MYNISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
MYNISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION
HANOI ARCHITECTURAL UNIVERSITY
NGUYỄN QUỐC TUÂN
CONSERVING AND PROMOTING
THE VALUE OF FRENCH QUARTER’S
ARCHITECTURAL – URBAN HERITAGE
IN HAIPHONG CITY
MAJOR : ARCHITECTURE
CODE : 62.58.01.02
SUMMARY OF PHD THESIS IN ARCHITECTURE
The thesis was completed at Hanoi Architectural University.
The scientific guidance:
Prof. Dr. Arch. Nguyễn Bá Đang
Dr. Arch. Nguyễn Trí Thành
Reviewer 1:Prof. Dr. Arch.Hoàng Đạo Kính
AUTHOR’S PUBLISHED RELATED WORKS
1. Architectural – urban heritage from French colonial period in
small and medium towns before 1945 - a part of Vietnam's
cultural heritage[Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no. 4, 2006]
2. Water factor with the formation of the French Quarter in Hai
Phong [Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no. 11, 2010]
Reviewer 2:Assoc. Prof. Dr. Arch.Nguyễn Hồng Thục
3. Assessing the potential of urban heritage conservation of French
Quarter in Hai Phong [Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no. 8,
4. Conservation and promoting the value of French quarter’s
architectural – urban heritage in Hai Phong city [Architecture
Magazine, no. 9, 2013]
Reviewer 3:Dr. Arch.Lê Quân
5. Retention and promoting the impression of a riverside city
[Vietnam Architecture Magazine, no.10, 2013]
The thesis was defended at the University’s Scientific Council at:
The thesis can be found in;
1. National Library of Vietnam
2. Hanoi Architectural University’s Library
In this context, choosing thesis topic "Preservation and promoting
the value of architectural - urban heritage in French Quarter in Hai Phong
city" is significantly urgen on both theoretical and practical aspects.
2. The purpose of the thesis research
The purpose of the thesis is to preserve and promote the values of
the French Quarter in Hai Phong as an integrated system between the
architectural heritage and urban heritage. The research tasks are defined as
- Evaluate potential conservation of architectural - urban heritage in
French Quarter in Hai Phong.
- Identify architectural - urban heritage fund and conservation
- Propose solutions to preserve the architectural heritage in French
Quarter in Haiphong.
- Propose oriented management of architectural - urban heritage in Hai
Phong’s French Quarter.
- Propose solutions and promote the value of urban heritage
architecture of the French Quarter in the development of Hai Phong
continuation of Hai Phong Urban.
3. Subjects and scope of research
The object of the thesis is studying the legacy system of
architectural and urban heritage of French in the French Quarter of Hai
Phong. The nature of the architectural - urban heritage in French colonial
period including: the space and urban landscape formed during the French
colonial period (1858-1954). The architecture which is influenced by
French culture, French style but formed in the later period is not subject of
this thesis research.
The scope of the study is defined in terms of space and time. French
Quarter in Hai Phong is formed from 1874 to 1954, in the area bounded by
the Cam River, Tam Bac River, Tam Bac Lake (Lap River) and the center
garden strip. The scope of research can expand to integrate the
architectural heritage of that period but located in/adjacent to French
4. Research Methodology
Perform the tasks set, the thesis approaches using analyzing systems
and synthesized knowledge and processing information from the
- Methods of collection, retrospective
1. Problem setting
In the course of historical development, Vietnam has accumulated a
large architectural - urban heritage fund, including ones are formed under
French colonial. These legacies have high values of architecture, art and
uses, and has been involved inVietnamese social life for more than a
century and played an important historical role in the development of the
country, thus they became a part of the cultural heritage of Vietnam.
Connecting heritage with urban development will enhance the value of
historical urban areas and bring benefits to the local economy. Bringing
heritage to participate in local life and activities helps contributing the
preservation and promotion of heritage value. However in the process of
development and modernization, many places has priority over the shortterm goal rather than to maintain architectural - urban heritage treasury
fund, therefore heritage at many places has been affected, vulnerable hurt,
even destroyed - though bringing up local economic benefits but losing the
moral values of the community. This is the loss of the country, and of the
part of humanity.
In the French colonial period, Hai Phong is the third largest city of
Vietnam after Hanoi and Saigon - Cholon. In Hai Phong, it has formed
aquite complete and diverse network of urban structures, which is built at
a large scale and high quality. Today, the French Quarter is the historic
center of the city, and is the nuclear orientation of urban development in
Hai Phong - one in six central urban areas of the country, one of the three
poles of the triangle Northern economic development.
While there have been many detailedstudies aboutarchitectural urban heritage from French colonial period in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh
City, Hai Phong, the French Quarter has not been equally concerned with
its meaning and valuablecharacteristic. So far, Hai Phong has neither build
acompleteconservation plan, nor statistically listed urban architectural
heritagefund in the province under the French period.There isn’t any
regulation and management solutions to preserve and promote its values.
On the academic side, there is no dissertation, thesis or scientific research
projects addressing the above issues towards the integration of
architectural and urban heritage value.
