Determination of factors affecting brand in marketing

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RESEARCH PROJECT (BMBR5108) DETERMINATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING BRAND IN MARKETING STUDENT’S FULLNAME : HUYNH VAN BINH STUDENT ID : CGSVN00015023 INSTRUCTOR: : Dr. PHAN DINH NGUYEN INTAKE : MARCH 2013 Class: : MBAOUM0313-K08A Ho Chi Minh, September 2014 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh Advisor’s assessment ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… _____________________________________ Advisor’s signature 2 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I would like to give special thanks to for being an excellent professor, advisor, thesis committee chair, and mentor. I appreciate all the insight and time he put into helping me with my thesis. I am also grateful to him for teaching me the basics, and advancing my knowledge and expertise. I’d like to thanks Dr. Phan Dinh Nguyen, who helped me in the data analysis. Many thanks my classmates in MBA class. My special gratitude is extended to all instructors, staff and students of Ho Chi Minh City Open University for their support and the valuable knowledge during my study. Huynh Van Binh 3 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh ABSTRACT The marketing effort orientated to towards strengthening the brand means to increase the degree of knowledge of the brand name. In this paper we want to show the relationship between marketing effort and brand awareness and brand image. Starting out from a theoretical review, we set out a model of effects of the marketing effort -as the brand's antecedents- on brand awareness and brand image. In order to test the defined structural model and research hypotheses empirical research was conducted on the sample of undergraduate students of the Ho Chi Minh City Open University. The structural model of the effects of marketing mix elements on brand equity is defined in line with the existing theoretical findings. Research hypotheses are defined according to the identified structural model. Research results indicate that the structural model has an acceptable level of fit to the empirical data. The estimated structural coefficients and indirect effect coefficients indicate the direction and intensity of effects of each analysed element of marketing mix on brand awareness and brand image. Finally, implications of research results for the theory and practice of brand management are analysed and discussed. KEY WORDS: Brand Image, Brand Awareness, marketing effort, Measurement,Model. 4 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………… Table of Contents Figures …………………………………………………….......................... 3 4 1 Chapter1 : Introduction ……………………………………………………………………… 1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………........................ 1.2 Research Background ………………………………………………………......................... 1.3 ResearchMotives ……………………………………………………………........................ 1.4 Problemstatement ……………………………………………………………....................... 1.5 Research Ojective ……………………………………………………………....................... 1.6 Research methodology and design …………………………………………………………. 1.7 Research Procedure ………………………………………………………………………… 6 6 2 Chapter 2 : Literature review ………………………………………………………………. 2.1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………… 2.2 Brand ………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.2.1Brand Awareness ………………………………………………………………………… 2.2.2Brand image ……………………………………………………………………………… 2.3Marketing efforts…………………………………………………………………………… 2.3.1Advertising 13…………………………………………………………………………….. 2.3.2Distribution intensity……………………………………………………………………... 2.3.3Store image ………………………………………………………………………………. 2.3.4Price deals ………………………………………………………………………………… 2.4 Relationship between marketing effort and brand awareness and brand image…………… 2.5 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Chapter 3 : Methodology …………………………………………………………………… 3.1Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………… 3.2Research design …………………………………………………………………………….. 3.3Item generation ……………………………………………………………………………... 3.3.1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………. 3.3.2Operationalization of measures………………………………………………………….... 3.4 Preliminary study ………………………………………………………………………….. 3.5 Main survey………………………………………………………………………………… 3.5.1Brand selection…………………………………………………………………………..... 3.5.2Sampling ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3.6 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………. 12 12 12 14 15 17 18 18 19 20 24 25 27 27 27 28 28 29 33 35 36 36 37 4 Chapter 4 : Research results ………………………………………………………………… 4.1Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………. 4.2Descriptions of sample………………………………………………………………………. 5 38 7 8 9 10 10 38 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh 4.3Scales assessment ………………………………………………………………………….. 4.3.1Reliability testing ………………………………………………………………………… 4.3.2Exploratory factor analysis ………………………………………………………………. 4.4Testing the research model and the hypotheses ……………………………………………. 4.4.1Testing correlations between all constructs ……………………………………………… 4.4.2Testing research model………………………………………………………………….... 4.4.2.1 The relationship between marketing efforts and the brand awareness………………… 4.4.2.2 The relationship between marketing efforts and the brand image…………………....... 4.5Testing the effect of brand awareness and brand image on the year in college:……………. 4.6Findings and conclusion ……………………………………………………………………. 4.6.1Findings …………………………………………………………………………………… 4.6.2Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………... 5 Chapter 5 : Conclusions and implications ………………………………………………… 5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………… 5.2 Conclusions of the study …………………………………………………………………… 5.2.1 Summary of all hypotheses……………………………………………………………….. 5.2.2 Conclusions of the study ………………………………………………………………..... 5.3 Implications of the study …………………………………………………………………… 5.4 Limitations and recommendations for further research……………………………………… 40 42 42 45 46 47 48 49 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 57 58 List of References………………………………………………………………………………. Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………… 59 63 6 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh Chapter1 : Introduction 1.1 Introduction This chapter portrays general introduction for the current study with which research background, research motives, research objectives, and research procedures are background, research motives, research objectives, and research procedures are provided as the rationale for this study. An introduction to the methodology to be used and the scope of the study is also addressed in this chapter. At the end of the chapter, the structure of this study is provided. The Outline of this chapter is shown in figure 1. 1.2 Research Background Kathman (2002) described the importance of brand building based on today’s market situation. The author said that as the use of new media (e.g., internet), the rate of transformation in marketplace, and the speed of globalization increase, the role of branding becomes more important than any other season. Kathman added that market fragmentation, product diversity, and short-life-cycle brands also show the importance of building brand equity in the present market situation. The author concluded that brand building is the only way to thrive their business in today’s market situation. The author also added that, in these days, we have many products and brands and the market is segmented so much that make it difficult for the audience to recognize or recall the brand. Studies on branding issue receive the great attention in marketing area in other countries. The growing interest is reflected in the proliferating conferences, articles and press attention on branding, as well as the companies’ huge investments on this area. Brands are powerful strategic weapons which, if handled correctly and managed sensibly, can provide their owners with considerable rewards in terms of 7 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh market share growth and corporate profitability (Aaker, 1996). Branding has always been crucial for anyone who wants to sell something to gain credibility (Keller, 2003). Yet, the concept of a brand which represents the specifics of a product or a company, like a name which describes the character of the person it belongs to, is a new one in Vietnam. Most Vietnamese firms are small or medium sized and have not dealt with problems related to the branding issue. The media had not highlighted it until several Vietnamese brands were recently appropriated overseas (VnExpress, 2002; VET, 2003). The severe shortage of commodities in the late 1980s and early 1990s consolidated manufacturer’s lack of awareness about branding, particularly bearing in mind the low per capita income of Vietnamese people. But the mushrooming of new producers and service suppliers and the arrival of foreign competitors has caused things to change drastically. An abundance of goods and services of higher quality, advanced technologies, and shorter product life spans have forced local businesses to think seriously about building brands which can give them long term and sustainable development (VET, 2003). Right now, building brands is a very important issue in developing country as Vietnam, and it can be considered to be a useful topic for conceptual development and managerial relevance. In several studies, brand awareness and image are considered the most important components of brand equity (Keller, 1993). However, only a few studies delved into how these components are correlated with products or services. 1.3 Research Motives To date, there have been a number of studies that have attempted to examine how consumers think about, respond to, and classify brands within their minds. Branding literature has provided theoretical perspectives to help marketers understand the construct of brand. Brand equity has become a hot topic for chief executives, 8 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh accountants and academics as it is tipped to join other critical measures of long-term business performance. At the same time, the 'knowledge economy' is becoming an accepted It is perhaps framework for management thinking, planning and organisation surprising, therefore, that the designated marketing function in so many companies has done so little to advance the management of one of their most value-adding has done so little to advance the management of one of their most value-adding activities - brand knowledge. Indeed, it is nearly 40 years since Theodore Levitt pointed out the unique perspective of marketing: "The difference between marketing and selling is more than semantic. Selling focuses on the needs of the seller, marketing on the needs of the buyer. Selling is preoccupied with the seller's need to convert the product into cash, marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by means of the product and the whole cluster of things associated with creating, delivering, and finally consuming it.” During those four decades, marketing departments have grown as substantially as their budgets, huge quantities of data swamp the brand teams and yet the evidence suggests they have not strengthened their grip on 'knowing and understanding' their users better. Over the same period the reputation of the marketing function has declined in many companies. 1.4 Problem statement Based on the importance of brand awareness and brand image to the company’s surviving, we manage to investigate to what extent the students know about the brand of motocyces (brand awareness) and what kinds perception of the brand of motocycles as reflected by the brand association held in target customers’memory (brand image). 