Education and Training in the development of high quality human resource in Vietnam at present (TT)

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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION LUONG CONG LY EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT Specialism : CNDVBC & CNDVLS Code : 62 22 80 05 SUMMARY PHD THESIS IN PHILOSOPHY HA NOI - 2014 The PhD thesis is completed At Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics and Public Administration Academic Supervisor: Assoc. Prof., Dr. VU HONG SON The PhD thesis is defensed 1: The PhD thesis is defensed 2: The PhD thesis is defensed 3: The PhD thesis will be defensed in front of a jury and marked by at Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics and Public Administration. At ... h..... 2014 The PhD thesis is available in National Library and the National Academy of Politics and Public Administration's library Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics and Public Administration. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The necessity of the research In Vietnam and in the world as well, it has long been thought that the success or failure, existence or death, and decadence or prosperity of a nation deeply depends on the nation’s human resources. In the context of rapid development of advanced scientific and technological revolution, knowledge economy and globalisation, countries are paying more attention to the development of high-quality human resources. Human resources have become a competitive advantage of numerous countries world-wide. Thus, countries are increasingly attaching greater importance to bringing into full play the role of education and training to develop and enhance the quality of human resources, taking full advantages of internal forces in the situation of fiercer competition among countries all over the world under the framework of the present globalisation. After more than twenty five years of adopting renovation policies in the socialist orientation that the Party initiated and led, Vietnam’s revolution has obtained considerable achievements of historical significance. The country has overcome socio-economic crisis and entered a new development era: accelerating national industrialisation and modernisation, and taking steady steps towards the socialist path. These achievements have set forth fundamental conditions for as well as requires the development of human resources, especially the high-quality human resources to facilitate the country in the new era of development. In the national renovation process, the high-quality human resources have made a rapid growth, making essential contributions to the national achievements of historical significance in all fields of social life. Education and training has played an overriding important and decisive role to the development of the country’s human resources. Resolution of the 2nd plenary session of the 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam states that: “Developing education and training is the national top policy”, aiming to train human resources that meets rising requirements. The 11th Party Congress also specified a strategic breakthrough: “Rapidly developing the human resources, particularly high-quality human resources, concentrating on the 2 fundamental and comprehensive renewal of the national education; incorporating the development of human resources with the development and application of science and technology” [49, p.106]. In the past years, our education sector in general and universities have produced a strong contingent of engineers, BSc, MA, and doctors in the fields of economy, politics, education and training, culture, and social affairs…satisfying requirements for high-quality human resources to hasten the national industrialisation and modernisation. Nevertheless, Vietnam’s education and training sector still witnesses shortcomings. Content, curricula, teaching method, management forces, mechanism, policy as well as environment, conditions, and equipment and facilities for the cause of education and training to foster a high-quality human resources remain limited, failing to meet the real demands. The quality of education and training, especially at higher level which is directly involved in the education and training of the high-quality human resources, is generally low. The qualification and professionalism of graduates remains limited, their adaptability to the reality is still weak; our human resources remains few in quantity and limited in quality whereas mechanism is inadequate. These demonstrate shortcomings and limitations of our education and training sector which fails to manifest its role in developing the nation’s high-quality human resources. The development of high-quality human resources depends on a number of factors, in which the role of education and training is of overriding importance. Hence, it is a pressing issue for the nation’s education and training sector in general and universities in particular to produce high-quality human resources to satisfy the demands for speeding up the nation’s industrialisation, modernisation and international integration in the new era, contributing to realising the target to basically turn Vietnam into a modernity-oriented industrial country by 2020, and to successfully build up a society of wealthy people, prosperous nation, democracy, justice, and civilisation as our Party has stated. These issues are increasingly pressing to our nation on those days, in terms of both theoretical and practical perspectives and demanding for a thorough study. With 3 that in mind, the author has selected the subject “Education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present” as the specialism of this thesis. 2. Purpose and task of the research 2.1. Purpose The thesis clarifies fundamental theoretical matters and the real situation of the education and training to the development of high-quality human resources; recommends a number of directions and solutions to bring into full play the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. 2.2. Task - Clarifying theoretical ground related to the development of high-quality human resources and the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. - Clarifying the real situation of the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. - Proposing a number of essential directions and solutions to bring into full play the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. 