Conserving and promoting the value of French quarter’s architectural – urban heritage in Hai Phong city

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MYNISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING MYNISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION HANOI ARCHITECTURAL UNIVERSITY ------------- NGUYỄN QUỐC TUÂN CONSERVING AND PROMOTING THE VALUE OF FRENCH QUARTER’S ARCHITECTURAL – URBAN HERITAGE IN HAIPHONG CITY MAJOR : ARCHITECTURE CODE : SUMMARY OF PHD THESIS IN ARCHITECTURE Hanoi, 2014 The thesis was completed at Hanoi Architectural University. The scientific guidance: Prof. Dr. Arch. Nguyễn Bá Đang Dr. Arch. Nguyễn Trí Thành Reviewer 1:Prof. Dr. Arch.Hoàng Đạo Kính AUTHOR’S PUBLISHED RELATED WORKS 1. Architectural – urban heritage from French colonial period in small and medium towns before 1945 - a part of Vietnam's cultural heritage[Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no. 4, 2006] 2. Water factor with the formation of the French Quarter in Hai Phong [Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no. 11, 2010] Reviewer 2:Assoc. Prof. Dr. Arch.Nguyễn Hồng Thục 3. Assessing the potential of urban heritage conservation of French Quarter in Hai Phong [Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no. 8, 2013] 4. Conservation and promoting the value of French quarter’s architectural – urban heritage in Hai Phong city [Architecture Magazine, no. 9, 2013] Reviewer 3:Dr. Arch.Lê Quân 5. Retention and promoting the impression of a riverside city [Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no.10, 2013] The thesis was defended at the University’s Scientific Council at: at (hour) (date) (month) (year) 2014 The thesis can be found in; 1. National Library of Vietnam 2. Hanoi Architectural University’s Library -1- -2- INTRODUCTION In this context, choosing thesis topic "Preservation and promoting the value of architectural - urban heritage in French Quarter in Hai Phong city" is significantly urgen on both theoretical and practical aspects. 2. The purpose of the thesis research The purpose of the thesis is to preserve and promote the values of the French Quarter in Hai Phong as an integrated system between the architectural heritage and urban heritage. The research tasks are defined as follows: - Evaluate potential conservation of architectural - urban heritage in French Quarter in Hai Phong. - Identify architectural - urban heritage fund and conservation subdivisions. - Propose solutions to preserve the architectural heritage in French Quarter in Haiphong. - Propose oriented management of architectural - urban heritage in Hai Phong’s French Quarter. - Propose solutions and promote the value of urban heritage architecture of the French Quarter in the development of Hai Phong continuation of Hai Phong Urban. 3. Subjects and scope of research The object of the thesis is studying the legacy system of architectural and urban heritage of French in the French Quarter of Hai Phong. The nature of the architectural - urban heritage in French colonial period including: the space and urban landscape formed during the French colonial period (1858-1954). The architecture which is influenced by French culture, French style but formed in the later period is not subject of this thesis research. The scope of the study is defined in terms of space and time. French Quarter in Hai Phong is formed from 1874 to 1954, in the area bounded by the Cam River, Tam Bac River, Tam Bac Lake (Lap River) and the center garden strip. The scope of research can expand to integrate the architectural heritage of that period but located in/adjacent to French Quarter. 4. Research Methodology Perform the tasks set, the thesis approaches using analyzing systems and synthesized knowledge and processing information from the component researchs: - Methods of collection, retrospective 1. Problem setting In the course of historical development, Vietnam has accumulated a large architectural - urban heritage fund, including ones are formed under French colonial. These legacies have high values of architecture, art and uses, and has been involved inVietnamese social life for more than a century and played an important historical role in the development of the country, thus they became a part of the cultural heritage of Vietnam. Connecting heritage with urban development will enhance the value of historical urban areas and bring benefits to the local economy. Bringing heritage to participate in local life and activities helps contributing the preservation and promotion of heritage value. However in the process of development and modernization, many places has priority over the shortterm goal rather than to maintain architectural - urban heritage treasury fund, therefore heritage at many places has been affected, vulnerable hurt, even destroyed - though bringing up local economic benefits but losing the moral values of the community. This is the loss of the country, and of the part of humanity. In the French colonial period, Hai Phong is the third largest city of Vietnam after Hanoi and Saigon - Cholon. In Hai Phong, it has formed aquite complete and diverse network of urban structures, which is built at a large scale and high quality. Today, the French Quarter is the historic center of the city, and is the nuclear orientation of urban development in Hai Phong - one in six central urban areas of the country, one of the three poles of the triangle Northern economic development. While there have been many detailedstudies aboutarchitectural urban heritage from French colonial period in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, the French Quarter has not been equally concerned with its meaning and valuablecharacteristic. So far, Hai Phong has neither build acompleteconservation plan, nor statistically listed urban architectural heritagefund in the province under the French period.There isn’t any regulation and management solutions to preserve and promote its values. On the academic side, there is no dissertation, thesis or scientific research projects addressing the above issues towards the integration of architectural and urban heritage value. -3- -4- - Methods of analysis - synthesis - Survey methodology and survey XH school - Statistical methods and classification - Map overlay method - Methods comparison / reconciliation - Experimental Methods 5. Meaning and practice of the thesis 5.1. Scientific significance: - For the first time, the French Quarter in Hai Phongis selectedas an object of a research thesis. In particular, this thesis is not only about conservation, renovation and adaptation of French colonial architectural values, but also take the whole urban structure of the city as the research object. - The thesis has a new approach to analyze urban structure (the land use characteristics, the structures and methods used in urban economic activities, social and cultural), evaluate the conservation potential of French Quarter in Haiphong through scientific evaluation criterion, considering both aspects: preserving and promoting the value to propose solutions for sustainable development which has an outstandingcapital value that needsto conserve, yet meet a big challenge to develope in urbanization trends(at all costs). 