Curriculum english for nutrition and food siences

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HUMAN DIET 35 6 HUMAN DIET READING COMPREHENSION Because the human diet is typically diverse, human beings are classified as omnivores rather than as herbivores (plant eaters) or carnivores (meat eaters). Certain groups of people do derive most of their food from animal sources while other people practice vegetarianism. By far the 5 majority of humankind, however, eats a wide range of foods of both animal and vegetable origin. Prehistoric humans were hunter-gatherers who fed on animals, insects, berries, roots, and leaves. The range of dietary choices was extended when humans learned how to use fire for cooking and when they developed weapons for hunting and trapping 10 larger game; most importantly, they eventually learned how to rear animals for their own use and how to cultivate crops. Today some isolated groups are still hunter-gatherers, but most human diets derive from agriculture and animal husbandry. Asian-style noodles Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 36 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Italian-style pasta 15 Social factors and cultural practices in most countries have a great influence on what people eat, on how they prepare food, on their feeding practices, and on the foods they prefer. Throughout history, different societies have exhibited great variations in diet. But during the 20th century, greatly increased world trade and improved communications 20 have resulted in major changes in the variety of foods eaten in many countries. Asian cuisines have become popular in Europe and North America, and Western "fast foods" are increasingly available in developing countries. In general, the staple food in most countries has not changed. 25 Throughout history, as long as the food supply was sufficient the traditional diets of most cultures have provided all the essential nutrients. These are divided into macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). In general, humans obtain most of their food energy from carbohydrates (perhaps 65% worldwide); 30 lesser amounts come from fat (about 20%) and protein (about 15%), mainly from meat and fish. The major cause of undernutrition and nutritional-deficiency diseases has seldom been traditional food habits. The usual cause has been a lack of adequate food due to poverty or consumption of too limited a variety of 35 food. Infectious diseases and lack of care contribute importantly to malnutrition in children. Protein-energy malnutrition is generally due to consumption of too little food, and micronutrient deficiencies such as anemia, iodine deficiency disorders, and pellagra are due to diets inadequate in specific minerals and vitamins. 40 Advances in agriculture and food-processing techniques have afforded the potential of increased food supply and a nutritionally enriched diet, but modernization and Westernization of food habits have also had deleterious effects. For example, at the turn of the 20th century new rice milling techniques caused an outbreak of beriberi (a thiamine-deficiency 45 disease) in Asia, resulting in millions of deaths. The substitution of bottle-feeding for breast-feeding among poor families in developing countries has been responsible for a great deal of malnutrition and diarrhea, as well as infant deaths. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 37 Increasingly, changes in diets in the developing countries due to 50 Westernization and greater affluence has led to an increase in chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and certain cancers. These diseases are already major causes of mortality in the industrialized countries. Much of this is related to high intakes of foods of animal origin and a greater percentage of food energy coming from fats, oils, and sugar and less coming from complex carbohydrates. Questions: Answer the questions about the reading. 1) Why are human beings classified as omnivores? 2) When was the range of dietary choices extended? 3) What has the major cause of undernutrition and nutritionaldeficiency diseases been? 4) What is the harmful effect of the substitution of bottle-feeding for breast-feeding among poor families in developing countries? 5) What have changes in diets in the developing countries resulted in? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false. 1) _____ The major cause of nutritional-deficiency diseases has been traditional food habits. 2) _____ Most groups of people do derive most of their food from animal sources. 3) _____ Today no groups are still hunter-gatherers. 4) _____ Social factors and cultural practices in most countries have a great influence on their feeding practices. 5) _____ Modernization and Westernization of food habits have also had harmful effects. VOCABULARY Fill in these statements with the words in the box. reared hypertension malnutrition mortality bottle-feeding feed deficiency vegetarian staple diet breast-feeding 1) If you …………… your dog on cakes and biscuits, it's not surprising he's so fat. 2) A clean water supply played a large part in reducing the …………… rate. 3) A well-balanced …………… diet can be a lot healthier for you than the average meat-eater's diet because it contains less fat and more fiber. 4) The scientists tracked one lot of infected meat back to the farms where the animals had been ……………. 5) Infectious diseases and lack of care contribute importantly to …………… in children. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 38 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 6) …………… is extremely beneficial to the health of newborn babies. 7) Pregnant women often suffer from iron ……………. 8) We are conducting extensive research into treatments for ………… and heart disease. 9) Bamboo is the panda's ……………. 