3. Subject and scope of the research 3.1. Subject The thesis concentrates on studying and clarifying the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. 3.2. Scope - The thesis does not study the whole matters of the development of high-quality human resources as well as those of the education and training sector, but studies the role of education and training in the development of human resources in our country; concentrating the study in universities in Vietnam at present. 4 - Studying the realities of the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in certain universities in Vietnam at present. - In term of time scope, the thesis studies the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam from 1986 to present. 4. Research methods The study is based on theoretical foundation of the Marxism – Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thoughts, standpoints, paths of the Party and policies of the State of Vietnam on the development strategies of education and training, and the development of human resources, and high-quality human resources in Vietnam. The study applies the methodology of the Marxism – Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thoughts; incorporates theory and practice, properly employs analysis and synthesis methods; logic and history, sociological study, and practical recapitulation are major methods applied in the study of this thesis. 5. New findings of the research - The thesis explains more clearly the role of education and training in the development of human resources in Vietnam at present. - Based on achievements, shortcomings and matters arise from the reality, the thesis proposes a number of fundamental directions and solutions to bring into full play the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. 6. Theoretical and practical significance of the research 6.1. Theoretical significance The thesis explains more obviously theory of human resources, high-quality human resources and the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. The thesis provides scientific grounds to the implementation of directions and solutions to bring into full play the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. 6.2. Practical significance - The new findings of the thesis can be used as reference to planning and implementing policies to develop the role of education and training in universities in 5 Vietnam at present. - The thesis can be a useful reference for lecturers, education managers and pupils, and students in universities in Vietnam at present. 7. Conclusion The thesis consists of introduction, four chapters, nine sections, conclusion, list of reference and appendix. Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ON THE SAME SUBJECT OF THE THESIS 1.1. Studies on human resources and the role of education and training of human resources The issue of high-quality human resources and the education and training of human resources has been a great concern of numerous scientists and researchers in countries world-over in different fields of science. A number of typical works related to the issue in China such as: Liang You Jia (2006), Book Talent management, Publishing House of Zhong Shan University, Quang Dong, China, Shen Rong Hua and Wu Guo Miao (2008), Book A Respect for Intelligentsia and Talented People – A Hundred-Year Master Plan for the Restoration and Development of the Country, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Wang Hui Yao (2010) Book National Strategy - Talents Change the World, China’s People Press; Liu Xiao Ping (2011), Book The Theories and Practices of Human Resources Assessment, Sun Yat-sen University Press; Wang Chong (2012), Book The Quality of Economic Growth in Western China in Association with the Usage of Rural Human Resources, China’s People Press. Typical authors in other countries include Okuhira Yasuhiro (1994), Book Japan’s Politics and Economy, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Kim, Jang-ho (2005), Book New Paradigm of Human Resources Development: Government Initiatives for Economic Growth and Social Integration in Korea, KRIVET, Seoul, 135949, Korea; the book Li Guang Yao 40 Nian Zheng Lun Xuan (Lee Kuan Yew’s Political Writings of 40 Years) (1994), National Political 6 Publishing House, Ha Noi; PhD thesis on Party construction Training, Fostering a Leading Contingent Managing the Party and State Economic Performance in Lao at Present, National Political Academy, Ha Noi by Sinkham Phommaxay (2003)... Concepts, features and the role of the high-quality human resources, talents, intellectuality, the importance of education and training, as well as issues related to the use of talented personnels and the development of high-quality human resources are reflected comprehensively in the works mentioned above. These foundations enable the author to acquire, inherit, and continue studying and specifying in the author’s thesis. In Vietnam, there are many studies on high-quality human resources and the role of education and training of human resources, noticeably: Pham Minh Hac (lead author – 1996), Study The issue of human beings in the cause of national industrialisation and modernisation; Pham Tat Dong (2005), Book Vietnam’s intellectuality, reality and prospect, lead author, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Nguyen Dac Hung (2007), Book Developing talents to strengthen the nation, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Nguyen An Ninh (2009), Book Bringing into full play the potential of Vietnam’s socio-science intellectuality, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Vu Van Phuc, Nguyen Duy Hung (Coauthors - 2012), Developing human resources to meet the demands of industrialisation, modernisation and international integration, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi. 1.2. Studies on the status of high-quality human resources Pham Tat Dong, (Lead author - 2005), Study Scientific foundation for policies to take full advantage of the capability of labour and creation of intellectual circle and students, Ministerial-level; Le Du Phong, (Lead author - 2006), Book Resource and driving force of development in the socialist-oriented market economy in Vietnam, Political Theory Publishing House; Ngo Huy Tiep, (Lead author - 2009), Book Renewing the Party’s leadership mode towards the country’s intellectual circle at present, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Nguyen Van Khanh, (Lead author - 2012), Book Resource of Vietnam’s intelligence, history, status quo and 7 prospect, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Duong Vinh Suong (2012), Article Education, training to the development of human resources for the cause of industrialisation, modernisation, Communist Journal, issue number (833). 