Comptia a+ complete study guide p1

  • Số trang: 100 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 74 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
hoangtuavartar

Đã đăng 24635 tài liệu

Mô tả:

4830ffirs.fm Page iii Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM CompTIA A+ ® Complete Study Guide Quentin Docter Emmett Dulaney Toby Skandier Wiley Publishing, Inc. 4830ffirs.fm Page ii Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM 4830ffirs.fm Page i Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM CompTIA A+ ® Complete Study Guide 4830ffirs.fm Page ii Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM 4830ffirs.fm Page iii Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM CompTIA A+ ® Complete Study Guide Quentin Docter Emmett Dulaney Toby Skandier Wiley Publishing, Inc. 4830ffirs.fm Page iv Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM Acquisitions and Development Editor: Jeff Kellum Technical Editor: Mike Harwood Production Editor: Daria Meoli Copy Editor: Linda Recktenwald Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Executive Publisher: Joseph B. Wikert Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Media Development Specialist: Angela Denny Book Designer: Judy Fung Compositor: Craig Woods, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: James Brook, Word One Indexer: Ted Laux Anniversary Logo Design: Richard Pacifico Cover Designer: Margaret Rowlands Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN-13: 978-0-4700-4830-6 ISBN-10: 0-4700-4830-1 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the publisher. TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. CompTIA and A+ are registered trademarks of The Computing Technology Industry Association, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4830ffirs.fm Page v Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM The logo of the CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum (CAQC) program and the status of this or other training material as “Authorized” under the CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum program signifies that, in CompTIA’s opinion, such training material covers the content of the CompTIA’s related certification exam. CompTIA has not reviewed or approved the accuracy of the contents of this training material and specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. CompTIA makes no guarantee concerning the success of persons using any such “Authorized” or other training material in order to prepare for any CompTIA certification exam. The contents of this training material were created for the CompTIA A+ exams covering CompTIA certification objectives that were current as of 2006. How to become CompTIA certified: This training material can help you prepare for and pass a related CompTIA certification exam or exams. In order to achieve CompTIA certification, you must register for and pass a CompTIA certification exam or exams. In order to become CompTIA certified, you must: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select a certification exam provider. For more information please visit http://www.comptia.org/certification/general_information/exam_ locations.aspx Register for and schedule a time to take the CompTIA certification exam(s) at a convenient location. Read and sign the Candidate Agreement, which will be presented as the time of the exam(s). The text of the Candidate Agreement can be found at http:// www.comptia.org/certification/general_information/candidate_ agreement.aspx. Take and pass the CompTIA certification exam(s). For more information about CompTIA’s certifications, such as its industry acceptance, benefits or program news, please visit http://www.comptia.org/certification/. CompTIA is a not-for-profit trade information technology (IT) trade association. CompTIA’s certifications are designed by subject matter experts from across the IT industry. Each CompTIA certification is vendor-neutral, covers multiple technologies and requires demonstration of skills and knowledge widely sought after by the IT industry. To contact CompTIA with any questions or comments, please call 630-678-8300 or email question@comptia.org. 4830ffirs.fm Page vi Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM To Our Valued Readers: Thank you for looking to Sybex for your CompTIA A+ exam prep needs. We at Sybex are proud of our reputation for providing certification candidates with the practical knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the highly competitive IT marketplace. Certification candidates have come to rely on Sybex for accurate and accessible instruction on today’s crucial technologies and business skills. Just as CompTIA is committed to establishing measurable standards for certifying A+ Technicians, Sybex is