- Methods of analysis - synthesis
- Survey methodology and survey XH school
- Statistical methods and classification
- Map overlay method
- Methods comparison / reconciliation
- Experimental Methods
5. Meaning and practice of the thesis
5.1. Scientific significance:
- For the first time, the French Quarter in Hai Phongis selectedas an
object of a research thesis. In particular, this thesis is not only about
conservation, renovation and adaptation of French colonial architectural
values, but also take the whole urban structure of the city as the research
- The thesis has a new approach to analyze urban structure (the land
use characteristics, the structures and methods used in urban economic
activities, social and cultural), evaluate the conservation potential of
French Quarter in Haiphong through scientific evaluation criterion,
considering both aspects: preserving and promoting the value to propose
solutions for sustainable development which has an outstandingcapital
value that needsto conserve, yet meet a big challenge to develope in
urbanization trends(at all costs).
5.2. Practical significance
- Provide reliable scientific data for research related to the
characteristics and values of the urban architectural heritage in French
Quarter in Hai Phong.
- Contributing to complete the regulatory environment, strategic
planning and policies to improve management efficiency and promote the
value of the urban architectural heritage in the continuing development
6. New contributions of the thesis
6.1. The contribution of scientific aspects:
- Develop new approaches to the studying of the French Quarter
that has medium and small scale like Hai Phong city to fund conservation
of urban heritage value in the history of urban development in Vietnam.
- Contributing to clarify the behavior of fund scientific heritage and
urban architecture as they are two entities considered organic, integral to
the solutions proposed conservation and promoting their value in urban
development in Vietnam in the near future.
- Establish criteria for evaluating potential conservation consistent
with the characteristics of Vietnam’surban heritage, contributions to
conservation science in terms of methodology.
6.2. Contribution in practical aspects:
- Inventory, establishing zoning categories and funds to protect the
architectural - urban heritage in French Quarter in Hai Phong.
- Propose solutions to preserve and promote the values of the
architectural heritage of the French colonial period in urban planning
urban development in Hai Phong.
7. Thesis’s structure
The thesis structure consists of an Introduction, Content and
Conclusion - Recommendations. Content section includes 3 chapters:
Chapter 1: Overview of study of colonial period architectural urban heritage conservation and French Quarter in Haiphong.
Chapter 2: Scientific basis for conserving and promoting the
architectural - urban heritage value of French Quarter in Haiphong.
Chapter 3: Solution preserve and promote the heritage value of
urban architecture French Quarter Haiphong.
Reference list includes 71 materials.
Separated appendix includes 14 appendices (136 pages).
Chapter 1: Overview of study of colonial period architectural - urban
heritage conservation and French Quarter in Haiphong.
1.1. Overview of conservation research and promote the value of
architectural - urban heritage during colonial period in the world
and in Vietnam
Thesis research situation of heritage conservation of colonial
architecture in the world and in Vietnam, introduced the concept of
heritage, urban architectural heritage, movements and trends in heritage
conservation in the world, including some emerging issues related to the
conservation of the architectural heritage of the French Quarter in Hai
Phong as follows:
- From the conservation of monuments turned to heritage
conservation and urban conservation, conservation scope is expanded
(including space and landscaping around the monument, heritage).
- Development in continuing is the development process does not
create disruptions and ensure continuity of urban life. Because of the
urban physical environment (physical) and social - humanity (soul) was
formed in evolutionary history, continuation generations and historical
periods, creating living entity that associated past and present. Urban
heritage is an integral part, and exist in parallel with the movement of
- In the other country, colonial architectural - urban heritage is
preserved and effectively promotedunder various forms, the most common
of which is cultural tourism exploite. In Vietnam, there are some new
studies related to urban heritage during French colonial period in the large
urban (Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City), but the lack of strict counting, no
regulations on the management of French Quarter; there is a phenomenon
that building has built unreasonable, heritage conversion with unsuitable
functions, even invaded and destroyed.
In Hai Phong, urban architectural heritagefund of the French
colonial period are quite diverse in type, style and fashion. The
preservation of this heritage group has not been given due to few attention
to its value. So far, the city government just conduct an inventory, drawing
a record number of major public buildings and worthyvillas. French
Quarter in Hai Phong has not been studied adequately and the overview of
the value of urban and architecture, as well as no conservation zone has
drawn, as well as identify solutions to oriente architectural heritage
conservation of this urban quarter.
1.2. Overview of the process of formation and development of the
French Quarter in Vietnam and Haiphong
French architecture appeared in Vietnam in the early nineteenth
century when the city of Hue and Hanoi was built by Vauban style. After
capturing the Gia Dinh (1859), the French were planning Saigon according
to a European model. During colonial times, Saigon is the central
administrative, economic, cultural and educational importance of the
Indochina region, was dubbed the Pearl of the East. In Hanoi, French
made concessions along the Red River (1875) and then gradually
expanding westward into the French Quarter with the architectural style
and impressive diversity. In addition, the French Quarter was built in Hue,
Hai Phong and some other resort towns (Dalat, Sapa, Tam Dao,..).