9 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh 1.5 Research Ojective The aim of this paper is to find out the effect of the marketing effort, measured by means of the perceptions of the consumers, on two dimensions of brand equity: brand awareness and brand image. This paper is included within a major investigation that seeks to develop and to contrast a model which allows the measurement of the brand equity through: the influence of the marketing effort of the companies (measured by means of actions of prices, product, distribution and communication) on dimensions of brand equity -brand awareness and brand image. The marketing effort, translated partially to (1) perceived advertising spending, (2) distribution intensity, (3) store image and (4) Price deals , is considered as (a) antecedent in the formation of the level of knowledge of the brand name (Rossiter & Percy, 1987; Aaker, 1991) and (b) determinant of the associations linked to its image (Alba & Hutchinson, 1987; Yoo, Donthu & Lee, 2000). From the theoretical review on brand value we construct a theoretical model of causal relationships between the marketing efforts and the dimensions of brand equity_ brand awareness and brand image. This is defined as a set of assets and liabilities linked to the brand, which adds or subtracts value to or from a product in its relationships with customers (Aaker, 1991). To contrast the model, the linear regression model is applied. Following, Yoo et al. (2000), we analyse how each of the components of brand equity is affected reviously by the perception of the market about the marketing effort the company develops concerning brands. To verify our model we carry out an empirical research of a consumers' sample of a durable goods (motocycle) which we submitted to a questionnaire of attitudes. Once its reliability and validity was determined, this questionnaire could be used for the application of the structural model. To serve this task, two questions need to be 10 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh answered: Q1:Is there a relationship between marketing effort and two dimensions of brand equity: brand awareness and brand image? Q2: Is there any difference of brand awareness and brand image among year in college? 1.6 Research methodology and design The study comprises two phases: The pilot study and the main survey. The Pilot study includes qualitative and quantitative stages. Qualitative stage was conducted to collect the appropriate response scheme from students at University of Technology. These items will be measured in the pilot quantitative study for their relevance and reliability. Finally, the main survey was carried out to test the research hypotheses, answer research questions and fulfill research objectives Cronbach alpha was used to measure the reliability of the scale, exploratory factor analysis was applied to identified correct factors and multiple linear regression was performed to test the significant relationship between each marketing elements dimension on brand awarenss and brand image. 1.7 Research Procedure The procedures of this study are shown in figure 1 11 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh Figure 1-2 : Structure of the study Identifying Research Objectives Collecting and Exploring Related Literature Establishing Research Framework Data Collection Data Analysis Conclusions and Suggestion 12 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh Chapter 2 : Literature review 2.1 Introduction The previous chapter introduces an overview of the study background, the research objective and the research motives and research procedure. This chapter searches and reviews relevant theories in the literature. The aim of this review is to propose a research model of marketing efforts and brand awareness and brand image, to generate hypotheses that will be tested in chosing motocycles of the students to answer the research questions and to confirm the research model. Figure 2-1 : The structure of Chapter 2 Introduction Brand Marketing efforts Relationship between marketing mix and brand awareness and brand image Conclusion 2.2 Brand Brands can be defined as a “name, symbol, term, or sign that are intended to identify the goods and services of one particular firm” (Kotler, 1991, p. 442). Consumers’ consumption choices are often based on brand names that help to differentiate one product from another. Branding researchers have tried to conceptualize the value of a brand or brand equity (Faircloth et al., 2001). In the general sense, brand equity can be defined as the “marketing effects that are 13 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh uniquely attributable to the brand” (Keller, 1993, p. 1). In other words, because of the product or service’s brand name, different outcomes may result from the same marketing activity (Keller, 1993). Customer-based brand equity is centered on the idea of how a consumer’s knowledge of the brand affects the consumer’s response to the brand’s marketing activity (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993). From the perspective of the Customer-based Brand Equity model, brand knowledge is the key to creating brand equity, because it creates the differential effect that drives brand equity. What marketers need, then, is an insightful way to represent how brand knowledge exists in consumer memory. An influential model of memory developed by psychologists is helpful in that regard. The associative network memory model views memory as a network of nodes and links, in which nodes represent stored information or concepts and links represent the strength of association between this information or concepts. Any type of information can be stored in the memory network, including information that is verbal, visual, abstract or contextual in nature. Consistent with the associative network memory model, brand knowledge is conceptualized here as consisting of a brand node in memory with a variety of associations linked to it. In particular, Keller (1993) suggests that brand knowledge consists of two components – brand awareness and brand image – which are discussed in detail in the next two sections. 