10) She started …………… her baby when she went back to work. WORD STUDY A. WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES Some common adjective endings are -al, -able, -ful, -less, -t, and -ous. Look at the words in the list below. Notice the endings on the adjectives. See how the adjectives are related to the other words. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) adjective experimental natural preventable suitable believable successful violent different religious useful, useless verb experiment — prevent suit believe succeed — differ — use noun experiment nature prevention — belief success violence difference religion use Exercise: Choose the best word to complete each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in sentence 1, and so on. 1) Scientists have planted jojoba and euphorbia crops on …………… farms in several countries. 2) The ancient Egyptians used plants as ……………………medicine to treat diseases. 3) Many common diseases of the 19th century are …………………… now. People no longer get sick from these diseases. 4) There are many wild plants in the woods, but not all of them are ……………………for humans to eat. 5) I don’t ……………………your story about meeting people from Mars. I don’t think it’s true. 6) The first experiment with the new crop did not ………………… . The plants died, and the scientists had to begin again. 7) Some people think that television is too …………………… . There are too many programs that show people fighting and killing each other. 8) It can be very cold in parts of the United States during the winter, but it is almost never cold in Australia. The …………………… in Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 39 weather is very great in these two areas of the world. 9) Helen goes to church every day and often reads the Bible. She is very ……………………. 10) The jojoba is a very …………………… plant. It can be used to soothe burns, to make hair shiny, and to make a drink similar to coffee. B. WORD FORMS: ADJECTIVES Adjectives have only one form. They can never be plural. Look at these examples: We have a two-week vacation from school in March. It is a four-hour flight from Chicago to Los Angeles. Exercise: Change the words in bold print to hyphenated adjectives and rewrite the sentences. The first one is done for you. 1) A flight from Los Angeles to London is ten hours. It is a ten-hour flight from Los Angeles to London. 2) High school students in California have a summer vacation for three months. ……………………………………………………………………… 3) It is a long drive from Toronto to Winnipeg. It takes four days. ……………………………………………………………………… 4) It is a short trip from New York to Boston. It is only 200 kilometers. ……………………………………………………………………… C. WORD FORMS Look at the list of verbs, nouns, and adjectives below. Notice how they are related to each other. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Verb — — persuade protect continue — enjoy suggest solve organize Noun scene, scenery science, scientist persuasion protection continuation history, historian enjoyment suggestion solution organization Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn Adjective scenic scientific persuasive protective continuous historical enjoyable suggestive — organized 40 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Exercise: Choose the correct word for each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in sentence 1, and so on. 1) Kei brought a book of photographs of Japan to class last week. Japan has very beautiful ………………………. We saw pictures of mountains, lakes, and lovely cherry trees. 2) Chemistry and biology are two kinds of ………………………… . 3) Bill could persuade you to do almost anything. He is a very ………………………… person. He talked me into going camping in Yellowstone National Park. 4) Some of the huge redwood trees in California are under the ………………………… of the National Park Service. The service keeps the trees safe and healthy. 5) Workers can become very tired of the ……………………… noise in a factory. The noise never stops. 6) Most countries have a ……………………… museum that explains the history of the country in pictures, films, and art. 7) People of all ages like to go to national parks. A visit to a national park is …………………… for the whole family. 8) I would like to make a ……………………… for your trip. Take a train ride across Canada. I did it last year. The scenery is beautiful. 9) Many countries are trying to ……………………… the problem of the growth of the deserts. 10) The United Nations is an international …………………………. STRUCTURE STUDY REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses are often reduced or contracted as follows: The man who is talking to John is from Korea. The man talking to John is from Korea. English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters. Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome. Anyone wanting to come with us is welcome. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting. The ideas presented in that book are interesting. Half of the people who had been invited to the party didn t turn up. Half of the people invited to the party didn t turn up. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn HUMAN DIET 41 Exercise: Reduce (contract) the underline part of the following sentences: 1) An agreement has been signed to protect the forests which are being cut down all over the world. 2) Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page. 3) Companies that already use computers have found that the number of staff that is needed for stock-control can be substantially reduced. 4) Did you get the message that concerned the special meeting? 5) Do you know the woman who is coming toward us? 6) Her books, which are read by people all over the world, are still immensely popular. 7) I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country. 8) I haven’t yet had an opportunity to think over the proposals that were made at the last meeting. 9) The children who attend that school receive a good education. 10) The experiment which was conducted at the University of Chicago was successful. 11) The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood. 12) The firm’s latest product, which was launched only six months ago, has already captured a significant share of the market. 