In Hai Phong, after the Giap Tuan Peace Agreement (1874), the
French established 2 ha concession in the southern bank of the river Cam,
in 1875 this area expanded to 7 hectares, harbor construction, troops
station, consular offices, clinics, churches,... and at the same time, the
indigenous population areas are also formed along the Tam Bacriver that's where the first urbanization in Haiphong. From 1885 and started
doing road construction as planned, conceived and developed gradually
southward street grid. Overlaying maps showing the development process
of urban expansion Hai Phong: in 1885 Bonnan channels were dug to
isolate West neighborhood, and in 1900 it has no longer protective role
becomes more of urban space landscape (Opera House), to fill the strip in
1925, the garden was "center"; southern boundary is expanded to first
grade after street block strip gardens, to surpass Hanoi - Hai Phongrailway
and in 1935 it is not clear anymore. In this process, the original urban
nucleus continues to be built more buildings and streets, cells were filled
andbecome region today known as the French Quarter, under the Hong
1.3. The current status of urban neighborhoods France Hai Phong
French Quarter in Hai Phong was special shaped by natural
boundaries and artificial water. In 1885, the French Bonnan canal linking
the River Cam and River Tam Bac, created for urban areas an initially ax
shaped. Most canals have been filled (1925), but now the French Quarter
remained almost intact form under the French plan to follow the grid
roadsystem, distinct functional areas, buildings has French architectural
Through the survey, site analyzis, Hai Phong‘s French Quarter is
divided into 5 regions with characteristic morphological differences quite
clearly, urban activities and urban cultural landscape in each area also has
- The South river Cam (region 1)
- The central area, including street grid along the axis Dien Bien
(region 2a) and axial Hoang Van Thu - Dinh Tien Hoang (region 2b)
- The old city native (region 3)
- Strip centergarden and the axial cell (region 4).
1.4. Current status of the French Quarter architecture Hai Phong
French Quarter in Hai Phong has a system of French colonial
architecture which is rich and diverse in type and style. The urban public
facilities as fully as in Hanoi or Saigon, only slightly inferior in size and
level of sophistication in interior decoration. The building houses mostly
villas (in the French Quarter and a few clusters outside) and townhouses
(in the neighborhood of the native Vietnamese, Chinese). The industrial,
port has significant value in architecture at the time before, but now most
have been relocated or destroyed.
There are 03 of the French colonial architecture has been recognized
as a city-level relics, including the Opera House, Post Office and Ga Hai
1.5. The research work related to the thesis
French Quarter Haiphong potential urban architectural heritage is
huge but not management, conservation and promotion of the right to
value. There are a number of research projects in the country for urban
architectural heritage French colonial period, but only concentrating in
Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, in addition to the Hue, Da Lat. Some topics by
implementation refers to the architectural heritage of the French colonial
period in Haiphong, but only at the level of research typical public works.
The master thesis on architecture Haiphong separate survey only a few
types of limited range, not integrated into the system at the municipal
level. Only a doctoral thesis (research on the history and development of
public space in Hai Phong - Nguyen Thanh Binh author, Deakin
University, Australia) refers to the process of urban development Hai
rooms generally, but not going into the French Quarter on conservation
issues - promoting heritage values .
Until now, no comprehensive studies on:
- Features and overall value of urban architecture of the French
Quarter in Hai Phong.
- Establishment of urban heritage fund, fund and distribute
architectural heritage conservation area.
- To preserve and promote the heritage value of urban architecture
French Quarter Haiphong.
- Management of Urban Development in the French Quarter of Hai
1.6. The tackled issues in the thesis
- Develop appropriate tools to analyze and assess the characteristics
and value of the French Quarter to more accurately determine the
conservation potential of urban structures, buildings, landscapes and group
activities... special heritage this feud.
- Conservation of Architectural Heritage Urban Hai Phong French
Quarter, including the contents: evaluation of potential heritage
conservation zoning, heritage funds established urban and architectural
heritage fund, the proposed regulations towards conservation.
- Manage and promote the heritage value of urban architecture in
the French Quarter of economic development - social, cultural tourism,
urban development continuity of Haiphong.
Chapter 2: Scientific basis for conserving and promoting the
architectural - urban heritage value of French Quarter in Haiphong.
2.1. Methodology and Research Methods
With the field of interdisciplinary research, thesis using system
approach to coordinate different research methods:
- The method of collection, retrospective surveys, sociological
surveys to collect, verify the information professional.
- The method compares and contrasts to identify trends in theory,
detect changes of urban architectural heritage Haiphong.
- Statistical methods for classification and systematization of data
architecture, urban and heritage of the French Quarter in Hai Phong.
- Map overlay method for analyzing urban form, identify the process
of formation and development of Hai Phong Urban.
Information from the research component is further processed by
thinking analysis and synthesis to build up the results and
recommendations of the thesis. Finally, the experimental method to test
the applicability of the results.
2.2. The legal basis for the conservation of urban heritage architecture
in the world and in Vietnam
The thesis discussed and analyzed the content related to the
conservation of urban heritage in the Athens Charter (1931), Venice
(1964), Burra (1979), Washington (1987), the Nara Document (1994), Hoi
An Protocol (2003) and the Hanoi Declaration (2009).
