Chapter8_cellularnetwork

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Cellular Networks Chapter 8 Cellular Networks Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Overview • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Cellular technical basics and Standards Advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) Cellular digital packet data (CDPD) Wireless Cellular Generation CDMA WAP GSM GPRS 3G 2 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Introduction • Cellular phones are also called mobile, wireless, portable, and/or compact handheld communicators, appliances, and/or devices. – Voice, video, and data are transported from source to destination through the air as electromagnetic signals • 1st generation (1G) – AMPS • Analog • Analog FM modulation • FDMA 3 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Introduction • 2nd generation (2G) • 3th generation (3G) – DAMPS(IS-54) • U.S. • Digital PSK modulation • FDM/TDMA – GSM • Europe, Asia • Digital PSK modulation • FDM/TDMA – IS-95 CDMA • U.S. • Digital PSK modulation • FDM/CDM •IMT-2000 cellular solutions •UTMS 4 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Technical Basics • • • • • Cellular Basics Cellular frequency reuse Increasing cellular capacity Handoff Cellular architecture 5 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cellular basics •Base station (BS) – Access point (AP) • Mobile station (MS) – SS (Subscriber station) – MT (mobile terminal) – MN (mobile node) • Downlink – Forward link – BS → MS • Uplink – Reverse link – MS → BS 6 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cellular basics (2) • Cell – Coverage area of a BS • Sector – Partial area of a cell that is served by a directional antenna 7 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cellular Frequency Reuse 8 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cellular Frequency Reuse (2) • D = minimum distance between centers of cells that use the same band of frequencies (called co-channels) • R = radius of a cell • d = distance between centers of adjacent cells (d = R√3) • N = number of cells in repetitious pattern – Reuse factor – Each cell in pattern uses unique band of frequencies • Hexagonal cell pattern, following values of N possible – N = I2 + J2 + (I x J), I, J = 0, 1, 2, 3, … • Possible values of N are 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19, 21, … • D/R= • D/d = 9 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Increasing Cellular Capacity • Add new channels – Not all channels used to start with • Frequency borrowing – Taken from adjacent cells by congested cells – Or assign frequencies dynamically • Cell splitting – Non-uniform distribution of topography and traffic – Smaller cells in high use areas • More frequent handoff, More base stations 10 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cell Splitting and Sectorization 11 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Increasing Cellular Capacity (2) • Cell Sectoring – Cell divided into wedge shaped sectors – 3 – 6 sectors per cell, Each with own channel set – Subsets of cell’s channels, Directional antennas • Micro cells – Move antennas to tops of small buildings, Even lamp posts – Form micro cells, Reduced power – Good for city streets, along roads and inside large buildings 12 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cells on Wheels (COW) Cell site mounted on a flatbed tractor-trailer 13 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Handoff • Handover = Move from one station to next • Issues:  Which BS is optimal?  Avoid ping-pong oscillations  Avoid data loss  Subscriber or BS initiated? • Quality Metrics:  Handoff delay  Duration of interruption  Probability of successful handoff  Probability of unnecessary handoff 14 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Improved Handoff Strategies • • • • • Higher priority to handoff than new connections Hysterisis effect to decide whether new BS is better than old Soft Handoffs: Connected to both for a short time Predictive handoffs: Use speed and direction Adaptive handoffs: Move between pico-, micro-, macro-cellular depending on the mobility 15 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cellular Architecture 16 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cellular Architecture • Base station controller (BSC) and Base transceiver station (BTS) • One BTS per cell. • One BSC can control multiple BTS. – Allocates radio channels among BTSs. – Manages call handoffs between BTSs. – Controls handset power levels • Mobile Switching Center (MSC) connects to PSTN and switches calls between BSCs. Provides mobile registration, location, authentication. Contains Equipment Identity Register. 17 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Cellular Architecture • Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR) provide call routing and roaming • VLR+HLR+MSC functions are generally in one equipment • Equipment Identity Register (EIR) contains a list of all valid mobiles. • Authentication Center (AuC) stores the secret keys of all SIM cards. • Each handset has a International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. 18 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Standards • ATIS (Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions) • ANSI (American National Standards Institute): T1 • CTIA (Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association) • ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute): TETRA specification 19 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College Cellular Networks Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) • Introduction AMPS • Call stages and typical call 20 Korea-Vietnam Friendship IT College
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