1.3. Studies on direction and solutions to bring into full play the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources There are numerous scientific works, through different approaches and scopes of study, studying directions and solutions to develop high-quality human resources and the role of education and training of human resources in Vietnam. Of note: The Communist Party of Vietnam (2008), Resolution of the 7th plenary session of the 10th Central Committe of the Communist Party of Vietnam on“The development of a contingent of intellectuals in the period of accelerating the nation’s industrialisation and modernisation”; Nguyen Manh Huong, (Lead author - 2012), Study Building up a contigent of military intellectuals in the renewal period, Ministerial-level (Ministry of National Defence); Nguyen Duy Bac, (Lead author - 2013), Ministerial-level study Characteristics of Vietnamese people to the training of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present, National Academy of Politics and Public Administration; Ta Ngoc Tan (Lead author - 2012), The development of education and training of human resources, and talents, world experience, National Political Publishing House, Ha Noi; Bui Manh Nhi (2012), Fundamental and comprehensive renovation of Vietnam’s education and training, Journal of Political Theory Information, a bulletin of the Central Theoretical Council, issue number (49) (122). The studies indicate a relatively adequate and comprehensive picture of highquality human resources, in terms of both theoretical and practical perspectives, the development of high-quality human resources, particularly the role of education and training in the development of our country’s high-quality human resources through different periods of time, especially the renewal period. The author will inherit, employ and develop these study results in the author’s study. They further provide the author with scentific grounds to clarify the thesis’s areas of study. However, due to the approach and scope of research of each work, none of the studies mentioned above present systematically, comprehensively and specifically education and 8 training with the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. The gap of theory and practice, as well as the importance of studies in the new era has been a pressing issue, urging the author to concentrate on “Education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present” to develop the author’s thesis. Chapter 2 HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES AND THE ROLE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-QUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES IN VIETNAM AT PRSENT 2.1. High-quality human resources and the importance of developing highquality human resources in Vietnam at present 2.1.1. Concept of human resources, high-quality human resources and the development of high-quality human resources * The concept of human resources Based on a synthetic and comprehensive examination and approach of human beings and human being factors and based on a number of concepts available, the author provides a concept as follows: Human resources are a special form of general resource, a resource of labour forces, include overall factors generating the strength of human beings and the social community; are the general of quantity and quality of human beings and mechanism with criteria of physical strength and intellectual power, creating a capability that can be mobilised to the socio-economic development. The human resources consists of current labourers, those in labour age group; those in the labour age group with normal health, unemployed; those who are entering the labour force, or in waiting list, ensuring to meet criteria of physical strength and intellectual power, creating a capability that can be mobilised to the socio-economic development. Those who are unable to work are not included in the connotation of this concept. 9 The human resources has an essential role to be both the driving force and target of the nation’s socio-economic development. * The concept and criteria of high-quality human resources - The concept: Based on the concept of human resources and reality, the thesis puts forward a concept as follows: High-quality human resources is the high-quality component of the human resources, demonstrating the strength and “leading”, key role in all socio-economic performances of the country, the region, locality and areas in each particular period of time. - Assessment criteria (qualitative, quantitative) of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present. Based on the Party’s standpoints and the status of human resources, the country’s high-quality human resources can be considered to include: The competent leaders and managers; specialists and business managers; skilled labourers; scientific and technological personnels. Quantity is the “material essence”, indicating the size of the human resources. Quality is a factor of enormous content, reflecting the comprehensive qualification shown mainly through criteria of quality, qualification, and capability of human force. Mechanism is an important indicator generating the quality and strength of the human resources. Quantitative perspective: Human resources comprises those of education, intelligence, and working capability higher than the general human resources of the country. The quantity of the high-quality human resources should be suitable with the size of the country’s human resources. Qualitative perspective: High-quality human resources currently comprise those with an education background from higher level or skilled workers with an education background from secondary vocational training; those of professional and technical qualification higher than