In Vietnam, the Law on Cultural Heritage was adopted in 2001 and
amended in 2009, but some are not specific regulations or practices
inconsistent with the application should have certain shortcomings, yet
adjustable problems arise. Besides the Cultural Heritage Act, there are
other legal texts concerned. In general, the law and the most text focuses
on the protection and restoration of monuments rather than heritage
conservation. The rules specify the behavior heritage (especially urban
heritage) and the provisions of community participation in conservation is
not interested, not shown awareness of the expanding scope conservation.
- 10 -
The thesis also learn urban development program in 2020 and the
National Development Orientation architecture Vietnam in 2020 to gather
more scientific basis for research and propose solutions.
2.3. Theoretical basis for the conservation of architectural - urban
Thus, there is usually a soft metabolic patterns between urban areas, a
sense of place mainly through cultural element - the spirit.
Objects can be conserved is: the variety genre and style of the
architectural characteristics of street architecture, the landscape features;
street network structure; urban general appearance; metabolism and to
morphological variations between urban areas, the activities of
+ Original data analysis to identify the components to be
conserved: the current state of the data base is urban. The French Quarter
recent dating back to the status quo generally stable, reserved architectural
relatively clear, records are relatively complete archive. These are
favorable factors for Conservation Research. French Quarter Haiphong
maintained relatively intact because most office buildings are under the
management and ownership of the state.
+ Identify the structural components to be conserved: the urban area
is often relatively clear identification. Since feudal times, the "capital" and
the "market" has been established and separated by trenches. By the early
modern period, the French Quarter is generally formed in relatively
isolated locations with native neighborhood. The structural components of
the French Quarter Haiphong relatively isolated evidently been planned
from the beginning by thinking and planning of urban development and
the West has not been excessive urbanization in the open era.
+ Rating heritage conservation potential of urban architecture:
should be conducted according to the macro level to the micro - from
urban master, the structural components, the location / specific
metropolitan areas, and to the work / project specific clusters. Besides, to
compare between the different regions to determine the scope and value
focus has its own characteristics.
+ Adjust construction methods and criteria for evaluating system
potential urban heritage architecture suitable for Hai Phong French
Figure 2.1: Research methods used in the thesis - source: author
Based on the methodology of urban conservation by scholars of the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, USA) built in the research
process lasted nearly 30 years and is Nahoum Cohen summarized in the
book "Urban Conservation". To apply effectively in Vietnam, thesis
modified prospective method heritage assessment appropriate to use
Vietnam to Hai Phong French Quarter.
To appreciate the potential of urban architectural heritage in the
urban history of Vietnam and orientation appropriate conservation
measures, need to follow these steps:
Identify the scope and object of conservation:conservation area
should be urban center history overlay developed over many periods, the
integration of intangible value (dating) and tangible (materials, relics left).
- 11 -
- 12 The purpose of the assessment methodology is potential heritage
quantify an abstract concept to the point and by comparison of results
between areas, the street grid, the specific locations to identify subjects
research and conservation subdivisions. From 5 criteria proposed by
Cohen with wide variability values (0-20%), the thesis has distributed
more detailed filtering, building the new criteria include 4 x 5 criteria
group embraces the elements associated relating to heritage. With 5 points
for the first criterion, the qualitative assessment should be less errors, the
survey will be easier to ensure certain criteria are not too biased /
underdog. The results obtained (compared with a total maximum score is
100) quantitative, accurately indicates the relative potential heritage.
Table 2.1: Evaluating system to critic conservation potential of French
quarter’s urban structure in Hai Phong - source: author
Figure 2.2: Developing method of evaluating heritage potential of Hai
Phong French quarter - source: author
Figure 2.3: Objectives of identifying conservationpotential of
architectural- urban heritage - source: author
MAIN GROUP OF CRITERIAS AND MAXIMUM SCORE
Criteria Architectural 25đ 1. Architectural heritage system
3. The coherence of urban form in 5đ
4. Building technique
5. Building material
25đ 6. Site boundary
7. Street structure
8. Architectural mophology
9. Building form / space relationship 5đ
10. Relationship to surrounding
25đ 11. Street façade
12. Urban appearance
13. Natural environment
14. Cultural environment
15. Style and form
Urban culture 25đ 16. Street activities
17. Sence of place
18. Historical feeling
19. Aesthetical environment
20. Reaction to nature
score of each
If the total
- 13 -
- 14 -
Table 2.2: Criteria system to evaluate conservation potential of important
buildings in French Quarter in Hai Phong - source: author
routes, nor development from village on the street - which was built from
scratch on vacant land.
In certain similarities with Hanoi, Hue, Saigon, Hai Phong French
Quarter formed from river concessions but more compact and does not
create a conflict against an indigenous neighborhood. In other cities, far
from the old town French Quarter before, spacing by river, lake,.. then in
Hai Phong and developing them together facing each other, the idea would
create a conflict but the actual delivery applied fairly smoothly. The
spread of architectural forms from French Quarter neighborhood to
indigenous and reverse the spread of urban form, lifestyle, commercial
operations, supply chain services and agricultural products from
neighborhood native to French Quarter can be seen as a special value of
acculturation in urban development in French colonial Vietnam.