14 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh Figure 2-2 : Dimensions of Brand Knowledge, Keller (1993). Brand knowledge Brand Image Uniquess of Brand Associations Favourability of Brand Associations Stregth of Brand Assocuations Brand Awareness Types of Brand Associations Attribute Brand Reconition Brand Recall Attitudes Benefits Functional None Product Related Experiential Product Related Symbolic Packaging User Imagery Price Usage Imagery 2.2.1 Brand Awareness The ease and likelihood to which a brand name comes to mind describes the concept of brand awareness (Keller, 1993). Brand awareness reflects the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumer’s minds (Pappu, Quester, & Cooksey, 2005), and it is related to the strength of the brand node or trace in memory in relation to the consumer’s ability to identify the brand in various conditions (Rossiter & Percy,1987). Brand awareness can be demonstrated in the forms of brand recall and brandrecognition (Keller, 1993). Brand recall occurs when the brand name is evoked bymemory in response to a cue such as a product category name (Hutchinson & Raman, 1994). Distinguishable from brand recall, brand recognition can be conceptualized as the consumer’s ability to verify previous exposure to the 15 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh brand when the brand is given as a cue (Keller, 1993). In other words, brand recognition occurs when the consumer is exposed to the brand and is able to identify it as being seen or heard previously (Hutchinson & Raman, 1994; Keller, 1993). Researchers have considered recall as a higher level of memory performance than recognition (Aaker, 1991, Washburn & Plank, 2002). In other words, if a consumer is able to recall a brand outside a store when given the product category as a cue, then the consumer surely can recognize the brand when exposed to it in a store (Keller, 1993, Rossiter & Percy, 1987).Aaker (1991) explains brand awareness as having many levels ranging fromrecognition (being identified as seen or heard previously) at the lowest level, tobrand recall (being evoked in a response to a cue such as product category) at midlevel, to the highest level, the dominant brand or the only brand that can be recalled by a consumer directly from memory (high level of awareness), it can be assumed that the consumer should be able to recognize the brand when exposed to a brand (the low level of awareness). Brand recall and brand recognition provide cues to the consumer which aid determining the set of brands to be considered for consumption (Baker, Hutchinson, Moore, & Nedungadi, 1986). Brand recall and brand recognition have been explored to determine a general understanding of the brand awareness construct 2.2.2 Brand image Along with brand awareness, brand image is an important component of brand knowledge (Keller, 1993). Brand image has been conceptualized as perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations or anything that is linked to the brand in a consumers’ memory (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993). Brand image is shaped by the associations made by consumers and is used to differentiate brands in a product category. Brand associations contain meanings about a brand for the consumer (Keller, 1993). A brand’s image results from the favorability, strength, and uniqueness of brand 16 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh associations that are held by the consumer (Grace & O’Cass, 2002; Keller, 1993). Positive and unique brand associations that are strongly held by consumers enable consumers to build strong, favorable attitudes and emotions toward a brand (Aaker, 1991). Brand associations may include attitudes, attributes, and benefits about a brand Faircloth et al., 2001; Keller, 1993). First, brand attitude, or the overall evaluation a) consumer has of a brand (Wilkie, 1986), may result from the consumer’s perceptions of brand associations in regards to the brand (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993). Beliefs related to product/non-product attributes, brand benefits, and quality perceptions have been discussed as primary influences of brand attitude (Zeithaml, 1988). Brand attitude functions as a point of reference when the consumer is exposed to the brand by having a direct influence on consumption (Lutz, 1991). Next, what a consumer thinks the product is or descriptive features that characterize the product are referred to as attributes (Keller, 1993). Attributes can be grouped into two types: product-related and non-product related. Product related attributes are those that “relate to a product’s physical composition,” (Keller, 1993, p. 4). Product-related attributions could be directly linked to the product performance. Nonproduct related attributes have been defined as “external aspects of the product or service that relate to its purchase or consumption” (Keller, 1993, p. 4). For example, user imagery is a non-product related attribute that a brand might posses when associated with characteristics such as user demographics and psychographics (Keller, 1993). Another non-product attribute example is usage imagery, which allows the consumer to associate the brand with the typical situation in which the product would be used such as time of day, the location, or particular activities (Keller, 1993). User and usage imagery attributes may help to formulate brand personality, which is a type of brand association that captures “human characteristics that are associated with a brand” (Aaker, 1997, p. 347). Personality descriptors given to the brand are often an outcome of inferences that are made about the users or usage of the brand or a combination of both (Plummer, 1985). 