the average of the country’s human resources; those of good practical qualifcation and capability, are innovative, flexible, and able to attract and lead the collective, community in the production, and scientific, political, and social 10 activities; those are in good health to be able to operate in social areas; with a proper mechanism in accordance with the demand for socio-economic development. Quantitative and qualitative matters mentioned above closely incorporate, indicating the quality of this human resources which is more comprehensive and higher than the rest of the country’s human resources. Nevertheless, the reality indicates that the criteria mentioned above should be considered flexibly and specifically in regard to each category of human resources in each particular area, to specify who are included in the connotation of the high-quality human resources; and to avoid unilateral judgment. * Developing high-quality human resources The thesis asserts that: Developing high-quality human resources is a general operation of the Party, State and the whole society as well as labourers, with compatible contents, forms, methods, mechanisms, and policies, particularly education and training in order to create a high-quality human resources with sufficient quantity and proper mechanism, and at the same time to mobilise and bring into full play the role of high-quality human resources in the cause of renewal, national construction and defence in the new era. This is a dialectical process: firstly, the process of education and training to foster each person and the whole high-quality human resources; secondly, the process of using, managing and supplementing new personnels to the high-quality human resources in accordance with practical need; thirdly, the process of mobilising and bringing into full play the role of this human resources in reality. The target of development is to generate a high-quality human resources meeting the real demands; and to mobilise and bring into full play the role of this resouce. Content of the development should be comprehensive in terms of quality, quantity, and mechanism. Forms and measures include activities of planning, resource generation, education and training, management, usage; commendation and reward, discipline; environment creation; mechanism, policy and regulations of treatment; bringing into full play the role and responsibility of subjects and of labourers of high-quality; attaching much attention to education and training, that’s the decisive phase. Subject of the 11 development of high-quality human resources in the new era are the Party, the State, the whole society and the labourers. 2.1.2. The importance of developing high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present Firstly, developing high-quality human resources is a decisive factor to the economic growth; to poverty reduction; and to accelerate social advancement and justice. Secondly, developing high-quality human resources is a pressing demand of the reality, of the knowledge market, of the renewal cause to strengthen the country. 2.2. Concept, role, factors affecting and requirement of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present 2.2.1. The concept of education and training to the development of highquality human resources in Vietnam at present * Concept of education and training Education and training is a self-conscious, purposive activity of subjects that systematically influences the spiritual and physical development, the formation and cultivation of personality, quality and competence, professionalism of the subjects, meeting the demands for social development. Direct subject of education and training is the national education system and the teaching staff. The national education system comprises regular education; education at all levels; pre-school education, general education, vocational training, higher and post-graduate education. Target of education is physical and mental development, the formation and cultivation of personality, quality and competence, and professionalism. In the case of Vietnam, education aims to educate Vietnamese people with a comprehension of morality, intelligence, health, aestheticism and occupation, satisfying demands for the national construction and defense. Content, curricula, methods of education are basic matters reflecting knowledge, competence, qualification that need to be obtained, as well as learning and teaching methods at each level and category of education and training. Advantages and disadvantages of academic, technical and technological education 12 and training should be thoroughly acknowledged and properly handled when determining content, curricula, method renewal at universities at present. * The concept of education and training of high-quality human resources The thesis defines that: Education and training is a self-conscious, purposive activity of subjects that systematically influences the spiritual and physical development, the formation and cultivation of personality, quality and competence, professionalism of the subjects, meeting the demands for social development. Education and training has an overriding important and irreplaceable position. Currently, many countries regard education and training as a national top policy. 2.2.2. The role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present Firstly, education and training providers learners with knowledge, professionalism, and mental competence to satisfy the demands of socio-economic development. Secondly, education and training assists learners to develop and complete personality, professional ethics, and to improve physical fitness to meet the national develoment demands. Thirdly, education and training provides learners with scientific modes of work and rapid adaptability to changes of both national and international working environments. 2.2.3. Factors affecting the education and training of high-quality human resource The thesis analyses major factors: Firstly, impacts of mechanisms and policies promulgated by the Party and the State; secondly, impacts of socio-economic conditions; thirdly, impacts of cultural conditions, psychology, practice and customs; forthly, impacts of international integration; fifthly, impacts of education and training, scientific and technological research and application; sixthly, impacts of biological factors. 