2.5 Elements that have impacts on preserving and promoting values of
architectural heritage of the French Quarter in Hai Phong
Geographical factors including natural terrain, condition and climate
of Hai Phong offered tremendous potential. Hai Phong meets many
advantages to grow stably in the period of globalization. By utilizing
economic strength of owning a long coast, Hai Phong soon became a
modern city, a center of industry, service supply and tourism, serving as an
important pole in the North Viet Nam. Planning Haiphong to 2025, vision
2050 is identified that the French Quarter would be the center of a
polycentric urban model. This indicates the value of the French zone, as
well as the challenge that urban planners should ponder about.
In terms of perception, the French Quarter in Hai Phong is the
historical center of the city, in other words, this is the key point navigating
the development of Hai Phong, which is regarded as one of the 6 centers in
Viet Nam, or one of the 3 poles of the Northern economic triangle. The
architectural characteristics and heritage of the French zone plays a crucial
role within that context, having great potential to exploit and promote
The results of this chapter are integrated to measure potential
conservation and preservation of urban heritage in the French Quarter in
MAIN GROUP OF
CRITERIAS AND MAXIMUM SCORE
(high: 3đ, medium: 2đ, low: 1đ)
12đ 1.Ages value
Point given Historical
2.Iconic, spiritual value
3.Relation to event/ historical famous man
4.Value of historical place
Aesthetic and 12đ 5.Unique architectural style
6.Aesthetical, harmonious value
7. Style and aesthetical uniqueness
to similar Function and 12đ 9.Retaining original function
11. Highly adapting to local uses
14đ 13.Unique building technique
16.Availability of spare material
17. Quality of uses
The thesis has conducted urban partition (zone 5), follow the street
grid cells divide to evaluate the potential of architectural heritage and
urban. The results of the evaluation of potential heritage city each cell /
component architecture / urban areas particular, the structures will be
important to determine the basis of conservation potential and build
2.4. Base on the characteristics and values of urban architecture of the
French Quarter in Hai Phong
Hai Phong bearing nature of a coastal urban centers, four side
surfaces are three rivers: the Lach Tray river, Cam river, Tam Bac river,
Ha Li river, Thuong Ly river, Lap river (Tam Bac Lake),.. Cam River
plays an important role in shaping the industrial city - Hai Phong port.
River water is sourced create urban Haiphong.
Different from the traditional urban Vietnam (usually urban
administrative, commercial or mixed commercial administrative + - from
which urban concept), Hai Phong development process very own special
way special: the all-new urban form in modern times, not associated with
defensive ramparts, not based on a settlements basis, not on a long trade
- 15 -
- 16 -
Chapter 3. Proposal for preserving and promoting values of
architectural heritage remained in the French Quarter
3.1. The aims and goals
The aim of this thesis is to propose a way to preserve and promote
values embodied in architectural heritage:
- City is a living entity, which is always movable and changeable,
thus preserving and promoting architectural heritage need to be put within
that continuous development of the nature of the city. On the one hand,
assimilating architectural heritage to historical remains is unacceptable; on
the other hand we should not preserve architectural remains as if we
simply restore then conserve them in museums, but rather putting
architectural heritage in the context of everyday life, ensuring the parallel
between preservation and development as two sides of a coin.
- So as to preserve and promote values of the French colonial zone,
it is necessary to utilize resources of the whole society. Therefore, the
participation of community is undeniable.
- Exploit and promote the heritage values are the premise of
heritage preservation. In order to achieve the goal, the first concern is
management. The way of managing must be proactive and flexible enough
to make preservation always go along with development.
- To preserve and promote values of the French zone is not only
important to create urban identity, but also vital to develop tourism.
Combining political system with marine tourism, eco-tourism is the base
to develop cultural and heritage tourism one day.
+ The targets include:
- Such evaluation on the potential heritage of the French zone
provides a base to determine the position of Haiphong in the current
system of preservation of French colonial buildings in Vietnam.
- Establishing fund for architectural heritage and determining
boundary of preserved areas will figure out the way of preservation,
rehabilitation as well as redevelopment.
- Propose solutions to exploit and promote values of the French
quarter together with the development of Hai Phong. Optimize the current
management of urban development in the procedure of urbanization.
- Preliminary evaluation following 5 areas: (1-2A-2B-3-4)
- Assess important urban blocks, important locations, major
- Determine heritage buildings and evaluate each of them.
By assessing urban structure, urban landscape, and urban activities
in the French zone, it is clear to state that this area gains high preservation
potential (score: 72/100d).
3.2. Result of evaluating the potential of preservation, determine
boundary of preserved areas, and establish architectural heritage
remained in Hai Phong’s French zone.