5.2. Practical significance - Provide reliable scientific data for research related to the characteristics and values of the urban architectural heritage in French Quarter in Hai Phong. - Contributing to complete the regulatory environment, strategic planning and policies to improve management efficiency and promote the value of the urban architectural heritage in the continuing development and sustainability. 6. New contributions of the thesis 6.1. The contribution of scientific aspects: - Develop new approaches to the studying of the French Quarter that has medium and small scale like Hai Phong city to fund conservation of urban heritage value in the history of urban development in Vietnam. - Contributing to clarify the behavior of fund scientific heritage and urban architecture as they are two entities considered organic, integral to the solutions proposed conservation and promoting their value in urban development in Vietnam in the near future. - Establish criteria for evaluating potential conservation consistent with the characteristics of Vietnam’surban heritage, contributions to conservation science in terms of methodology. 6.2. Contribution in practical aspects: - Inventory, establishing zoning categories and funds to protect the architectural - urban heritage in French Quarter in Hai Phong. - Propose solutions to preserve and promote the values of the architectural heritage of the French colonial period in urban planning urban development in Hai Phong. 7. Thesis’s structure The thesis structure consists of an Introduction, Content and Conclusion - Recommendations. Content section includes 3 chapters: Chapter 1: Overview of study of colonial period architectural urban heritage conservation and French Quarter in Haiphong. Chapter 2: Scientific basis for conserving and promoting the architectural - urban heritage value of French Quarter in Haiphong. Chapter 3: Solution preserve and promote the heritage value of urban architecture French Quarter Haiphong. Reference list includes 71 materials. Separated appendix includes 14 appendices (136 pages). THESIS CONTENT Chapter 1: Overview of study of colonial period architectural - urban heritage conservation and French Quarter in Haiphong. 1.1. Overview of conservation research and promote the value of architectural - urban heritage during colonial period in the world and in Vietnam Thesis research situation of heritage conservation of colonial architecture in the world and in Vietnam, introduced the concept of heritage, urban architectural heritage, movements and trends in heritage conservation in the world, including some emerging issues related to the conservation of the architectural heritage of the French Quarter in Hai Phong as follows: - From the conservation of monuments turned to heritage conservation and urban conservation, conservation scope is expanded (including space and landscaping around the monument, heritage). -5- -6- - Development in continuing is the development process does not create disruptions and ensure continuity of urban life. Because of the urban physical environment (physical) and social - humanity (soul) was formed in evolutionary history, continuation generations and historical periods, creating living entity that associated past and present. Urban heritage is an integral part, and exist in parallel with the movement of urban life. - In the other country, colonial architectural - urban heritage is preserved and effectively promotedunder various forms, the most common of which is cultural tourism exploite. In Vietnam, there are some new studies related to urban heritage during French colonial period in the large urban (Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City), but the lack of strict counting, no regulations on the management of French Quarter; there is a phenomenon that building has built unreasonable, heritage conversion with unsuitable functions, even invaded and destroyed. In Hai Phong, urban architectural heritagefund of the French colonial period are quite diverse in type, style and fashion. The preservation of this heritage group has not been given due to few attention to its value. So far, the city government just conduct an inventory, drawing a record number of major public buildings and worthyvillas. French Quarter in Hai Phong has not been studied adequately and the overview of the value of urban and architecture, as well as no conservation zone has drawn, as well as identify solutions to oriente architectural heritage conservation of this urban quarter. 1.2. Overview of the process of formation and development of the French Quarter in Vietnam and Haiphong French architecture appeared in Vietnam in the early nineteenth century when the city of Hue and Hanoi was built by Vauban style. After capturing the Gia Dinh (1859), the French were planning Saigon according to a European model. During colonial times, Saigon is the central administrative, economic, cultural and educational importance of the Indochina region, was dubbed the Pearl of the East. In Hanoi, French made concessions along the Red River (1875) and then gradually expanding westward into the French Quarter with the architectural style and impressive diversity. In addition, the French Quarter was built in Hue, Hai Phong and some other resort towns (Dalat, Sapa, Tam Dao,..). In Hai Phong, after the Giap Tuan Peace Agreement (1874), the French established 2 ha concession in the southern bank of the river Cam, in 1875 this area expanded to 7 hectares, harbor construction, troops station, consular offices, clinics, churches,... and at the same time, the indigenous population areas are also formed along the Tam Bacriver that's where the first urbanization in Haiphong. From 1885 and started doing road construction as planned, conceived and developed gradually southward street grid. Overlaying maps showing the development process of urban expansion Hai Phong: in 1885 Bonnan channels were dug to isolate West neighborhood, and in 1900 it has no longer protective role becomes more of urban space landscape (Opera House), to fill the strip in 1925, the garden was "center"; southern boundary is expanded to first grade after street block strip gardens, to surpass Hanoi - Hai Phongrailway and in 1935 it is not clear anymore. In this process, the original urban nucleus continues to be built more buildings and streets, cells were filled andbecome region today known as the French Quarter, under the Hong Bang district. 