2.2.4. Requirements for education and training in the development of highquality human resources in Vietnam at present 13 Firstly, must directly serve the requirements for national socio-economic development. Secondly, must ensure unity between theory and practie, study and practice. Thirdly, must ensure unity between tradition and modernity. Chapter 2’s conclusion High-quality human resources comprise those with an education background from higher level, skilled workers with an education background from secondary vocational training; those of professional and technical qualification higher than the average level; those of good health; those of good practical qualification and capability, and able to attract and lead the collective, community in the production, and scientific, political, and social activities. Developing high-quality human resources is a pressing issue; a decisive factor to the economic growth; to poverty reduction; and to accelerate social advancement and justice. That is general operation of the Party, State, the political system, the whole society, and labourers, with compatible contents, forms, methods, mechanisms, and policies, particularly education and training in order to create a high-quality human resources with sufficient quantity and proper mechanism, and at the same time to mobilise and bring into full play the role of high-quality human resources in the cause of renewal, national construction and defence in the new era. Education and training has an overriding important position in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam. Developing high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present is influenced by many factors, both subjective and objective, social and biological, thus, cautious and thorough considerations should be taken in the implementation of solutions to developing high-quality human resources education and training activities. Satisfying socio-economic demands; and harmonising theory and practice, study and practice, and tradition and modernity are basic requirements for education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in the new era, which should be fully understood and well implemented in reality. 14 Chapter 3 EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHQUALITY HUMAN RESOURCES IN VIETNAM AT PRESENT – REALITY AND ISSUES RAISED 3.1. The real performance of the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present 3.1.1. Achievements of and causes for the performance of the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources * Achievement: Firstly, education and training has foster produced high-quality human resources of knowledge, professional competence, and scientific thinking, initially fulfilling requirements for national development. These achievements are manifested as follows: Content, curricula, methods of high-quality human resources education and training have initially satisfied requirements to equip learners with knowledge, professional qualification and scientific thinking. The provision of knowledge, professional qualification and scientific thinking for learners have been given a special attention by the Party, State and universities. Teaching staff, and education managers generally fulfill demands for providing learners with knowledge, professional qualification and scientific thinking; and material facilities are increasingly improved. Secondly, education and training has initially promoted its role in developing and completing personality, professional ethics, and physical fitness of high-quality human resources, fulfilling demands for the national development. This achievement is manifested through: Content, curricula, and methods of education and training has closely followed general targets for developing, completing personality, professional ethics, and physical fitness and concretised every individual subject and school. The Party, and State have regularly paid due attention to developing the education and training of high-quality human resources in regard to personality, professional ethics 15 and physical fitness. Teaching staff, and education managers generally fulfill demands for providing learners with knowledge, professional qualification and scientific thinking; and material facilities are increasingly improved. Students have attached much importance to the regular and serious self-exercise of physical fitness and health. Thirdly, education and training has enabled learners to develop scientific working methods and to be highly adaptable to both domestic and international working environments. This achievement is presented through: Curricula, content and methods are relatively reasonable, concerning about cultivating learners with scientific working methods and adaptability to both domestic and international working environments. The Party, State as well as the Ministry of Education and Training always attach special importance to foster learners with scientific working methods and adaptability to both domestic and international working environments. Teaching staff, managers; material facilities for practice, research, application, and for improving scientific working methods and adaptability to national and international working environments initially meet the real demands. Students have attempted to train themselves with scientific working methods and adaptability to national and international working environments. * Causes for achievements: The thesis concentrates on analysing major causes as follows: The State, Party and the whole society concern about education and training, the development of human resources in general, and high-quality human resources in particular. Our people are possessed of traditional fondness for learning, are of fine characteristics and virtue. Socio-economic conditions require and create favourable conditions for the development of education and training to develop human resources. Efforts of education institutes, teaching staff and education managers. 