Hình 3.1: map of
blocks due to
– source: author
Table 3.1: Summary of assessment on potential preservation of important
buildings – source: author
THE NAME OF THE
H M L
Department of Transportation
Dept.of Planning and
Dept. of Culture, Sports and
Dept. of Labor, Invalids and
Dept. of Education &Training
Department of Construction
Hai Phong police
Related to Hai Phong city hall
Headquarter of labor union
The supreme people’s
THE NAME OF THE
Ngân hàng Ngoại thương
Dien Bien hotel
Hong Bang hotel
Ben Binh hostel
32 Ngo Quyen school
33 Hong Bang school
Dinh Tien Hoang school
Nguyen Tri Phuong school
Tran Phu school
Mechanical Duyen Hai Co.
Northern transport company
H B T
- 17 15 The former people’s
16 Ngo Quyen district court
17 Hai Phong publishing house
18 Union of technologies and
19 Medical center
20 Hai Phong station
21 Cathedral of district court
22 Cathedral of Military medical
23 The state bank
24 Hong Bang treasury
- 18 40 Vosco company
41 Medical Pharmaceutical
Duyen hai Company
42 commercial investment and
urban development Co.
43 Housing business and
44 Saigontoursit branch
45 Hai Phong securities Co.
46 Lot BT Ho Xuan Huong str.
47 Lot BT, alley 20 Hoang Van
48 Lot BT Le Dai Hanh str.
49 Lot BT 60 Le Khanh Thien
50 Clusters of the former local
housing in French zone
Note: H = High; M = Medium, L = Low
The thesis determines preserved boundary of the French zone
including: the component structures, urban landscapes and characteristic
locations. Base on the assessment of each urban block, preservation is
partitioned into 3 levels: zone 1 - the most important area (core zone)limits changes, allowed to embellish under control; zone 2 – improving as
long as adapting to surrounding environment; zone 3 - buffer, allowed to
change (under control).
In the mean time, the thesis also considers the possibility of
extending the scope of preservation to integrate the architectural heritage
of this area with that of surrounding neighborhoods.
In the defined scope, this dissertation measures, counts and lists all
urban, architectural heritage remained in the French zone.
- Urban heritage is the structure of the French zone, which has
grown steadily for more than a century. Components such as: the center
flower garden, the existing lakes, ponds of the area, the small flower
garden, or the urban blocks, which show the harmony between human and
space are precious elements needed to be conserved and preserved.
- 45 public buildings and 32 villas are listed as architectural
3.3. Proposal for preserving architectural heritage in the French zone of
The thesis categorizes architectural heritage into 7 groups regarded
as toolkits for urban planner/ preserver to base on. In additions, I also
suggest a way to improve and develop values of the water resource.
Table 3.2: Group of preserving solutions – source: author
South of Cam
Urban zones Tri Phuong
Bien Phu axis
blocks, going local blocks
port, link this
to Cam river
Binh port to
Solutions of Nguyen Tri
the current Chinh Lan,
facades of the Ben Binh axis
to expand the
block 33 to
situated in the
south east of
Dien Bien Phu
axis with Lac
Hoang V Thu,
Dao, Tran Phu
Pic 3.2: Preserved zones
Pic 3.3: map of position and preserved
Pic 3.4: map of expanding preserved zones
- 19 -
- 20 -
block 9,25,26, block 33
City hall, Post
state bank of
Department of cathedral of
and block 38
Promote the Promote the Retain
value of Dien value of
value of urban
Bien Phu axis cultural axis activities in 3 landscape
(services and HVT-ĐVT,
concert hall’s markets
- list all
-Manage and -Manage and -Manage and - Do not add
greenery areas develop
into the center
management that need to be commercial
- supplement - Rehabilitate
activities that park
tours on rivers
Solutions of - Manage environment, waterflow, boundary and related factors
conserving, - Manage activities related to transportation
- Carefully rehabilitate the former port
the current - Organize tours on rivers (tourism)
water system - Organize interesting activities going along rivers, such as night market in
Tam Bac lake
3.4. Solutions promoting values of architectural heritage of the French
quarter in Hai Phong urban development
The thesis proposes solutions to promote values of architectural
heritage remained in Hai Phong’s French quarter:
- Promote values of architectural heritage in Hai Phong’s urban
planning in 2025, with a vision to 2050: The French quarter has been
identified as the central nucleus of a multicenter city focused by the
administrative, cultural and commercial headquarters.
- Promote architectural and urban characteristics of the French
quarter going along with development of Hai Phong city: oriented lot
division, oriented inheritance of architectural style, oriented urban
activities in economic development.
- Exploit architectural heritage in urban development and cultural
tourism: establishing tourism heritage programs, expanding joint
development of culture and tourism of Hai Phong and surrounding areas,
using media to boost heritage tourism development.
- Exploit architectural characteristics of the French quarter to apply
them into new areas as well as to redevelop Hai Phong port: the thesis
proposes a number of principles in urban planning and landscape,
inheriting and promoting values of French architectural style. For
example: building walking lanes and destinations for heritage and cultural
tourism along the old port area.
3.5. Preservation management and promotion of the architectural
heritage in the French zone
+ Urban preservation management orientation:
- Preserving the origins of urban structure.
- Ensuring environmental requirements for urban space.