1.3. The current status of urban neighborhoods France Hai Phong French Quarter in Hai Phong was special shaped by natural boundaries and artificial water. In 1885, the French Bonnan canal linking the River Cam and River Tam Bac, created for urban areas an initially ax shaped. Most canals have been filled (1925), but now the French Quarter remained almost intact form under the French plan to follow the grid roadsystem, distinct functional areas, buildings has French architectural style. Through the survey, site analyzis, Hai Phong‘s French Quarter is divided into 5 regions with characteristic morphological differences quite clearly, urban activities and urban cultural landscape in each area also has unique features: - The South river Cam (region 1) - The central area, including street grid along the axis Dien Bien (region 2a) and axial Hoang Van Thu - Dinh Tien Hoang (region 2b) - The old city native (region 3) - Strip centergarden and the axial cell (region 4). 1.4. Current status of the French Quarter architecture Hai Phong French Quarter in Hai Phong has a system of French colonial architecture which is rich and diverse in type and style. The urban public facilities as fully as in Hanoi or Saigon, only slightly inferior in size and level of sophistication in interior decoration. The building houses mostly villas (in the French Quarter and a few clusters outside) and townhouses -7- -8- (in the neighborhood of the native Vietnamese, Chinese). The industrial, port has significant value in architecture at the time before, but now most have been relocated or destroyed. There are 03 of the French colonial architecture has been recognized as a city-level relics, including the Opera House, Post Office and Ga Hai Phong. 1.5. The research work related to the thesis French Quarter Haiphong potential urban architectural heritage is huge but not management, conservation and promotion of the right to value. There are a number of research projects in the country for urban architectural heritage French colonial period, but only concentrating in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, in addition to the Hue, Da Lat. Some topics by Architectural Research Institute (Ministry of Construction) implementation refers to the architectural heritage of the French colonial period in Haiphong, but only at the level of research typical public works. The master thesis on architecture Haiphong separate survey only a few types of limited range, not integrated into the system at the municipal level. Only a doctoral thesis (research on the history and development of public space in Hai Phong - Nguyen Thanh Binh author, Deakin University, Australia) refers to the process of urban development Hai rooms generally, but not going into the French Quarter on conservation issues - promoting heritage values . Until now, no comprehensive studies on: - Features and overall value of urban architecture of the French Quarter in Hai Phong. - Establishment of urban heritage fund, fund and distribute architectural heritage conservation area. - To preserve and promote the heritage value of urban architecture French Quarter Haiphong. - Management of Urban Development in the French Quarter of Hai Phong. 1.6. The tackled issues in the thesis - Develop appropriate tools to analyze and assess the characteristics and value of the French Quarter to more accurately determine the conservation potential of urban structures, buildings, landscapes and group activities... special heritage this feud. - Conservation of Architectural Heritage Urban Hai Phong French Quarter, including the contents: evaluation of potential heritage conservation zoning, heritage funds established urban and architectural heritage fund, the proposed regulations towards conservation. - Manage and promote the heritage value of urban architecture in the French Quarter of economic development - social, cultural tourism, urban development continuity of Haiphong. Chapter 2: Scientific basis for conserving and promoting the architectural - urban heritage value of French Quarter in Haiphong. 2.1. Methodology and Research Methods With the field of interdisciplinary research, thesis using system approach to coordinate different research methods: - The method of collection, retrospective surveys, sociological surveys to collect, verify the information professional. - The method compares and contrasts to identify trends in theory, detect changes of urban architectural heritage Haiphong. - Statistical methods for classification and systematization of data architecture, urban and heritage of the French Quarter in Hai Phong. - Map overlay method for analyzing urban form, identify the process of formation and development of Hai Phong Urban. Information from the research component is further processed by thinking analysis and synthesis to build up the results and recommendations of the thesis. Finally, the experimental method to test the applicability of the results. 2.2. The legal basis for the conservation of urban heritage architecture in the world and in Vietnam The thesis discussed and analyzed the content related to the conservation of urban heritage in the Athens Charter (1931), Venice (1964), Burra (1979), Washington (1987), the Nara Document (1994), Hoi An Protocol (2003) and the Hanoi Declaration (2009). In Vietnam, the Law on Cultural Heritage was adopted in 2001 and amended in 2009, but some are not specific regulations or practices inconsistent with the application should have certain shortcomings, yet adjustable problems arise. Besides the Cultural Heritage Act, there are other legal texts concerned. In general, the law and the most text focuses on the protection and restoration of monuments rather than heritage conservation. The rules specify the behavior heritage (especially urban heritage) and the provisions of community participation in conservation is not interested, not shown awareness of the expanding scope conservation. -9- - 10 - The thesis also learn urban development program in 2020 and the National Development Orientation architecture Vietnam in 2020 to gather more scientific basis for research and propose solutions. 