13) The head office has now moved to new premises which overlook the Thames. 14) The Indians who lived in Peru before the discovery of the New World by Europeans belonged to the Incan culture. 15) The new hostel, which accommodates 200 students, will be opened next month. 16) The people who are being asked to take early retirement are all over the age of 60. 17) The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet. 18) The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries. 19) The scientists who are searching the causes of cancer are making progress. 20) Their letter, which explained why they had not paid promptly, arrived a few days later. 21) They live in a house that was built in 1890. 22) They sent us an invoice that gave details of all the goods that had been ordered. 23) We can deliver within three days any articles that are ordered from stock. 24) We have an apartment which overlooks the park. 25) We received your Giro slip today, which informed us that you had paid £126.00 into your account. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 42 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES 7 FOOD POISONING READING COMPREHENSION Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. Such contamination usually arises from improper handling, preparation or storage of food. Foodborne illness can also be caused by 5 adding pesticides or medicines to food, or by accidentally consuming naturally poisonous substances like poisonous mushrooms or reef fish. Contact between food and pests, especially flies, rodents and cockroaches, is a further cause of contamination of food. Although most mushrooms are edible, several species can cause serious poisoning Some common diseases are occasionally foodborne mainly through the 10 water vector, even though they are usually transmitted by other routes. These include infections caused by Shigella, Hepatitis A, and the parasites Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION DEFINITION Foodborne illnesses are defined by the World Health Organization as diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every person is at risk of foodborne illness. Preventing Bacterial Food Poisoning Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn FOOD POISONING 43 The prevention is mainly the role of the state, through the definition of 15 strict rules of hygiene and a public service of veterinary survey of the food chain, from farming to the transformation industry and the delivery (shops and restaurants). This regulation includes: • traceability: in a final product, it must be possible to know the origin of the ingredients (originating farm, identification of the 20 harvesting or of the animal) and where and when it was processed; the origin of the illness can thus be tracked and solved (and possibly penalized), and the final products can be removed from the sale if a problem is detected; • respect of hygiene procedures like HACCP and the "cold chain"; 25 • power of control and of law enforcement of the veterinarians. At home, the prevention mainly consists of: • the respect of the food storage and food preservation methods (especially refrigeration), and checking the expiration date; • washing the hands before preparing the meal and before eating; 30 • washing the fresh vegetables with clear water, especially when not cooked (e.g. fruits, salads); • washing the dishes after use; • keeping the kitchen clean. Spray washing of harvested tomatoes prior to processing. Bacteria need warmth, moisture, food and time to grow. The presence, 35 or absence, of oxygen, salt, sugar and acidity are also important factors for growth. In the right conditions, one bacterium can multiply using binary fission to become four million in eight hours. Since bacteria can be neither smelled nor seen, the best way to ensure that food is safe is to follow principles of good food hygiene. This includes not allowing raw 40 or partially cooked food to touch dishes, utensils, hands or work surfaces previously used to handle even properly cooked or ready to eat food. High salt, high sugar or high acid levels keep bacteria from growing, Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn 44 ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES which is why salted meats, jam, and pickled vegetables are traditional 45 preserved foods. The most frequent causes of bacterial foodborne illness are crosscontamination and inadequate temperature control. Therefore control of these two matters is especially important. Thoroughly cooking food until it is piping hot, i.e. above 70°C will 50 quickly kill virtually all bacteria, parasites or viruses, except for Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens, which produces a heat-resistant spore that survives temperatures up to 100°C. Once cooked, hot foods should be kept hot – above 63°C stops microbial growth. 55 Cold foods should be kept cold, below 5°C (41°F). However, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica can both grow at refrigerator temperatures. Questions: Answer the questions about the reading. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is food poisoning according to the WHO? How are foodborne diseases are transmitted? What regulations should be observed to avoid food poisoning? What must be done at home to avoid poisoning? What are the most frequent causes of bacterial foodborne illness? True-False: Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false. 1) _____ Contact between food and pests is also a cause of contamination of food. 2) _____ All diseases are occasionally foodborne mainly through the water vector. 3) _____ The prevention against bacterial food poisoning is mainly the role of the state. 4) _____ Bacteria need warmth, moisture, food and time to grow. 5) _____ Cooking food until above 70°C will kill all bacteria, parasites or viruses. Sưu tầm bởi: www.daihoc.com.vn
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