committed to providing those individuals with the knowledge needed to meet those standards. The authors and editors have worked hard to ensure that this edition of the CompTIA A+ Complete Study Guide you hold in your hands is comprehensive, in-depth, and pedagogically sound. We’re confident that this book will exceed the demanding standards of the certification marketplace and help you, the A+ candidate, succeed in your endeavors. As always, your feedback is important to us. If you believe you’ve identified an error in the book, please send a detailed e-mail to support@wiley.com. And if you have general comments or suggestions, feel free to drop me a line directly at nedde@wiley.com. At Sybex we're continually striving to meet the needs of individuals preparing for certification exams. Good luck in pursuit of your A+ certification! Neil Edde Vice President & Publisher Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley 4830ffirs.fm Page vii Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM To Kara, Abbie, and Lauren—Quentin Docter For Karen—Emmett Dulaney For my wife, Karen. Your support continues to amaze me. None of this would be possible without you. 143—Toby Skandier 4830ffirs.fm Page viii Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM Acknowledgments It continues to amaze me how many people and how much time it takes to create a book of this scope and size. From beginning to end, there are scores of dedicated professionals focused on delivering the best book possible to you the readers. First, I need to thank my co-authors Emmett Dulaney and Toby Skandier, as they did a tremendous job while being under a serious time crunch. Now on to the rest of the team. Jeff Kellum kept us on track and moving forward, which was a challenge at times. Daria Meoli kept us organized, which is no small feat during writing. I owe special gratitude to Tech Editor Neil Hester, who kept me on my toes and made excellent suggestions. Copy Editors Linda Recktenwald and Sharon Wilkey provided their usual clairvoyance, and saved me from butchering the English language. Many thanks also go out to the proofreader (James Brook), indexer (Ted Laux), and compositor (Craig Woods). Without their great contributions this book would not have made it to your hands. —Quentin Docter There are a great many people to thank but three are key; without them this book would not be possible. First and foremost is Jeff Kellum of Sybex, who does his job extremely well and pulls you along with him. Thanks must also go to David Groth for his excellent work on the previous edition. I also thank the Production Editor (Daria Meoli); the Technical Editor (Neil Hester); and the Copy Editor (Linda Recktenwald). Without their hard work, I would have never completed this book. —Emmett Dulaney I would like to thank my Acquisitions and Development Editor, Jeff Kellum. Jeff has a knack for matching me to the most interesting and challenging projects that enhance my knowledge and proficiency in my area of expertise and then keeping me on track with them. I’m indebted to my Technical Editor, Neal Hester, for catching some of the most detailed technical issues. This book is vastly more solid for his vigilance. My Production Editor, Daria Meoli, and Copy Editor, Linda Recktenwald, have my deepest gratitude for repairing those things in which I am most certainly not expert. In addition, I’d like to thank the proofreader (James Brook), indexer (Ted Laux), typesetter (Craig Woods), and CD developers (Angela Denny and Kit Malone). Thank you to my Embarq Corporation management team and associates for the support and challenges you continue to offer. Finally, thank you to my incredible kids, Toby, Tiffani, Trey, and Taylor. You guys support and encourage your dad through your own hard work and determination. You’re always in my thoughts and plans. —Toby Skandier 4830ffirs.fm Page ix Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM Contents at a Glance Introduction xxi Assessment Test lviii Chapter 1 Identifying Personal Computer Components Chapter 2 Effectively Working with Personal Computer Components Chapter 3 Understanding Laptops and Portable Devices 139 Chapter 4 Understanding Operating Systems 181 Chapter 5 Understanding Basics of Installing, Configuring, Optimizing, and Upgrading Operating Systems 249 Identifying Operating System Troubleshooting and Diagnostic Procedures 305 Chapter 7 Understanding the Basics of Printers and Scanners 357 Chapter 8 Networking Fundamentals 423 Chapter 9 Understanding Network Security Fundamentals 483 Chapter 10 Identifying Safety and Environmental Issues 523 Chapter 11 Understanding Professionalism and Communication 563 Chapter 12 Working with Personal Computer Components 583 Chapter 13 Working with Laptops and Portable Devices 631 Chapter 