Curriculum english for nutrition and food siences

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HUMAN DIET 35 6 HUMAN DIET READING COMPREHENSION Because the human diet is typically diverse, human beings are classified as omnivores rather than as herbivores (plant eaters) or carnivores (meat eaters). Certain groups of people do derive most of their food from animal sources while other people practice vegetarianism. By far the 5 majority of humankind, however, eats a wide range of foods of both animal and vegetable origin. Prehistoric humans were hunter-gatherers who fed on animals, insects, berries, roots, and leaves. The range of dietary choices was extended when humans learned how to use fire for cooking and when they developed weapons for hunting and trapping 10 larger game; most importantly, they eventually learned how to rear animals for their own use and how to cultivate crops. Today some isolated groups are still hunter-gatherers, but most human diets derive from agriculture and animal husbandry. Asian-style noodles Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 36 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Italian-style pasta 15 Social factors and cultural practices in most countries have a great influence on what people eat, on how they prepare food, on their feeding practices, and on the foods they prefer. Throughout history, different societies have exhibited great variations in diet. But during the 20th century, greatly increased world trade and improved communications 20 have resulted in major changes in the variety of foods eaten in many countries. Asian cuisines have become popular in Europe and North America, and Western "fast foods" are increasingly available in developing countries. In general, the staple food in most countries has not changed. 25 Throughout history, as long as the food supply was sufficient the traditional diets of most cultures have provided all the essential nutrients. These are divided into macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). In general, humans obtain most of their food energy from carbohydrates (perhaps 65% worldwide); 30 lesser amounts come from fat (about 20%) and protein (about 15%), mainly from meat and fish. The major cause of undernutrition and nutritional-deficiency diseases has seldom been traditional food habits. The usual cause has been a lack of adequate food due to poverty or consumption of too limited a variety of 35 food. Infectious diseases and lack of care contribute importantly to malnutrition in children. Protein-energy malnutrition is generally due to consumption of too little food, and micronutrient deficiencies such as anemia, iodine deficiency disorders, and pellagra are due to diets inadequate in specific minerals and vitamins. 40 Advances in agriculture and food-processing techniques have afforded the potential of increased food supply and a nutritionally enriched diet, but modernization and Westernization of food habits have also had deleterious effects. For example, at the turn of the 20th century new rice milling techniques caused an outbreak of beriberi (a thiamine-deficiency 45 disease) in Asia, resulting in millions of deaths. The substitution of bottle-feeding for breast-feeding among poor families in developing countries has been responsible for a great deal of malnutrition and diarrhea, as well as infant deaths. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 37 Increasingly, changes in diets in the developing countries due to 50 Westernization and greater affluence has led to an increase in chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and certain cancers. These diseases are already major causes of mortality in the industrialized countries. Much of this is related to high intakes of foods of animal origin and a greater percentage of food energy coming from fats, oils, and sugar and less coming from complex carbohydrates. Questions: Answer the questions about the reading. 1) Why are human beings classified as omnivores? 2) When was the range of dietary choices extended? 3) What has the major cause of undernutrition and nutritionaldeficiency diseases been? 4) What is the harmful effect of the substitution of bottle-feeding for breast-feeding among poor families in developing countries? 5) What have changes in diets in the developing countries resulted in? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false. 1) _____ The major cause of nutritional-deficiency diseases has been traditional food habits. 2) _____ Most groups of people do derive most of their food from animal sources. 3) _____ Today no groups are still hunter-gatherers. 4) _____ Social factors and cultural practices in most countries have a great influence on their feeding practices. 5) _____ Modernization and Westernization of food habits have also had harmful effects. VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box. reared hypertension malnutrition mortality bottle-feeding feed deficiency vegetarian staple diet breast-feeding 1) If you …………… your dog on cakes and biscuits, it's not surprising he's so fat. 2) A clean water supply played a large part in reducing the …………… rate. 3) A well-balanced …………… diet can be a lot healthier for you than the average meat-eater's diet because it contains less fat and more fiber. 