- Meeting the requirements of economic development according to
general orientation of priority mining, rehabilitation of the use of heritage
- Raising public awareness of the urban preservation and
+ Architectural preservation management orientation:
- Efficient architectural preservation, landscape protection on the
basis of respect for the original. Do not negatively affect mutual space.
- Ensuring regular repair and maintenance as planned.
- Embellishing/adaptizing heritage. Converting/adding functions for
current structures reasonably and realistically, under strict management to
guarantee the sustainable development requirements.
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- 21 + Management and organization of urban activities orientation:
- Ensuring activities to contribute to the development and protection
of local community, encouraging historical urban images.
- Managing urban activities in the direction of promoting local
culture and economic development based on strong heritage of the French
- Ensuring the regular and effective organization of practical
research activities related to the French quarter.
+ Providing and completing the legal basis for preservation and
promotion of heritage values of the French quarter in Hai Phong.
The thesis proposes additional legal documents on management of
the French quarter in Hai Phong, a framework for regulation management
and preservation for the French quarter with the following contents:
Regulations on the management and planning of urban space, management
regulations for architectural structures; regulations on exploitation and
utilization; regulations on the organization of management and control.
The thesis proposes solutions to preservation organization and
management for the French quarter including 7 points, which covers
3.6. Discussion on the research results
- The appropriate level of evaluation criteria system for the potential
heritage and the context of the French quarter as well as the feasibility of
applying to other urban heritage studies.
- The importance of preservation in the context of urbanization in
Vietnam and the role of preservation in urban planning.
- Preserving architectural heritage of the French quarter and related
issues from the government, experts and communities to ensure protection
of heritage to be in the best possible condition .
- Exploiting and promoting values of architectural heritage of the
French quarter and promoting values of the waterway system in Hai Phong
- The management of heritage preservation of the French quarter in
the continuous urban development of Hai Phong.
- The thesis also discusses issues that need to be studied further to
improve the scientific understanding of urban heritage preservation and
the French colonial architecture in Vietnam.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The beauty of the French quarter in Hai Phong has already been
noted in many works of literature and art, but in urban history of Vietnam,
it has not been much interest. Established in the late 19th century ( 1884 )
from the garrison that has advantages of waterway, French had built the
French quarter in Hai Phong into a seaport urban and small-scale industrial
zone, but always considering this city as the second largest city in the
northern region - only after Hanoi. Therefore, the French quarter itself
contains precious values in planning, architecture, landscape, cultural
diversity, active life etc. On the other hand, due to the "natural", little
changed preservation, while most of the structures built under the French
here are used as the headquarters of the city from 1954 until now, the
French quarter offers another great value: it is the integrity of a urban
heritage, which is very difficult to preserve in the big city more than 100
years. The French quarter in Hai Phong faces the threat of 5 years’ recent
trend of urbanization, when the wave of investment in real estate has
always aimed to the "golden land" in the city center. This risk demands
more serious studies as the thesis set out beforehand in order to assess
urban and architectural values of this French zone, figuring out the right
solution to preservation and continuation of the most beautiful, historical
part in small and medium-sized cities in Vietnam. Specifically, the thesis
has the following contributions:
1. From colonial times to the present, the French quarter in Hai
Phong is the central nucleus of the city, which is expanding and
restructuring. Therefore, the study and withdrawal experiences of urban
organization have practical significance for preserving and promoting the
French zone and establishing architectural identity in the future. This is
also the opinion of the thesis: the undetachable relationship between the
integral preservation of urban structure and exploitation of economic
activities, tourism, culture etc. The connection and aliveness of the urban
is not only built by the government but rather by traditional activities of
2. The thesis summarized the content of the convention, charters,
decrees, international declaration on cultural heritage and historic urban
heritage, doing comparative work with the Law on Cultural Heritage in
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Vietnam and Regulations and management of heritage sites, which has
issued proposed changes of the phrase "historical and cultural relics" in
Clause 3, Article 4 of the Law on cultural heritage (which is used to
recognize the neighborhood historic preservation needs at national level
,such as the Old Quarter of Hanoi and Hoi An) into the phrase " history
cultural urban heritage" fit to the international practices and specific
conditions in Vietnam.
3. The thesis uses urban preservation methodology to evaluate the
potential of heritage preservation in Haiphong quarter, in correlation
between architectural heritage preservation and urban heritage
preservation. It is this link that helped the thesis to achieve highly
aggregated results than former approaches of architectural heritage
preservation in the French quarter. The thesis adapts to preserving
methods of the Western, and then builds a criteria system to assess the
potential of urban preservation in accordance with the peculiarities of
architectural heritage in Hai Phong and Vietnam, yielding scientific and
accurate results, which then contribute to scientific development of urban
4. The thesis held scientific survey on the state of the French quarter
in a comprehensive way to determine characteristics, outstanding values of
urban landscape, urban structure that contains a dense of architectural
heritage. Based on that, the thesis has built criteria system, zoning the
urban French quarter heritage and delineating protected areas according to
3 levels. In particular, the thesis evaluates the preservation status of this
urban heritage in the context of continuing development. The thesis also
proposes highly possible solutions in preservation, renovation and
refurbishment of the French quarter in the overall planning of urban
development in Haiphong to 2025, with a vision to 2050.