3.1.2. Limitations and causes for the performance of the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources 16 * Limitations: Firstly, the provision and fostering of knowledge, professional qualification, thinking, and working methods to develop high-quality human resources still exposes limitations and shortcomings. There is still a gap of education content, curricula, and methods between Vietnam and the world, falling short of requirements for developing high-quality human resources. Care for the provision and fostering of knowledge, professional qualification, thinking, and working methods for highquality human resources remains limited and inadequate. The provision and fostering of knowledge, professional qualification, thinking, and working methods for learners by teaching staff and education managers remains limited. Material facilities for education and training to provide and foster knowledge, professional qualification, thinking, and working methods for high-quality human resources are still insufficient and backward at many schools. Professional competence and practical performances of high-quality human resources including those holding academic degree and title are still limited. Secondly, the education of personality, professional ethics, and physical exercise has not been given due attention to. The Party and State’s attention to the education of personality, professional ethics, and physical exercise remains inadequate. Determination to improve oneself, to overcome difficulties and hardship, to make contributions of students and high-quality personnel is quite complicated. The education and improvement of physical health for learners falls short of proper conditions and is improperly considered. Thirdly, the provision of scientific working methods and adaptability to national and international working environments to learners is still low. The provision of scientific working methods and adaptability to national and international working environments to learners has not been paid due attention to. The implementation of Party and State’s policies on providing learners with scientific working methods remains ineffective. Teaching staff, education managers; material facilities for the provision of scientific working methods and adaptability to national and international working environments are still limited, falling short of actual requirements. 17 * Causes of limitations: Major causes should be taking into account as follows: Awareness of the role of high-quality human resources and of education and training in the development of these human resources of the Party, the State and the society remains limited. Mechanism, policy and management methods are still inadequate, and slow to be resolved. Material facilities, study and practice conditions for learners remain limited and insufficient; students still have a lack of awareness of self-study. 3.2. Contradictions need to be solved in bringing into full play the role of education and training in the development of high-quality human resources in Vietnam at present 3.2.1. Contradiction between the requirement to have a contingent of education and training staff for the development of high-quality human resources and limitations of this contingent in universities in Vietnam at present The development of high-quality human resources is impossible without a satisfactory contingent of edudcation and straining staff. The current contingent possesses numerous strengths, however, still indicates weaknesses, insufficient quantity, inadequate mechanism, and poor quality. Settling these contraditions is of essential importance, requiring the establishment of a strong contingent of competent education and training staff for the training of high-quality human resources. 3.2.2. Contradition between the requirements to have a sound environment for the education and training of high-quality human resources with the backwardness of education and training environment at universities in Vietnam at present A democratic, sound, impartial, and serious environment is essential to the education and training of high-quality human resources in universities. Such an environment in our country remains closed, lack of democracy and equality, full of negations, and subsidy-heavy, and does not create conditions for teaching staff to uphold their capability and for learners to develop their self-consciousness. Resolving this contradition is purely creating environments, calling for great efforts of the whole 18 society, the whole education and training system, particularly universities on the basis of new ideologies of education and training. 3.2.3. Contradition between the high demand of education and training in the market economy with the stability of education and training of high-quality human resources in universities in Vietnam at present The dynamism of the market economy creates favourable conditions for and impluses the dynamism of education and training of high-quality human resources in universities. Nevertheless, the education and training work in universities maintains long-term stability and fairly big stagnations. This contradition requires a fundamental and comprehensive renovation of education and training in universities. 3.2.4. Contradition between the requirement to have high-quality human resources with shortcomings of mechanism, and policies for education and training of high-quality human resources in universities in Vietnam at present In Vietnam at present, mechanism and policies related to education and training of high-quality human resources in universities have not been built synchronously, properly and efficiently. The role, responsibility, task and rights of education and training subjects have not been clearly instituted, limiting driving forces and resources for improving education and training quality in universities. Addressing this contradiction requires a fundamental and comprehensive renewal of education and training mechanism and policies to make them synchronous, proper and efficient, well satisfying the real demands. 3.2.5. Contradiction between enterprise’s high demand for high-quality human resources with inadequate quality of university graduates in Vietnam at present This contradiction manifests in the fact that: universities have not “produced” products that can satisfy and quickly adapt to needs which are increasingly higher and stricter of labour users; graduates have not met the demands of production and business. Addressing this contradiction requires thorough understanding of developing education and training to develop high-quality human resources are a
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