14 Installing, Configuring, Optimizing, and Upgrading Operating Systems 663 Installing, Configuring, Optimizing, and Upgrading Printers and Scanners 739 Installing, Configuring, Optimizing, and Upgrading Network Systems 777 Installing, Configuring, Upgrading, and Optimizing Security Systems 809 Chapter 6 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 1 97 Glossary 847 Index 873 4830ffirs.fm Page x Thursday, September 14, 2006 3:20 PM 4831xftoc.fm Page xi Thursday, September 14, 2006 4:36 PM Contents Introduction xxi Assessment Test lviii Chapter 1 Identifying Personal Computer Components Identifying Components of Motherboards Types of System Boards System Board Form Factors System Board Components Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Processors Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Memory DRAM SRAM ROM CMOS Memory Packaging Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Storage Devices Hard Disk Drive Systems Floppy Drives CD-ROM Drives CD-R and CD-RW Drives DVD-ROM Drives DVD Burners Other Storage Media Advanced Digital Storage Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Power Supplies Floppy Drive Power Connectors AT System Connectors Standard Peripheral Power Connector Modern Power Connectors Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Display Devices Display Concepts Video Technologies Monitors Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) Identifying Input Devices Mouse Keyboard Bar-code Reader Multimedia Devices Biometric Devices Touch Screens 1 4 5 6 8 27 30 32 34 35 35 35 38 38 38 40 41 41 41 42 46 47 48 49 50 50 53 53 53 60 61 63 63 64 65 65 65 65 4831xftoc.fm Page xii Thursday, September 14, 2006 4:36 PM xii Contents Chapter 2 Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Adapter Cards Video Card Network Interface Card (NIC) Modem Sound Card I/O Card Identifying Characteristics of Ports and Cables Peripheral Port Connector Types D-subminiature Connectors Other Types of Ports Common Peripheral Interfaces and Cables Identifying Purposes and Characteristics of Cooling Systems Fans Memory Cooling Hard Drive Cooling Chipset Cooling CPU Cooling Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 66 66 66 67 68 69 69 70 70 72 76 84 85 85 86 87 87 89 89 91 95 Effectively Working with Personal Computer Components 97 Installing, Configuring, and Optimizing PC Components Upgrading Storage Devices Upgrading Display Devices Upgrading Input/Multimedia Devices Identifying Tools and Diagnostics for PC Components Gathering Tools Basic Aspects of Troubleshooting Basic Diagnostic Procedures Recognizing and Isolating Issues Applying Basic Troubleshooting Techniques Performing Preventative Maintenance on Personal Computers Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 3 Understanding Laptops and Portable Devices Understanding Laptop Architecture Laptops vs. Desktops Laptop Case 99 99 106 107 107 108 115 115 118 119 129 131 131 132 136 139 142 142 143 4831xftoc.fm Page xiii Thursday, September 14, 2006 4:36 PM Contents Motherboards and Processors Memory Storage Displays Input Devices Expansion Bus and Ports Docking Stations Power Systems Managing Power and Removing Devices Understanding Laptop Power Management Managing Power in Windows Removing Laptop-Specific Hardware Troubleshooting and Performing Preventative Maintenance on Laptops Diagnosing Laptop Problems Performing Preventative Maintenance Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 4 xiii 144 145 147 149 154 156 162 162 163 163 165 168 170 170 172 174 174 175 179 Understanding Operating Systems 181 Understanding Operating Systems Operating System Terms and Concepts Microsoft Windows Alternative Operating Systems Using Operating Systems The Windows Interface What’s in a Window? Control Panel The Command Prompt The Registry Virtual Memory Windows System Files Disk Management File Management Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 184 185 186 191 194 194 209 212 220 221 223 224 227 231 240 241 242 246 4831xftoc.fm Page xiv Thursday, September 14, 2006 4:36 PM xiv Contents Chapter 5 Understanding Basics of Installing, Configuring, Optimizing, and Upgrading Operating Systems Installing Operating Systems Installation Prerequisites Preparing the Computer for Installation Windows XP Installation Post-Installation Routines Upgrading the Operating System Upgrade Prerequisites Upgrading to Windows 2000 Upgrading to Windows XP Finalizing Your Upgrade Installing Device Drivers Rights and Security Issues Basic Procedure for Device Installation Windows Version-Specific Installation Items Optimizing Windows 2000 and Windows XP Managing Virtual Memory Defragmenting Disks Using Disk Caches Managing Temporary Files Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 6 Identifying Operating System