2.3. Theoretical basis for the conservation of architectural - urban heritage Thus, there is usually a soft metabolic patterns between urban areas, a sense of place mainly through cultural element - the spirit. Objects can be conserved is: the variety genre and style of the architectural characteristics of street architecture, the landscape features; street network structure; urban general appearance; metabolism and to morphological variations between urban areas, the activities of community life. + Original data analysis to identify the components to be conserved: the current state of the data base is urban. The French Quarter recent dating back to the status quo generally stable, reserved architectural relatively clear, records are relatively complete archive. These are favorable factors for Conservation Research. French Quarter Haiphong maintained relatively intact because most office buildings are under the management and ownership of the state. + Identify the structural components to be conserved: the urban area is often relatively clear identification. Since feudal times, the "capital" and the "market" has been established and separated by trenches. By the early modern period, the French Quarter is generally formed in relatively isolated locations with native neighborhood. The structural components of the French Quarter Haiphong relatively isolated evidently been planned from the beginning by thinking and planning of urban development and the West has not been excessive urbanization in the open era. + Rating heritage conservation potential of urban architecture: should be conducted according to the macro level to the micro - from urban master, the structural components, the location / specific metropolitan areas, and to the work / project specific clusters. Besides, to compare between the different regions to determine the scope and value focus has its own characteristics. + Adjust construction methods and criteria for evaluating system potential urban heritage architecture suitable for Hai Phong French Quarter: Figure 2.1: Research methods used in the thesis - source: author Based on the methodology of urban conservation by scholars of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, USA) built in the research process lasted nearly 30 years and is Nahoum Cohen summarized in the book "Urban Conservation". To apply effectively in Vietnam, thesis modified prospective method heritage assessment appropriate to use Vietnam to Hai Phong French Quarter. To appreciate the potential of urban architectural heritage in the urban history of Vietnam and orientation appropriate conservation measures, need to follow these steps: Identify the scope and object of conservation:conservation area should be urban center history overlay developed over many periods, the integration of intangible value (dating) and tangible (materials, relics left). - 11 - - 12 The purpose of the assessment methodology is potential heritage quantify an abstract concept to the point and by comparison of results between areas, the street grid, the specific locations to identify subjects research and conservation subdivisions. From 5 criteria proposed by Cohen with wide variability values (0-20%), the thesis has distributed more detailed filtering, building the new criteria include 4 x 5 criteria group embraces the elements associated relating to heritage. With 5 points for the first criterion, the qualitative assessment should be less errors, the survey will be easier to ensure certain criteria are not too biased / underdog. The results obtained (compared with a total maximum score is 100) quantitative, accurately indicates the relative potential heritage. Table 2.1: Evaluating system to critic conservation potential of French quarter’s urban structure in Hai Phong - source: author Figure 2.2: Developing method of evaluating heritage potential of Hai Phong French quarter - source: author Figure 2.3: Objectives of identifying conservationpotential of architectural- urban heritage - source: author METHOD MAIN GROUP OF CRITERIAS AND MAXIMUM SCORE OF CRITERIAS GRADING Criteria Architectural 25đ 1. Architectural heritage system 5đ grading heritages 2.Valuable buildings 5đ 3. The coherence of urban form in 5đ overall 4. Building technique 5đ 5. Building material 5đ Urban 25đ 6. Site boundary 5đ In 7. Street structure 5đ comparision 8. Architectural mophology 5đ with other 9. Building form / space relationship 5đ places 10. Relationship to surrounding 5đ environment Urban 25đ 11. Street façade 5đ landscape 12. Urban appearance 5đ 13. Natural environment 5đ 14. Cultural environment 5đ 15. Style and form 5đ Urban culture 25đ 16. Street activities 5đ 17. Sence of place 5đ 18. Historical feeling 5đ 19. Aesthetical environment 5đ 20. Reaction to nature 5đ NOTE Maximum score of each criteriais 5đ, equivalent to levels: -None: 0đ -Less few: 1đ -Few:2đ -Medium: 3đ -Good: 4đ -Excelent: 5đ If the total score reach from 60đ and above, means location/area has conservation potential. - 13 - - 14 - Table 2.2: Criteria system to evaluate conservation potential of important buildings in French Quarter in Hai Phong - source: author routes, nor development from village on the street - which was built from scratch on vacant land. In certain similarities with Hanoi, Hue, Saigon, Hai Phong French Quarter formed from river concessions but more compact and does not create a conflict against an indigenous neighborhood. In other cities, far from the old town French Quarter before, spacing by river, lake,.. then in Hai Phong and developing them together facing each other, the idea would create a conflict but the actual delivery applied fairly smoothly. The spread of architectural forms from French Quarter neighborhood to indigenous and reverse the spread of urban form, lifestyle, commercial operations, supply chain services and agricultural products from neighborhood native to French Quarter can be seen as a special value of acculturation in urban development in French colonial Vietnam. 2.5 Elements that have impacts on preserving and promoting values of architectural heritage of the French Quarter in Hai Phong Geographical factors including natural terrain, condition and climate of Hai Phong offered tremendous potential. Hai Phong meets many advantages to grow stably in the period of globalization. By utilizing economic strength of owning a long coast, Hai Phong soon became a modern city, a center of industry, service supply and tourism, serving as an important pole in the North Viet Nam. Planning Haiphong to 2025, vision 2050 is identified that the French Quarter would be the center of a polycentric urban model. This indicates the value of the French zone, as well as the challenge that urban planners should ponder about. In terms of perception, the French Quarter in Hai Phong is the historical center of the city, in other words, this is the key point navigating the development of Hai Phong, which is regarded as one of the 6 centers in Viet Nam, or one of the 3 poles of the Northern economic triangle. The architectural characteristics and heritage of the French zone plays a crucial role within that