4) The scientists tracked one lot of infected meat back to the farms where the animals had been ……………. 5) Infectious diseases and lack of care contribute importantly to …………… in children. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 38 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 6) …………… is extremely beneficial to the health of newborn babies. 7) Pregnant women often suffer from iron ……………. 8) We are conducting extensive research into treatments for ………… and heart disease. 9) Bamboo is the panda's ……………. 10) She started …………… her baby when she went back to work. WORD STUDY A. WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES Some common adjective endings are -al, -able, -ful, -less, -t, and -ous. Look at the words in the list below. Notice the endings on the adjectives. See how the adjectives are related to the other words. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) adjective experimental natural preventable suitable believable successful violent different religious useful, useless verb experiment — prevent suit believe succeed — differ — use noun experiment nature prevention — belief success violence difference religion use Exercise: Choose the best word to complete each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in sentence 1, and so on. 1) Scientists have planted jojoba and euphorbia crops on …………… farms in several countries. 2) The ancient Egyptians used plants as ……………………medicine to treat diseases. 3) Many common diseases of the 19th century are …………………… now. People no longer get sick from these diseases. 4) There are many wild plants in the woods, but not all of them are ……………………for humans to eat. 5) I don’t ……………………your story about meeting people from Mars. I don’t think it’s true. 6) The first experiment with the new crop did not ………………… . The plants died, and the scientists had to begin again. 7) Some people think that television is too …………………… . There are too many programs that show people fighting and killing each other. 8) It can be very cold in parts of the United States during the winter, but it is almost never cold in Australia. The …………………… in Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 39 weather is very great in these two areas of the world. 9) Helen goes to church every day and often reads the Bible. She is very ……………………. 10) The jojoba is a very …………………… plant. It can be used to soothe burns, to make hair shiny, and to make a drink similar to coffee. B. WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES Adjectives have only one form. They can never be plural. Look at these examples: We have a two-week vacation from school in March. It is a four-hour flight from Chicago to Los Angeles. Exercise: Change the words in bold print to hyphenated adjectives and rewrite the sentences. The first one is done for you. 1) A flight from Los Angeles to London is ten hours. It is a ten-hour flight from Los Angeles to London. 2) High school students in California have a summer vacation for three months. ……………………………………………………………………… 3) It is a long drive from Toronto to Winnipeg. It takes four days. ……………………………………………………………………… 4) It is a short trip from New York to Boston. It is only 200 kilometers. ……………………………………………………………………… C. WORD FORMS Look at the list of verbs, nouns, and adjectives below. Notice how they are related to each other. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Verb — — persuade protect continue — enjoy suggest solve organize Noun scene, scenery science, scientist persuasion protection continuation history, historian enjoyment suggestion solution organization Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn Adjective scenic scientific persuasive protective continuous historical enjoyable suggestive — organized 40 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Exercise: Choose the correct word for each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in sentence 1, and so on. 1) Kei brought a book of photographs of Japan to class last week. Japan has very beautiful ………………………. We saw pictures of mountains, lakes, and lovely cherry trees. 2) Chemistry and biology are two kinds of ………………………… . 3) Bill could persuade you to do almost anything. He is a very ………………………… person. He talked me into going camping in Yellowstone National Park. 4) Some of the huge redwood trees in California are under the ………………………… of the National Park Service. The service keeps the trees safe and healthy. 5) Workers can become very tired of the ……………………… noise in a factory. The noise never stops. 6) Most countries have a ……………………… museum that explains the history of the country in pictures, films, and art. 7) People of all ages like to go to national parks. A visit to a national park is …………………… for the whole family. 8) I would like to make a ……………………… for your trip. Take a train ride across Canada. I did it last year. The scenery is beautiful. 9) Many countries are trying to ……………………… the problem of the growth of the deserts. 10) The United Nations is an international …………………………. STRUCTURE STUDY REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses are often reduced or contracted as follows: The man who is talking to John is from Korea. The man talking to John is from Korea. English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters. Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome. Anyone wanting to come with us is welcome. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting. The ideas presented in that book are interesting. Half of the people who had been invited to the party didn t turn up. Half of the people invited to the party didn t turn up. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 41 Exercise: Reduce (contract) the underline part of the following sentences: 1) An agreement has been signed to protect the forests which are being cut down all over the world. 2) Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page. 3) Companies that already use computers have found that the number of staff that is needed for stock-control can be substantially reduced. 4) Did you get the message that concerned the special meeting? 5) Do you know the woman who is coming toward us? 6) Her books, which are read by people all over the world, are still immensely popular. 7) I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country. 8) I haven’t yet had an opportunity to think over the proposals that were made at the last meeting. 9) The children who attend that school receive a good education. 10) The experiment which was conducted at the University of Chicago was successful. 11) The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood. 12) The firm’s latest product, which was launched only six months ago, has already captured a significant share of the market. 13) The head office has now moved to new premises which overlook the Thames. 14) The Indians who lived in Peru before the discovery of the New World by Europeans belonged to the Incan culture. 15) The new hostel, which accommodates 200 students, will be opened next month. 16) The people who are being asked to take early retirement are all over the age of 60. 17) The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet. 18) The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries. 19) The scientists who are searching the causes of cancer are making progress. 20) Their letter, which explained why they had not paid promptly, arrived a few days later. 21) They live in a house that was built in 1890. 22) They sent us an invoice that gave details of all the goods that had been ordered. 23) We can deliver within three days any articles that are ordered from stock. 24) We have an apartment which overlooks the park. 25) We received your Giro slip today, which informed us that you had paid £126.00 into your account. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 42 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 7 FOOD POISONING READING COMPREHENSION Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. Such contamination usually arises from improper handling, preparation or storage of food. Foodborne illness can also be caused by 5 adding pesticides or medicines to food, or by accidentally consuming naturally poisonous substances like poisonous mushrooms or reef fish. Contact between food and pests, especially flies, rodents and cockroaches, is a further cause of contamination of food. Although most mushrooms are edible, several species can cause serious poisoning Some common diseases are occasionally foodborne mainly through the 10 water vector, even though they are usually transmitted by other routes. These include infections caused by Shigella, Hepatitis A, and the parasites Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION DEFINITION Foodborne illnesses are defined by the World Health Organization as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is at risk of foodborne illness. Preventing Bacterial Food Poisoning Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD POISONING 43 The prevention is mainly the role of the state, through the definition of 15 strict rules of hygiene and a public service of veterinary survey of the food chain, from farming to the transformation industry and the delivery (shops and restaurants). This regulation includes: • traceability: in a final product, it must be possible to know the origin of the ingredients (originating farm, identification of the 20 harvesting or of the animal) and where and when it was processed; the origin of the illness can thus be tracked and solved (and possibly penalized), and the final products can be removed from the sale if a problem is detected; • respect of hygiene procedures like HACCP and the "cold chain"; 25 • power of control and of law enforcement of the veterinarians. At home, the prevention mainly consists of: • the respect of the food storage and food preservation methods (especially refrigeration), and checking the expiration date; • washing the hands before preparing the meal and before eating; 30 • washing the fresh vegetables with clear water, especially when not cooked (e.g. fruits, salads); • washing the dishes after use; • keeping the kitchen clean. Spray washing of harvested tomatoes prior to processing. Bacteria need warmth, moisture, food and time to grow. The presence, 35 or absence, of oxygen, salt, sugar and acidity are also important factors for growth. In the right conditions, one bacterium can multiply using binary fission to become four million in eight hours. Since bacteria can be neither smelled nor seen, the best way to ensure that food is safe is to follow principles of good food