17 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh Finally, brand benefits are what consumers think the product or service can do for them and reflect the personal value that consumers attach to the brand (Keller,1993). Benefits may be functional, symbolic, or experiential (Park, Jaworski, &MacInnis, 1986). Functional benefits more commonly satisfy needs associated with problem removal or prevention (Kim, Forsythe, Gu, & Moon, 2002). Symbolic benefits tend to be related to non-product related attributes and often associated with underlying needs of social approval, self-esteem, and selfconcept (Keller, 1993; Solomon, 1983). Experiential benefits relate specifically to how a consumer feels when using the product and often satisfy cognitive stimulation and sensory pleasure needs (Orth & De Marchi, 2007). Keller (1998) proposed that brand equity comes from the effects of brand marketing which was regarded as consumer brand knowledge. He showed that brand knowledge is one kind of memory mode of associative networks which are composed of brand awareness and brand image. He suggested that brand images are reflected by types of brand associations, favorability of brand associations, strength of brand associations, and uniqueness of brand associations. Brand image is a result of consumers decoding of all the signals delivered by the brand such as brand name, visual signs, products, sponsoring, and advertising (Kapferer, 1994). Danesi (2006) proposes that the use of brand name enables consumers not only to recognize certain goods and distinguish them from others, but also to associate connotative meanings to them. Therefore, it allows consumers to decode brand image. 2.3 Marketing efforts Any marketing effort will be positively related to brand equity when it leads to a more favorable behavioral response to the focal product than to the equivalent unbranded product. As proposed in the conceptual framework, managerial efforts manifested in controllable marketing actions are related to brand equity through the mediation of the dimensions of brand equity. Therefore, to create, to manage, and to exploit brand equity, the relationships of marketing efforts to the dimensions of brand equity must be determined. 18 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh We investigate consumers' perceptions of four selected strategic marketing elements: advertising, price deals, store image and distribution intensity. The selected factors do not embrace all types of marketing efforts but are representative enough to demonstrate the relationships between marketing efforts and brand awareness and brand image. 2.3.1 Advertising Advertising originated from the word “adverture” in Latin language means attractiveness, charm and allurement. According to the Vietnamese dictionary, Advertising means “propagandize, introduce goods, services or undertakings to consumers in many way with the purpose of persuading them to buy these goods or services and thus promote the goods and services”. According to the Oxford dictionary, advertising is drawing attention to or describing favourably (goods or services) in a public medium to promote sales or making them generally or publicly known, or seeking by public notice to make them so known. Advertising is a paid form of a nonpersonal message communicated by business firms, non-profit organizations, or individuals and is transmitted to a target audience through mass media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, outdoor displays or mass - transit vehicles. The main objectives of advertising is informing and persuading consumers to purchase specific brands offered by the advertisers, thereby getting profits. However, advertising is also used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as AIDS, political ideology, energy conservation, religious recruitment, deforestation and charity. Thus, as far as language alone is concerned, the notion of advertising not only covers the giving of information about goods and services to promote sales but also its use to inform, propagandize and motivate the public regarding social and cultural life. 2.3.2 Distribution intensity Distribution intensity has been commonly defined as the number of intermediaries 19 Determination of Factors Affecting Brand in Marketing – Huynh Van Binh used by a manufacturer within its trade areas (cf. Bonoma and Kosnik 1990; Corey, Cespedes, and Rangan 1989; Stern, El-Ansary, and Coughlan 1996). Sometimescalled “place”(causing the marketing mix to be referred to as the “ four Ps”), distribution is also concerned with the phycical movement of products. With distribution, marketing managers are concerned with marketing structure and channels of distribution_those wholesalers, distributors, retailers, agents, and other responsible for getting goods and services to customers. Ideal distribution intensity would make a brand available widely enough to satisfy, but not exceed, target customers' needs, because oversaturation increases marketing costs without providing benefits (McCarthy and Perreault 1984). There are three broad options intensive, selective and exclusive distribution: outlets used (e.g. cigarettes, beer). Intensive distribution is usually required where Intensive distribution aims to provide saturation coverage of the market by using all available outlets. For many products, total sales are directly linked to the number of customers have a range of acceptable brands to chose from. In other words, if one brand is not available, a customer will simply choose another. Selective distribution involves a producer using a limited number of outlets in ageographical area to sell products. An advantage of this approach is that the producer can choose the most appropriate or best-performing outlets and focus effort (e.g. training) on them. Selective distribution works best when consumers are prepared to "shop around" - in other words - they have a preference for a particular brand or price and will search out the outlets that supply. Exclusive distribution is an extreme form of selective distribution in which only one wholesaler, retailer or distributor is used in a specific geographical area. 2.3.3 Store image Store image has a long history of changing conceptualizations. This change ndicates the difficulties that researchers have in defining the construct (e.g., Sewell,1974). Martineau (1958) is the first one that put the concept of store image into retail business. He first defined store personality or image as follows. The way consumers 20
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