to Vietnamese women in society today 3.1.2.1. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues has limited the posibility of participating social acitivities of women Người The women are affected by the ideology “male-supremacy”, “women with smug feeling” from their husbands and their relatives, so they do not get support to develop social activities from these people. On the other hand, there are many women who are dependent too much, not trying to overcome difficulties and change their situations, but accepting the dependent life to their husbands. This has made them create distance in participating in social activities. 3.1.2.2. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues has limited the posibility of being agencies’ leaders of women With the main ideology “Male-supremacy”, the theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues is a barrier not only for women’s social activities participation but also their being leader possibility. Affected by the ideology “male – supremacy”, men have disregarded the position and role of women in social activities. On the other hand, not 16 only men have improper look to women, but also even women haven’t overcome ancient prejudices to themselves and others. 3.1.2.3. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues is barrier causing gender inequality in acessing and enjoying social interests The negativities of theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues, gender prejudices are the cause of the disparity in opportunities for employment, income and promotion between male and female. The reason of this problem is that female labor force have trouble about health, fertility, time of caring children and families; therefor, they cannot spend enthusiamsm as much as male labor force. With the disparity of working year amount is 5 years, it helps women to recovery their health but it’s also an obstacle for women of being in structure of source leading cadres. 3.2. The positive effects of theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues to Vietnamese women in society today 3.2.1. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues has a great impact on the education of respecting sense for family’s disciplines and background to stabilize social order. Today, besides the negative effects, the theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues also has a lot of positive effects to social life. One of the positive effects is that this theory plays an important role in awareness education for women of respecting family’s descipline and background to stabilize social order. It requires and forms for women how to behave properly in harmony with her parents, husband and children. This is really important in the market economy, where many traditional values are turned upside down. 3.2.2 The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues helps women perfect outside and inside beauty to meet the requirements of social development. Diligent work Today, the diligent work of women has changed a lot compared with the previous one. The woman is not confined within the family but also extended to society. In family, they are major force in housework, raising children, taking care of the house, managing household economy. In society, the qualification of women is increasingly improving, they are the large social labor force, women holding leadership position are also increasing. This is a new and advanced aspect of modern women. Nowadays, many women are so keen on working and money that they forget their duties to their family. They don’t have enough time to taking care their family, which makes their family unstable, their children are not got personality-education perfectly. Women should realize that 17 their natural role as wife, mom and the person building family nest is their responsibility. They should manage their time suitably to solve work of family and society. Modest appearance Appearance according to Confucianism’s concept is understood as physical beauty, expressed through natural appearance combined with costumes and make-up that makes a general decency. Nowadays, material and spiritual life is increasingly improving, women have chance to taking care their outside beauty. They come to beauty salon, learn to makeup, dressing. However, there are many women have learned flashy Western dressing style… which not consistent with Vietnamese traditions. Therefore, appearance concept of Confucianism is much more valuable when it help to form modern beauty of women to traditional standards. Proper speech Speech is focused on courteous, discreet, sound of soft words, listening easily. Because of the nature of work, women cannot be too shy anytime, anywhere as the former women. To meet the increasing demands of modern society, language in communication is gradually intellectual and scientific. We need to look straight into the limitations of using the language of women today. That is "slang" language, bad words, or questions with content lack of transparency. Before the situation above, the speech of women must be polite, respect and order, which still are the necessary principles for effort of women in modern society. Behavior This is the foundation of human, the moral of man. Woman's virtue is expressed including domestic skills, appearance, speech and behavior. Behavior shows the response of women with other relatives in family, colleagues, villages and the Fatherland. Currently, under the impact of the market economy, many moral values have been turned upside down. Accordingly, the morality of women is also modified so that four virtues play an important role in educating the women becoming more complete. 3.3. Factors changing the influence of theory of three obediences and four virtues for Vietnam women today Firstly, in the Platform for national construction in the transitional period to socialism, approved by VII Congress of the Party in 1991, our Party has taken Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s Ideology as the foundation and lodestar for our country's revolution. 18 Secondly, the role of women has been supported and honored by our country. Thirdly, men and women have been had the thought, role assessment of women in the direction of progress than before. Finally, Vietnam women are key factor in contributing to the success of wars against the French and American and the reforms of the country from 1986 to present. 3.4. Some of the problems posed by influence of three obediences and four virtues in Confucianism for Vietnam women today 3.4.1. Contradiction between requirements for promoting values of three obediences and four virtues for the strong impacts of market economy and international integration of Vietnam today Market economy has been strongly impacted on the social life of Vietnam in both positive and negative aspect. The positive aspect improves the material and spiritual life of people as well as promotes the dynamic and creation of people. The negative is the alienation of traditional moral values and decency and order in the society turned upside down. In new conditions, the traditional ethic values of women have been had contradictions, the struggle between progress and backwardness; healthy honesty and loyalty lifestyle and pragmatic, deceitful, selfish, battens lifestyle or for money. New ethics of women in the new society must to struggle with other ethical systems and struggle to innovate traditional values as well as affirm themselves in changing conditions. 3.4.2. Contradiction between conservative and outdated concepts of three obediences and four virtues with advanced viewpoints in building the modern ethic standard of Vietnam women today Firstly, the conservative and outdated concepts are due to the negative influences of three obediences and four virtues. Secondly, in consistent with requirements of industrialization and modernization of the country, we have been putting out the advanced qualities of modern Vietnam women. However, when inheriting the traditional moral values of the nation, it needs to firmly reject the old, outdated or inappropriate traditions as well as by practice to affirm the new values occurring in consistent with new development stage of country. The new ethics of women are to struggle with conservative, outdated viewpoints of three obediences and four virtues, as well as to self renewal and affirm in new conditions.
- Xem thêm -