hygiene. This includes not allowing raw 40 or partially cooked food to touch dishes, utensils, hands or work surfaces previously used to handle even properly cooked or ready to eat food. High salt, high sugar or high acid levels keep bacteria from growing, Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 44 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES which is why salted meats, jam, and pickled vegetables are traditional 45 preserved foods. The most frequent causes of bacterial foodborne illness are crosscontamination and inadequate temperature control. Therefore control of these two matters is especially important. Thoroughly cooking food until it is piping hot, i.e. above 70°C will 50 quickly kill virtually all bacteria, parasites or viruses, except for Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens, which produces a heat-resistant spore that survives temperatures up to 100°C. Once cooked, hot foods should be kept hot – above 63°C stops microbial growth. 55 Cold foods should be kept cold, below 5°C (41°F). However, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica can both grow at refrigerator temperatures. Questions: Answer the questions about the reading. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is food poisoning according to the WHO? How are foodborne diseases are transmitted? What regulations should be observed to avoid food poisoning? What must be done at home to avoid poisoning? What are the most frequent causes of bacterial foodborne illness? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false. 1) _____ Contact between food and pests is also a cause of contamination of food. 2) _____ All diseases are occasionally foodborne mainly through the water vector. 3) _____ The prevention against bacterial food poisoning is mainly the role of the state. 4) _____ Bacteria need warmth, moisture, food and time to grow. 5) _____ Cooking food until above 70°C will kill all bacteria, parasites or viruses. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD POISONING 45 VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box. veterinary spore vectors ingredient food chain expiration hygiene poisonous viruses contaminated 1) The best way to ensure that food is safe is to follow principles of good food ……………. 2) The drinking water has become …………… with lead. 3) Can you tell me the difference between …………… mushrooms and edible varieties? 4) Following the outbreak of the disease, several sheep and lambs were destroyed on …………… advice. 5) Sheep products are being fed to cows, thereby passing into the human ……………. 6) Coconut is a basic …………… for many curries. 7) The …………… date on this yogurt was November 20. 8) Mosquitoes are the …………… of malaria. 9) This group of bacteria have the ability to change into a dormant form called a …………… if the cell starts to run out of food. 10) In humans, …………… cause such illnesses as the common cold, flu and measles. WORD STUDY A. -IZE You can change some words into verbs by adding the suffix -ize. The suffix -ize means “to make into (something)” or “to cause to be (something).” Here is an example: Radio helped to popularize country music. popular + -ize = to make something (country music) popular Spelling Note: When a word ends in y, drop they before adding -ize. Exercise: Add the suffix -ize to each word. Then choose the best word for each sentence. Be sure to use the correct tense. memory …………………… winter …………………… colony …………………… special …………………… modern …………………… industrial …………………… Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 46 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 1) Spain and Portugal started many new cities in the New World, especially south of Mexico. These two countries ………………… most of Central and South America. 2) The Greens bought a beautiful old house in the country. They ………………………… the kitchen by adding a dishwasher, a microwave, and a new refrigerator. The rest of the house is not modern. It has simple furniture and old wood floors, but it’s very nice. 3) Victor is studying engineering at the university. After two years of general studies, he wants to ………………………… in biomedical engineering. 4) Sometimes there are no rules for irregular verbs in English. If you want to remember them, you have to ………………………… them and use them often. 5) Every fall I take my car to the auto mechanic. He changes the oil and adds some chemicals to help it run well during the winter. He thinks all people should ………………………… their cars to prevent problems during the very cold months. 6) Developing countries want to …………………………as fast as possible. They want to change from a society of farm workers to a society of modern factory workers. Having a strong industry will help these countries grow. B. -IVE Adjectives that end with the suffix -ive mean “able to do something.” Here is an example: David is very persuasive. He can persuade people to do almost anything. Exercise: Look at the list of adjectives with the suffix -ive. Notice how they are related to other words. Then choose the best adjective for each sentence. adjective (un)productive (un)imaginative (in)active (non)destructive (un)protective other forms product (noun) imagine (verb) act (verb) destruction (noun) protect (verb) 1) Ahmed is very ………………………… in the International Student Organization. He goes to meetings every week and helps the new members get to know each other. 