context, having great potential to exploit and promote cultural tourism. The results of this chapter are integrated to measure potential conservation and preservation of urban heritage in the French Quarter in urban development. METHOD MAIN GROUP OF CRITERIAS AND MAXIMUM SCORE OF CRITERIAS (high: 3đ, medium: 2đ, low: 1đ) GRADING 12đ 1.Ages value Point given Historical accounding characteristic 2.Iconic, spiritual value to criteria 3.Relation to event/ historical famous man 4.Value of historical place Aesthetic and 12đ 5.Unique architectural style style 6.Aesthetical, harmonious value 7. Style and aesthetical uniqueness Compare 8.Cohereness to similar Function and 12đ 9.Retaining original function buildings uses 10.Use frequently 11. Highly adapting to local uses 12.Unique uses Technique 14đ 13.Unique building technique and material 14.Original material 15.Unique material 16.Availability of spare material 17. Quality of uses 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 3đ 2đ The thesis has conducted urban partition (zone 5), follow the street grid cells divide to evaluate the potential of architectural heritage and urban. The results of the evaluation of potential heritage city each cell / component architecture / urban areas particular, the structures will be important to determine the basis of conservation potential and build solutions conservation. 2.4. Base on the characteristics and values of urban architecture of the French Quarter in Hai Phong Hai Phong bearing nature of a coastal urban centers, four side surfaces are three rivers: the Lach Tray river, Cam river, Tam Bac river, Ha Li river, Thuong Ly river, Lap river (Tam Bac Lake),.. Cam River plays an important role in shaping the industrial city - Hai Phong port. River water is sourced create urban Haiphong. Different from the traditional urban Vietnam (usually urban administrative, commercial or mixed commercial administrative + - from which urban concept), Hai Phong development process very own special way special: the all-new urban form in modern times, not associated with defensive ramparts, not based on a settlements basis, not on a long trade - 15 - - 16 - Chapter 3. Proposal for preserving and promoting values of architectural heritage remained in the French Quarter 3.1. The aims and goals The aim of this thesis is to propose a way to preserve and promote values embodied in architectural heritage: - City is a living entity, which is always movable and changeable, thus preserving and promoting architectural heritage need to be put within that continuous development of the nature of the city. On the one hand, assimilating architectural heritage to historical remains is unacceptable; on the other hand we should not preserve architectural remains as if we simply restore then conserve them in museums, but rather putting architectural heritage in the context of everyday life, ensuring the parallel between preservation and development as two sides of a coin. - So as to preserve and promote values of the French colonial zone, it is necessary to utilize resources of the whole society. Therefore, the participation of community is undeniable. - Exploit and promote the heritage values are the premise of heritage preservation. In order to achieve the goal, the first concern is management. The way of managing must be proactive and flexible enough to make preservation always go along with development. - To preserve and promote values of the French zone is not only important to create urban identity, but also vital to develop tourism. Combining political system with marine tourism, eco-tourism is the base to develop cultural and heritage tourism one day. + The targets include: - Such evaluation on the potential heritage of the French zone provides a base to determine the position of Haiphong in the current system of preservation of French colonial buildings in Vietnam. - Establishing fund for architectural heritage and determining boundary of preserved areas will figure out the way of preservation, rehabilitation as well as redevelopment. - Propose solutions to exploit and promote values of the French quarter together with the development of Hai Phong. Optimize the current management of urban development in the procedure of urbanization. - Preliminary evaluation following 5 areas: (1-2A-2B-3-4) - Assess important urban blocks, important locations, major axis/routes. - Determine heritage buildings and evaluate each of them. By assessing urban structure, urban landscape, and urban activities in the French zone, it is clear to state that this area gains high preservation potential (score: 72/100d). 3.2. Result of evaluating the potential of preservation, determine boundary of preserved areas, and establish architectural heritage remained in Hai Phong’s French zone. Hình 3.1: map of organizing urban blocks due to preservation potential – source: author Table 3.1: Summary of assessment on potential preservation of important buildings – source: author No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 THE NAME OF THE POTIENTIAL BUILDINGS H M L City hall Museum Post office Concert hall Department of Transportation Dept.of Planning and Investment Dept. of Culture, Sports and Tourism Dept. of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs Dept. of Education &Training Department of Construction Hai Phong police Related to Hai Phong city hall Headquarter of labor union The supreme people’s procuracy No 26 27 28 29 30 31 THE NAME OF THE BUILDINGS Ngân hàng Ngoại thương ACB bank Vietbank Bank Dien Bien hotel Hong Bang hotel Ben Binh hostel 32 Ngo Quyen school 33 Hong Bang school 34 35 36 37 38 39 Dinh Tien Hoang school Nguyen Tri Phuong school Tran Phu school VCCI branch Mechanical Duyen Hai Co. Northern transport company POTIENTIAL H B T - 17 15 The former people’s procuracy 16 Ngo Quyen district court 17 Hai Phong publishing house 18 Union of technologies and sciences 19 Medical center 20 Hai Phong station 21 Cathedral of district court 22 Cathedral of Military medical institute 203 23 The state bank 24 Hong Bang treasury 25 Viettinbank - 18 40 Vosco company 41 Medical Pharmaceutical Duyen hai Company 42 commercial investment and urban development Co. 43 Housing business and management 44 Saigontoursit branch 45 Hai Phong securities Co. 46 Lot BT Ho Xuan Huong str. 47 Lot BT, alley 20 Hoang Van Thu str. 48 Lot BT Le Dai Hanh str. 49 Lot BT 60 Le Khanh Thien 50 Clusters of the former local housing in French zone Note: H = High; M = Medium, L = Low The thesis determines preserved boundary of the French zone including: the component structures, urban landscapes and characteristic locations. Base on the assessment of each urban block, preservation is partitioned into 3 levels: zone 1 - the most important area (core zone)limits changes, allowed to embellish under control; zone 2 – improving as long as adapting to surrounding environment; zone 3 - buffer, allowed to change (under control). In the mean time, the thesis also considers the possibility of extending the scope of preservation to integrate the architectural heritage of this area with that of surrounding neighborhoods. In the defined scope, this dissertation measures, counts and lists all urban, architectural heritage remained in the French zone. - Urban heritage is the structure of the French zone, which has grown steadily for more than a century. Components such as: the center flower garden, the existing lakes, ponds of the area, the small flower garden, or the urban blocks, which show the harmony between human and space are precious elements needed to be conserved and preserved. - 45 public buildings and 32 villas are listed as architectural heritage. 