Troubleshooting and Diagnostic Procedures Troubleshooting Steps Step 1: Talk to the Customer Step 2: Gather Information Step 3: Eliminate Possibilities Step 4: Evaluate Your Results Step 5: Document Your Work Understanding Boot Sequences Listing the Important Files Identifying Important Files in Windows 2000/XP Understanding the Windows 2000/XP Boot Process Advanced Startup Options Using the Recovery Console Creating Boot Disks or an Emergency Repair Disk Identifying Windows File-Related Problems System Files Not Found 249 251 251 258 264 269 270 271 273 279 280 280 281 282 283 286 286 290 293 295 296 297 299 303 305 308 308 309 309 310 310 310 310 312 313 314 315 317 319 320 4831xftoc.fm Page xv Thursday, September 14, 2006 4:36 PM Chapter 7 Contents xv Configuration File Issues Swap File Issues Windows Boot Issues Troubleshooting Other Common Problems Understanding Windows Reporting Identifying Windows-Based Troubleshooting Utilities Disk Management Tools System Management Tools File Management Tools Identifying Diagnostic Resources User/Installation Manuals Internet/Web Resources Training Materials Performing Preventative Maintenance on Operating Systems Using Recommended Hardware Obtaining Current Drivers Installing Windows Properly Shutting Down Properly Updating Windows Scheduling Backups Creating Restore Points Guarding against Viruses Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 320 321 321 322 325 326 326 327 333 334 335 335 335 336 336 337 337 337 338 339 343 346 347 348 350 354 Understanding the Basics of Printers and Scanners Understanding Printer and Scanner Fundamentals Impact Printers Bubble-Jet Printers Laser Printers Printer Interfaces and Supplies Scanners and Their Components Installing, Configuring, and Upgrading Printers and Scanners Printer and Scanner Installation Procedures Optimizing Printer and Scanner Performance Troubleshooting Printers and Scanners Dot-Matrix Printer Problems Bubble-Jet Printer Problems Laser and Page Printer Problems Scanner Troubleshooting Summary Exam Essentials 357 359 360 362 370 382 392 396 396 400 400 400 403 404 414 414 415 4831xftoc.fm Page xvi Thursday, September 14, 2006 4:36 PM xvi Contents Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 8 Networking Fundamentals Understanding Networking Principles Understanding Networking Fundamentals Identifying Common Network Media Understanding Networking Components Installing, Configuring, and Troubleshooting Networks Installing and Configuring Network Interface Cards Obtaining Wired and Wireless Internet Connections Troubleshooting Network Interface Cards Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 9 Understanding Network Security Fundamentals Understanding Security Authentication Technologies Working with Hardware and Software Security Understanding Wireless Security Understanding Data and Physical Security Security Solutions BIOS Security Malicious Software Protection Data Access Backup Procedures Data Migration Data Remnant Removal Password Management Locking Workstations Identifying Security Problem Areas Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 10 Identifying Safety and Environmental Issues Understanding Safety and Environmental Issues Identifying Potential Safety Hazards Identifying Environmental Concerns Using Safety Documentation Using Appropriate Repair Tools Handling Accidents 417 421 423 425 426 449 460 463 463 464 475 475 476 477 481 483 485 486 491 498 501 507 507 508 508 512 512 513 513 513 513 515 516 517 521 523 525 526 532 535 542 544 4831xftoc.fm Page xvii Thursday, September 14, 2006 4:36 PM Contents Applying Proper Safety and Disposal Procedures Preventing Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Working in a Safe Environment Handling Equipment Following Disposal Procedures Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 11 Understanding Professionalism and Communication Using Good Communication Skills Elicit Problem Symptoms from Customers Have the Customer Reproduce the Error Identify Recent Changes Use the Collected Information Using Appropriate Behavior Punctuality Accountability Flexibility Confidentiality Respect Privacy Putting It All in Perspective Summary Exam Essentials Review Questions Answers to Review Questions Chapter 12 Working with Personal Computer Components Removing, Installing, and Configuring Components Selecting Components Motherboards, CPUs, Memory, and Adapter Cards Storage Devices Power Supplies Display Devices Input Devices Cooling Systems Using Tools and Diagnostic Procedures for Personal Computer Components Understanding Computer Resources Determining Available Resources xvii 545 546 549 551 552 555 555 556 560 563 566 569 569 570 570 570 570 571 572 572 572 575 575 576 576 577 581 583 587 587 590 594 599 600 604 610 613 614 617
- Xem thêm -