2) Desert soil is ………………………… without water. Even desert plants need water. Without it, the soil becomes dry and cannot produce healthy plants. 3) The storms were very …………………………. The winds knocked over trees and damaged houses. 4) Writers and artists are very …………………………people. They Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD POISONING 47 need to have wild imaginations to create stories and paintings. 5) Ms. Miller is very …………………………of her children. She worries that something bad will happen to one of them, so she tries to protect them and keep them safe. C. WORD FORMS Exercise: Look at the words in the list. Notice how they are related to each other. Then choose the best word for each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in sentence 1, and so on. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) verb prepare value encourage — imagine 6) produce 7) discover 8) depend 9) educate 10) colonize noun preparation value encouragement ice imagination product / production discovery (in)dependence education colony adjective — valuable encouraging icy (un)imaginative / (un)imaginable (un)productive — (in)dependent / (un)dependable educational colonial 1) A big holiday dinner requires special ………………… . We clean the house and spend hours and hours in the kitchen preparing everything we need. It is a lot of work and a lot of fun. 2) Gold is more …………… than silver. It is always more expensive. 3) George succeeded at the university because his parents gave him so much ………………… Every day they told him to keep working hard. They told him they were proud of him. They knew he could do it, and he did. 4) Yesterday afternoon it rained, and at night the temperature dropped below zero. In the morning the streets were covered with …………………………. Driving was very dangerous. 5) What do you think life will be like in 200 years? Use your …………………………and describe what you think. 6) Japan has greatly increased its …………………………of cars. More cars are made in Japan now than ever before. 7) Marie Curie made an important scientific ……………………… . She discovered radium. 8) David is very …………………………. If he says he will do something, you always know he will do it. 9) Films used in the classroom are usually ……………………. They provide information we can learn. Films at movie theaters are usually for enjoyment only. 10) People in Quebec speak French because Quebec was once a French ………………………. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 48 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES STRUCTURE STUDY ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Adverbial clauses, like adverbs, tell us something further about the verb and answer the questions When? Where? How? Why? etc. Here are some of the most common conjunctions used to introduce adverbial clauses: Time Place Manner Comparison Reason Purpose Result Condition Contrast Note: when, after, before, as, as soon as, by the time (that), once, since/ever since, until/till, whenever, while where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere as, as if, as though than, as ... as because, as, since so that, in order that, in case so ... that, such a ... that if, unless, provided/providing (that), so/as long as although/though/even though, while, whereas We generally use the present simple to refer to the future in adverbial clauses of time and condition: When/If I come to London, I ll come and see you. and we use the present perfect in place of the future perfect: When I ve finished my dinner, I ll come and help you. Exercise: Complete the following with an appropriate conjunction. In some sentences, more than one conjunction is possible. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) I’m sorry I wasn’t here earlier but I came ……………… I could. I’m staying in all weekend ……………… I can get my work done. He spoke to me ……………… it was all my fault. He didn’t react ……………… I’d hoped; he was actually rather angry. Things are never ……………… bad ……………… you think they are. He’d like to be an actor ……………… his father would like him to be a lawyer. She’s ……………… interested in her work ……………… she never seems to do anything else. I’ll meet you ……………… you like; I don’t mind where it is. I won’t believe you ………………………… I’ve seen it for myself. She seems happy ………………………… she can’t find a job. ………………………… I didn’t feel very well, we decided to leave early. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD POISONING 49 12) The money was hidden ……………… no-one could find it. 13) ……………… he’s not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert. 14) I’ll come with you ……………… we don’t stay late. I need to be up early tomorrow. 15) ……………… I like him, I sometimes find him very irritating. 16) I’ll give you my phone number ……………… you need to get in touch with me. 17) You can’t travel abroad ……………… you have a passport. 18) ……………… no one has any further questions, the meeting will be adjourned. 19) ……………… bacteria can be neither smelled nor seen, the best way to ensure that food is safe is to follow principles of good food hygiene. 20) Some common diseases are occasionally foodborne mainly through the water vector, ……………… they are usually transmitted by other routes. 