3.3. Proposal for preserving architectural heritage in the French zone of Hai Phong The thesis categorizes architectural heritage into 7 groups regarded as toolkits for urban planner/ preserver to base on. In additions, I also suggest a way to improve and develop values of the water resource. Table 3.2: Group of preserving solutions – source: author South of Cam river, going along Nguyen Urban zones Tri Phuong axis Urban blocks, going along Dien Bien Phu axis (2A) Urban The former blocks, going local blocks along Hoang V. Thu-Dinh Tien Hoang axis (2B) Urban blocks, going along landscape axis Rehabilitating the former port, link this to Cam river - Transfer Binh port to the current port for passengers Solutions of Nguyen Tri Phuong, Cu improving the current Chinh Lan, facades of the Ben Binh axis streets Stimilating potential of block 24,25,26 to expand the area of preservation (zone 1) Stimilating potential of block 33 to expand the area of preservation (zone 1) Stimulating potential of Tam Bac community as well as surrounding blocks Urban blocks situated in the south east of the flower garden Improving Dien Bien Phu axis with Lac Long Quan flower garden Square, Concert hall, improving Hoang V Thu, Dinh Tien Hoang Improving Tam Bac, Quang Trung axis The center flower garden, Tran Hung Dao, Tran Phu Solutions to urban planning and urban infrastructur e Pic 3.2: Preserved zones Pic 3.3: map of position and preserved boundary Pic 3.4: map of expanding preserved zones source: author. - 19 - - 20 - Solutions of stimulating urban potentials to preserve architectural heritage Stimilating potential as well as supplementing functions for block 3,4 Stimilating Stimilating potential of potential of block 9,25,26, block 33 27 Stimilating potential of blocks going along Tam Bac river Stimilating potential of block 38 Solutions of preserving the valued buildings remained City hall, Post office, the state bank of Hai Phong, Department of Planning and Investment Museum, Concert hall, Department of cathedral of Culture, district court Sports and Tourism Valued buildings situated on Tam Bac, Tran Hung Dao axis Hai Phong station, Ngo Quyen school Solutions of manipulating building density in development Adjusting the growth of blocks 1,2,5A,7,8 Adjusting the growth of blocks 10,11,12, 13,15,16, Adjusting the growth of blocks 39,46,56 Blocks around city square, concert hall and block 38 Adjusting the growth of blocks 23,32,33, 34,35,40,41, 43 Promote the Promote the Retain Promote the value of Dien value of commercial value of urban Bien Phu axis cultural axis activities in 3 landscape (services and HVT-ĐVT, traditional commercial concert hall’s markets street) square - list all -Manage and -Manage and -Manage and - Do not add Solutions greenery areas develop develop develop any building related to cultural, commercial into the center management that need to be commercial preserved activities religious activities flower garden - Exploit activities - supplement - Rehabilitate properly the urban Rong bien former port . activities that park - organize interest people tours on rivers Solutions of - Manage environment, waterflow, boundary and related factors conserving, - Manage activities related to transportation - Carefully rehabilitate the former port preserving the current - Organize tours on rivers (tourism) water system - Organize interesting activities going along rivers, such as night market in Tam Bac lake Solutions related to community Promote the value of Nguyen Tri Phuong axis 3.4. Solutions promoting values of architectural heritage of the French quarter in Hai Phong urban development The thesis proposes solutions to promote values of architectural heritage remained in Hai Phong’s French quarter: - Promote values of architectural heritage in Hai Phong’s urban planning in 2025, with a vision to 2050: The French quarter has been identified as the central nucleus of a multicenter city focused by the administrative, cultural and commercial headquarters. - Promote architectural and urban characteristics of the French quarter going along with development of Hai Phong city: oriented lot division, oriented inheritance of architectural style, oriented urban activities in economic development. - Exploit architectural heritage in urban development and cultural tourism: establishing tourism heritage programs, expanding joint development of culture and tourism of Hai Phong and surrounding areas, using media to boost heritage tourism development. - Exploit architectural characteristics of the French quarter to apply them into new areas as well as to redevelop Hai Phong port: the thesis proposes a number of principles in urban planning and landscape, inheriting and promoting values of French architectural style. For example: building walking lanes and destinations for heritage and cultural tourism along the old port area. 3.5. Preservation management and promotion of the architectural heritage in the French zone + Urban preservation management orientation: - Preserving the origins of urban structure. - Ensuring environmental requirements for urban space. - Meeting the requirements of economic development according to general orientation of priority mining, rehabilitation of the use of heritage area. - Raising public awareness of the urban preservation and management. + Architectural preservation management orientation: - Efficient architectural preservation, landscape protection on the basis of respect for the original. Do not negatively affect mutual space. - Ensuring regular repair and maintenance as planned. - Embellishing/adaptizing heritage. Converting/adding functions for current structures reasonably and realistically, under strict management to guarantee the sustainable development requirements. - 22 - - 21 + Management and organization of urban activities