5. The thesis carefully conducts survey, record drawing, and
photography and learns from historical data to make statistical science,
classification and assessment of architectural values under the colonial
period in the French quarter. The values are ranked in order of priority to
preserve based on historical values, architectural styles, technical status,
preservation status, cultural characteristics and functions of each building.
The thesis also discovered and added a number of buildings that have
architectural values in and adjacent to the French quarter to the list of
historic architectural monuments needed to be preserved. All French
colonial architecture in this zone have been cataloged in the Appendix of
the thesis, which then can be a corner stone for the next studies or for
drawing lessons on architectural history to create new architectural
characteristics of Hai Phong.
6. The thesis proposes 7 basic orientation solutions to preserve and
promote values of architectural heritage of the French quarter and 1
solution of promoting values of water systems in the French quarter. All
the proposed solutions are feasible, suitable for practical urban
development and urban and architectural preservation. Objects of each
solution have been identified adequately and scientifically, which then can
be used for implementing further research as well as building preservation
projects and promoting the value of architectural heritage in Hai Phong
7. To be able to perform well in promoting and preserving heritage
values in the context of urban development and expansion taking place in
Hai Phong, the thesis researches and proposes the orientations of
preservation management, construction management and control of
appropriate development to the characteristics of the French quarter.
Orientations of preservation and heritage management should be
concretized and implemented soon, when urbanization and
commercialization have not affected the French quarter in Hai Phong to
the degree of degrading and deforming.
8. The thesis has clarified the contents of heritage and modern
preservation and has significantly expanded the intimate relationship
between the context of economy and society with urban, architectural
heritage – which are considered as important resources needed to be
behaved in a positive and reasonable direction paralleling between
preservation and development as a continuation of the sustainable urban
life in Vietnam. Through inherited solutions and promoting values of the
French zone in Hai Phong in the general planning for urban construction,
the thesis has drawn many lessons for scientific research of urban
preservation in Vietnam today – especially for the small and mediumsized cities, which affects the perspective on spatial organization of more
than 600 cities of grade V formed mainly in recent years.
9. The thesis emphasizes community participation in urban
preservation and development. The involvement of communities in
preservation is a necessary condition to ensure that the heritage is attached
to urban life. It is important to see the community as one of main resources
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of the government in implementing successfully solutions proposed in the
3. Hai Phong City People's Committee should conduct the counting
and evaluating values of the French quarter in order to propose early the
recognition of being a historical and cultural urban heritage at city and
national level, which is considered as a basis for legal management and
development control. At the same time, the thesis recommends to establish
an architectural monuments list in the French quarter, assessing and
acknowledging the historical architectural relics under French as heritage
at city level and national level. This requires organizing scientific
workshops and promoting consultations to Cultural Heritage Department
(Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism). This work should be conducted
soon not to leave the marks of a valuable historical stage destroyed by
urbanization and uncontrolled development.
4. Hai Phong’s government must soon determine boundaries of
preservation areas, promulgate regulations on urban, architectural heritage
management of the French quarter, establish necessary legal tools as a
basis for higher awareness, urban management, relationship adjustment,
problems handling arising in the continuous development process of Hai
1. The case of the French quarter in Hai Phong showed that Cultural
Heritage Law - though modified and supplemented in 2009 has some
points inconsistent with the actual situation and should be improved. First
of all, it is necessary to supplement the terms specifying type of
architectural heritage and urban heritage in the law, for they are legally
recognized, protected and adequately invested (besides the types of
monuments and antiquities). Next, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and
Tourism needs to study and issue specific guidance on architectural
preservation and preservation of urban planning in accordance with the
nature of types of heritage in specific conditions of locality. Only by doing
this, preservation activities can accompany with development goals - in
the range of locations / areas of urban heritage. Because of the importance
of urban and architectural preservation, it is necessary to confirm the
dominant role of the Cultural Heritage Law versus Law of Construction
and Urban Planning to regulate construction and renovation activities in
the preservation area. The regulations of zoning and delimitating
preservation levels of urban heritage also need to be clarified in the Law
on Cultural Heritage.
2. Preservation planning should be component of construction
planning and urban development for historical cities of Vietnam. This type
of planning must be announced so that people can check and monitor in
preservation period. The preservation will not succeed without consent
and participation of community - as well as attaching the heritage interests
with their interests. The government should play the leading role in urban
preservation, possibly through cooperation model of public - private
partnership (PPP) to harmoniously balance interests of the government,
investors and communities in preservation. For the French quarter in Hai
Phong, it is necessary to establish the management board under the city
People’s Committee, having the right to adjust relations, mobilizes all
resources for preservation and development in the region. Also, a
mechanism of 3C (Government + Community+ Professionals) is needed in
planning, monitoring and implementation of preservation.
The French quarter in Hai Phong is sensitive to changes in
development and urbanization. The adjustment of planning and urban
construction should be carefully considered based on information,
scientific data, peer experts and communities to identify proper direction
in preservation and promotion of urban, architectural heritage of the
French zone in particular and of the city in general.