21) At simplest, processing may involve only picking, sorting, and washing fruits and vegetables ……………… they are sent to market. 22) ……………… people have known about spoilage and some preservation methods to prevent it for centuries, it was only in 1857 that French chemist Louis Pasteur demonstrated the role of microorganisms in the process. 23) Curing and smoking preserve food by binding or removing water …………… it is not available for the growth of microorganisms. 24) Refrigeration is advantageous ……………… it does not cause chemical or physical changes to food. 25) …………… irradiation involves minimal heating, it has very little effect on the taste, texture, and nutritive value of food. 26) Genetic engineering has been practiced for thousands of years, …………… humans began selectively breeding plants and animals to create more nutritious, better tasting foods. 27) A person can survive only eight to ten days without water, …………… it takes weeks or even months to die from a lack of food. 28) Water needs are increased …………… a person suffers from diarrhea or vomiting or undergoes heavy physical exercise. 29) …………… fibers provide no energy or building materials, they play a vital role in our health. 30) Warm-blooded animals require more food for energy production …………… do cold-blooded animals. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 50 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 8 ORGANIC FOOD READING COMPREHENSION Organic food has both a popular meaning, and in some countries, a legal definition. In everyday conversation, it usually refers to all “naturally produced” foods, or the product of organic farming. As a legal term, it means certified organic. The distinction is important, as the two 5 definitions can represent quite different products. Types of organic food Organic foods, like food in general, can be grouped into two categories, fresh and processed, based on production methods, availability and consumer perception. 10 Fresh food is seasonal and highly perishable. Fresh produce – vegetables and fruits – is the most available type of organic food, and closely associated with organic farming. It is often purchased directly from the growers, at farmers' markets, from on-farm stands, through specialty food stores, and through community-supported agriculture projects. 15 Unprocessed animal products – organic meat, eggs, dairy – are less common. Prices are significantly higher than for conventional food, and availability is lower. They are still premium priced items. For fresh food, “organic” usually means: • produced without synthetic chemicals (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics, hormones) 20 • free of genetically modified organisms • (often, but not necessarily) locally grown Processed food accounts for most of the items in a supermarket. Little of Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ORGANIC FOOD 51 it is organic, and organic prices are often high. In spite of this, organic 25 processed products are now primarily purchased from supermarkets. The majority of processed organics comes from large food conglomerates, as producing and marketing products like frozen entrees and other convenience foods is beyond the scope of the original small organic producers. 30 For processed organic food, the general definition is: • contains only (or at least a certain specified percentage of) organic ingredients • contains no artificial food additives • processed without artificial methods, materials and conditions (e.g. no chemical ripening, no food irradiation) 35 Organic Farming Identifying organic food Early organic consumers, looking for essentially chemical-free fresh or minimally processed food, had to buy direct from growers: Know your farmer, know your food was a practical reality. Organic food at first 40 comprised mainly fresh vegetables. Individual ideas of what exactly constituted “organic” could be developed and verified through talking to farmers and actually observing farm conditions and farming activities. Small farms can grow vegetables (and raise livestock) using organic farming practices, with or without certification, and this is more or less 45 something a direct consumer can monitor. As consumer demand for organic foods increases, high volume sales through mass outlets, typically supermarkets, is rapidly replacing the direct farmer connection. For supermarket consumers, food production is not easily observable. Product labeling, like “certified organic”, is 50 relied on. Government regulations and third-party inspectors are looked to for assurance. With widespread distribution of organic food, the processed food Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 52 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES category has also become dominant, confusing the issue further. Processed foods are more difficult to understand non-technically. 55 Commercial preparation methods, food additives, packaging, and the like are outside the direct experience of most people (including organic farmers). Traditional and minimally processed products, like flour and rice; baked goods; and canned, frozen, and pickled fruits and vegetables, are easier for consumers to understand by comparison with home 60 preparation methods, although home and mass-production techniques are quite different. For convenience foods, like frozen prepared dishes, cooked breakfast cereals, and margarine, ingredients and methods are quite a mystery. A “certified organic” label is usually the only way for consumers to trust that a processed product is “organic”. Questions: Answer the questions about the reading. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What are the two meanings of the term “organic food”? For fresh food, what does “organic” usually mean? For processed organic food, what does “organic” usually mean? How was organic food identified in the past? How is organic food identified nowadays? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false. 1) _____ Prices for organic food are significantly higher than for conventional food. 2) _____ Most of the items in a supermarket are unprocessed. 3) _____ Processed organic food must not contain any food additives. 4) _____ Small farms that grow vegetables and raise livestock using organic farming practices need certification. 5) _____ Consumers can identify an organic processed product only thanks to a “certified organic” label. VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box. perishable livestock convenience farming cereal categories entrée additives ripen conventional 1) Organic foods can be grouped into two, …………… fresh and processed. 2) The classification of …………… by 'E' number is made under an EC directive. 3) The supermarket has its …………… foods delivered by air rather than truck to ensure freshness. 4) …………… food is food that is almost ready to eat when it is bought and can be prepared for eating quickly and easily. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn ORGANIC FOOD 53 5) Organic food is usually much more expensive than …………… food. 6) Farmers are involved in a constant battle to control vermin which ruin their crops and damage their ……………. 7) The …………… is the main dish of the meal or a dish served before the main course. 8) Olives turn from green to black as they ……………. 9) Cornflakes are a popular breakfast …………… in Britain. 10) Sheep …………… is a major business in Australia and New Zealand. WORD STUDY A. -SHIP Many nouns end in -ship. The suffix -ship means “the condition of’” or “the art of.” Here are some examples: One United Nations conference was about the uses and ownership of oceans. Alex and I have had a wonderful friendship for many years. Exercise: Add the suffix -ship to each word. Then choose the best word for each sentence. Make the word plural if necessary. member hard sportsman ………………… ………………… ………………… friend ………………… relation ………………… 1) People who play sports should follow the rules of the game and be friendly to the other team. This is good …………………………. 2) Life was very difficult for the first explorers of Antarctica. The weather was terribly cold, they didn’t always have enough to eat, and some of them died. These early explorers suffered many …………………………. 3) The …………………… of the International Student Organization increases every semester. This semester there are 105 members — that’s 20 more members than before. 4) Marie and Anne became friends when they were in school together. Now they are both grandmothers, and they are still friends. Their ………………………… has lasted for more than fifty years! 5) What is the ………………………… between goats and deserts? How do goats cause deserts to become larger? Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 54 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES B. ENSometimes we can add the prefix en- to a word to make a verb. The meaning of the new verb is related to the meaning of the original word. Look at these examples: Police sometimes use force to enforce laws. I want this picture made larger. I will take it to the photo store to have it enlarged. Exercise: Add the prefix en- to each word. Then choose the best verb for each sentence. Be sure to use the correct endings and tenses. joy able rich …………………… …………………… …………………… large danger …………………… …………………… 1) Some soil is very poor and is not good for growing crops. Farmers need to ………………… the soil in order for plants to grow. 2) United Nations organizations ………………………… people in developing countries to improve their education programs and industry. 3) David really ………………………… his trip to Yellowstone National Park last summer. He said he had a wonderful time. 4) The Smiths think their house is too small for their family. They want to ……………………… it by adding two more bedrooms. 5) Krill is important to the chain of life in the Antarctic Ocean. If humans catch too much krill, it might ………………………… the lives of penguins and other animals that need krill for food. C. -AGE Many nouns in English end with the suffix -age. Look at the example: A passage connects those two buildings. In winter people can walk through the hall from one building to the other without going outside. Exercise: Add the suffix -age to each word. Then choose the best noun for each sentence. Spelling notes: If a word ends in y, change they to i before adding -age. If a word ends in e, drop the e before adding -age. marry short store …………………… …………………… …………………… out post pack …………………… …………………… …………………… 1) Louis bought presents to send to his parents. He packed them carefully in a box. Then he took the ………………………… to the Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn
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