orientation: - Ensuring activities to contribute to the development and protection of local community, encouraging historical urban images. - Managing urban activities in the direction of promoting local culture and economic development based on strong heritage of the French quarter. - Ensuring the regular and effective organization of practical research activities related to the French quarter. + Providing and completing the legal basis for preservation and promotion of heritage values of the French quarter in Hai Phong. The thesis proposes additional legal documents on management of the French quarter in Hai Phong, a framework for regulation management and preservation for the French quarter with the following contents: Regulations on the management and planning of urban space, management regulations for architectural structures; regulations on exploitation and utilization; regulations on the organization of management and control. The thesis proposes solutions to preservation organization and management for the French quarter including 7 points, which covers relevant aspects. 3.6. Discussion on the research results - The appropriate level of evaluation criteria system for the potential heritage and the context of the French quarter as well as the feasibility of applying to other urban heritage studies. - The importance of preservation in the context of urbanization in Vietnam and the role of preservation in urban planning. - Preserving architectural heritage of the French quarter and related issues from the government, experts and communities to ensure protection of heritage to be in the best possible condition . - Exploiting and promoting values of architectural heritage of the French quarter and promoting values of the waterway system in Hai Phong development. - The management of heritage preservation of the French quarter in the continuous urban development of Hai Phong. - The thesis also discusses issues that need to be studied further to improve the scientific understanding of urban heritage preservation and the French colonial architecture in Vietnam. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion The beauty of the French quarter in Hai Phong has already been noted in many works of literature and art, but in urban history of Vietnam, it has not been much interest. Established in the late 19th century ( 1884 ) from the garrison that has advantages of waterway, French had built the French quarter in Hai Phong into a seaport urban and small-scale industrial zone, but always considering this city as the second largest city in the northern region - only after Hanoi. Therefore, the French quarter itself contains precious values in planning, architecture, landscape, cultural diversity, active life etc. On the other hand, due to the "natural", little changed preservation, while most of the structures built under the French here are used as the headquarters of the city from 1954 until now, the French quarter offers another great value: it is the integrity of a urban heritage, which is very difficult to preserve in the big city more than 100 years. The French quarter in Hai Phong faces the threat of 5 years’ recent trend of urbanization, when the wave of investment in real estate has always aimed to the "golden land" in the city center. This risk demands more serious studies as the thesis set out beforehand in order to assess urban and architectural values of this French zone, figuring out the right solution to preservation and continuation of the most beautiful, historical part in small and medium-sized cities in Vietnam. Specifically, the thesis has the following contributions: 1. From colonial times to the present, the French quarter in Hai Phong is the central nucleus of the city, which is expanding and restructuring. Therefore, the study and withdrawal experiences of urban organization have practical significance for preserving and promoting the French zone and establishing architectural identity in the future. This is also the opinion of the thesis: the undetachable relationship between the integral preservation of urban structure and exploitation of economic activities, tourism, culture etc. The connection and aliveness of the urban is not only built by the government but rather by traditional activities of the dwellers. 2. The thesis summarized the content of the convention, charters, decrees, international declaration on cultural heritage and historic urban heritage, doing comparative work with the Law on Cultural Heritage in - 23 - - 24 - Vietnam and Regulations and management of heritage sites, which has issued proposed changes of the phrase "historical and cultural relics" in Clause 3, Article 4 of the Law on cultural heritage (which is used to recognize the neighborhood historic preservation needs at national level ,such as the Old Quarter of Hanoi and Hoi An) into the phrase " history cultural urban heritage" fit to the international practices and specific conditions in Vietnam. 3. The thesis uses urban preservation methodology to evaluate the potential of heritage preservation in Haiphong quarter, in correlation between architectural heritage preservation and urban heritage preservation. It is this link that helped the thesis to achieve highly aggregated results than former approaches of architectural heritage preservation in the French quarter. The thesis adapts to preserving methods of the Western, and then builds a criteria system to assess the potential of urban preservation in accordance with the peculiarities of architectural heritage in Hai Phong and Vietnam, yielding scientific and accurate results, which then contribute to scientific development of urban preservation. 4. The thesis held scientific survey on the state of the French quarter in a comprehensive way to determine characteristics, outstanding values of urban landscape, urban structure that contains a dense of architectural heritage. Based on that, the thesis has built criteria system, zoning the urban French quarter heritage and delineating protected areas according to 3 levels. In particular, the thesis evaluates the preservation status of this urban heritage in the context of continuing development. The thesis also proposes highly possible solutions in preservation, renovation and refurbishment of the French quarter in the overall planning of urban development in Haiphong to 2025, with a vision to 2050. 5. The thesis carefully conducts survey, record drawing, and photography and learns from historical data to make statistical science, classification and assessment of architectural values under the colonial period in the French quarter. The values are ranked in order of priority to preserve based on historical values, architectural styles, technical status, preservation status, cultural characteristics and functions of each building. The thesis also discovered and added a number of buildings that have architectural values in and adjacent to the French quarter to the list of historic architectural monuments needed to be preserved. All French colonial architecture in this zone have been cataloged in the Appendix of the thesis, which then can be a corner stone for the next studies or for drawing lessons on architectural history to create new architectural characteristics of Hai Phong. 6. The thesis proposes 7 basic orientation solutions to preserve and promote values of architectural heritage of the French quarter and 1 solution of promoting values of water systems in the French quarter. All the proposed solutions are feasible, suitable for practical urban development and urban and architectural preservation. Objects of each solution have been identified adequately and scientifically, which then can be used for implementing further research as well as building preservation projects and promoting the value of architectural heritage in Hai Phong appropriately. 7. To be able to perform well in promoting and preserving heritage values in the context of urban development and expansion taking place in Hai Phong, the thesis researches and proposes the orientations of preservation management, construction management and control of appropriate development to the characteristics of the French quarter. Orientations of preservation and heritage management should be concretized and implemented soon, when urbanization and commercialization have not affected the French quarter in Hai Phong to the degree of degrading and deforming. 8. The thesis has clarified the contents of heritage and modern preservation and has significantly expanded the intimate relationship between the context of economy and society with urban, architectural heritage – which are considered as important resources needed to be behaved in a positive and reasonable direction paralleling between preservation and development as a continuation of the sustainable urban life in Vietnam. Through inherited solutions and promoting values of the French zone in Hai Phong in the general planning for urban construction, the thesis has drawn many lessons for scientific research of urban preservation in Vietnam today – especially for the small and mediumsized cities, which affects the perspective on spatial organization of more than 600 cities of grade V formed mainly in recent years. 9. The thesis emphasizes community participation in urban preservation and development. The involvement of communities in preservation is a necessary condition to ensure that the heritage is attached to urban life. It is important to see the community as one of main resources - 25 - - 26 - of the government in implementing successfully solutions proposed in the thesis. 3. Hai Phong City People's Committee should conduct the counting and evaluating values of the French quarter in order to propose early the recognition of being a historical and cultural urban heritage at city and national level, which is considered as a basis for legal management and development control. At the same time, the thesis recommends to establish an architectural monuments list in the French quarter, assessing and acknowledging the historical architectural relics under French as heritage at city level and national level. This requires organizing scientific workshops and promoting consultations to Cultural Heritage Department (Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism). This work should be conducted soon not to leave the marks of a valuable historical stage destroyed by urbanization and uncontrolled development. 4. Hai Phong’s government must soon determine boundaries of preservation areas, promulgate regulations on urban, architectural heritage management of the French quarter, establish necessary legal tools as a basis for higher awareness, urban management, relationship adjustment, problems handling arising in the continuous development process of Hai Phong city. Recommendations 1. The case of the French quarter in Hai Phong showed that Cultural Heritage Law - though modified and supplemented in 2009 has some points inconsistent with the actual situation and should be improved. First of all, it is necessary to supplement the terms specifying type of architectural heritage and urban heritage in the law, for they are legally recognized, protected and adequately invested (besides the types of monuments and antiquities). Next, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism needs to study and issue specific guidance on architectural preservation and preservation of urban planning in accordance with the nature of types of heritage in specific conditions of locality. Only by doing this, preservation activities can accompany with development goals - in the range of locations / areas of urban heritage. Because of the importance of urban and architectural preservation, it is necessary to confirm the dominant role of the Cultural Heritage Law versus Law of Construction and Urban Planning to regulate construction and renovation activities in the preservation area. The regulations of zoning and delimitating preservation levels of urban heritage also need to be clarified in the Law on Cultural Heritage. 2. Preservation planning should be component of construction planning and urban development for historical cities of Vietnam. This type of planning must be announced so that people can check and monitor in preservation period. The preservation will not succeed without consent and participation of community - as well as attaching the heritage interests with their interests. The government should play the leading role in urban preservation, possibly through cooperation model of public - private partnership (PPP) to harmoniously balance interests of the government, investors and communities in preservation. For the French quarter in Hai Phong, it is necessary to establish the management board under the city People’s Committee, having the right to adjust relations, mobilizes all resources for preservation and development in the region. Also, a mechanism of 3C (Government + Community+ Professionals) is needed in planning, monitoring and implementation of preservation. The French quarter in Hai Phong is sensitive to changes in development and urbanization. The adjustment of planning and urban construction should be carefully considered based on information, scientific data, peer experts and communities to identify proper direction in preservation and promotion of urban, architectural heritage of the French zone in particular and of the city in general.
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