Tài liệu Các bài luận ôn thi tốt nghiệp năm 2016 môn tiếng anh chọn lọc

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Các bài luận ôn thi Tốt nghiệp năm 2016 môn Tiếng Anh chọn lọc WRITING HOW TO ORGANIZE A PARAGRAPH-WRITING Parts of a Paragraph How to Write a Paragraph Kinds of Paragraphs 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Topic Sentence Supporting Details Closing Sentence Prewriting Paragraphs Writing Paragraphs Editing Paragraphs Publishing Paragraphs Definition Classification Description Compare and Contrast 5. 6. 7. 8. Sequence Choice Explanation Evaluation PART 1: Parts of a Paragraph 1. Topic Sentence What is the topic sentence? The topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph. What does it do? It introduces the main idea of the paragraph. How do I write one? Summarize the main idea of your paragraph. Indicate to the reader what your paragraph will be about. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live. 2. Supporting Details What are supporting sentences? They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph. What do they do? They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. How do I write them? You should give supporting facts, details, and examples. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live. 3. Closing Sentence What is the closing sentence? The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph. What does it do? It restates the main idea of your paragraph. 159 How do I write one? Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live. PART 2: How to Write a Paragraph 1. Prewriting Paragraphs What is the prewriting stage? The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing. Six Prewriting Steps: 1. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Ask yourself:  What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay?  How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer?  How can I make an introductory sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer?  What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence?  How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting?  Do I need more facts on this topic?  Where can I find more facts on this topic? 2. Open your notebook. Write out your answers to the above questions. You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this; just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay. 3. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question. Timesaving hint: make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay. 4. Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself:  What else do I want to say about this topic?  Why should people be interested in this topic?  Why is this topic important? 5. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. Choose the most important point you are going to present. If you cannot decide which point is the most important, just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay. 6. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay, you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. Look at the facts you have written. Look at your own ideas on the topic. Decide which facts and ideas will best support the main idea of your paragraph. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use, ask yourself which order to put them in the paragraph. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself as you write your paragraph or essay. 2. Writing Paragraphs What is the writing stage? The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences. Five Writing Steps: 1. Open your notebook and word processor. 2. Write the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and closing sentence. 3. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning. 4. Focus on the main idea of your paragraph. 5. Use the dictionary to help you find additional words to express your ideas. 3. Editing Paragraphs 160 What is the editing stage? The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them. Grammar and Spelling 1. Check your spelling. 2. Check your grammar. 3. Read your essay again. 4. Make sure each sentence has a subject. 5. See if your subjects and verbs agree with each other. 6. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. 7. Make sure that each sentence makes sense. Style and Organization 1. Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence. 2. Make sure your supporting sentences focus on the main idea. 3. Make sure you have a closing sentence. 4. Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea. 5. See if your paragraph is interesting. 4. Publishing Paragraphs What is the publishing stage? The publishing stage is when you produce a final copy of your paragraph to hand in. Three Publishing Steps: 1. Make a paper copy of your paragraph. 2. Show your work to your teacher, tutor, or parents. 3. Ask them for hints on how to improve your writing. PART 3: Kinds of Paragraphs 1. Definition Paragraph When writing a definition paragraph, you take a thing or an idea and explain what it is. Example: Write a paragraph giving the definition of a pest. The following words can help you to write a good definition paragraph: 1. "is defined as" Example: A pest is defined as any animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property. 2. "is a kind of" Example: A pest is a kind of animal or plant that damages crops, forests, or property. 2. Classification Paragraph When writing a classification paragraph, you group things or ideas into specific categories. Example: Write a paragraph discussing two types of energy resources. The following words can help you to write a good classification paragraph:  is a kind of Coal is a kind of non-renewable resource.  can be divided into Energy resources can be divided into two types.  is a type of Coal is a type of non-renewable resource.  falls under Coal falls under the category of non-renewable resources.  belongs to Coal belongs to the category of non-renewable resources.  is a part of Coal is a part of the category of non-renewable resources.  fits into Coal fits into the category of non-renewable resources.  is grouped with Coal is grouped with non-renewable resources.  is related to Coal is related to other non-renewable resources. 161  is associated with Coal is associated with other non-renewable resources. 3. Description Paragraph In a description paragraph, you are writing about what a person, place, or thing is like. Sometimes, you may describe where a place is located. Write a paragraph describing what a polar bear looks like. Examples Describe where Canada's industry is located. The following words can help you to write a good description paragraph: Properties Measurement Analogy Location size length is like in colour width resembles above shape mass/weight below purpose speed beside near north/east/south/west Properties size Example: Polar bears are big in size. colour Example: Polar bears are usually white in colour. shape Example: Polar bears have a special shape. purpose Example: The purpose of the polar bear's fur is to keep it warm. Measurement length Example: The length of a polar bear's claws is 20 cm. width Example: The width of a polar bear's head is about 50 cm. mass / weight Example: Polar bears weigh up to 650 kg. speed Example: Polar bears can swim at a speed of 40 km per hour. Analogy is like Example: A polar bear is like other bears in shape. resembles Example: A polar bear resembles other bears in shape. Location in Example: Most of Canada's manufacturing is located in Ontario and Quebec. above Example: The ceiling is above us. below Example: Most of Ontario is below Hudson Bay. beside Example: Quebec is located beside Ontario. near Example: Many companies are located near Toronto. north / east / south / west Example: Ontario is west of Quebec. 4. Compare and Contrast Paragraph In a compare and contrast paragraph, you write about the similarities and differences between two or more people, places, things, or ideas. 162 Example: Write a paragraph comparing the weather in Vancouver and Halifax. The following words can help you to write a good compare and contrast paragraph: Similarities Differences is similar to the other hand both however also but too in contrast as well differs from while unlike Similarities is similar to Example: Spring weather in Vancouver is similar to spring weather in Halifax. both Example: Both Vancouver and Halifax have rain in the spring. also Example: Halifax also has a rainy spring season. too Example: Halifax has a rainy spring season, too. as well Example: As well, Halifax has rainy spring season. Differences on the other hand Example: On the other hand, winter is much colder in Halifax. however Example: However, winter is much colder in Halifax. but Example: Vancouver has a mild winter, but Halifax has a cold one. in contrast to Example: In contrast to Vancouver, Halifax has a cold winter. differs from Example: Halifax differs from Vancouver by having a cold winter. while Example: While Vancouver has a mild winter, Halifax has a cold winter. 5. Sequence Paragraph In a sequencing paragraph, you are writing to describe a series of events or a process in some sort of order. Usually, this order is based on time. Example: Write a paragraph outlining how a person becomes the prime minister. The following words can help you to write a good sequence paragraph. Order Time first, second, third, etc. recently in the beginning previously before afterwards then when after after finally at last subsequently Order first, second, third, etc. Example: First, you need to become a leader of a political party. Second, you need to win a seat in the House of Commons. Third, your party must have a majority of seats. in the beginning Example: In the beginning, you need to become a leader of a political party. 163 before Example: Before becoming the prime minister, you need to become the leader of a political party. then Example: Then, you must win a seat in the House of Commons. after Example: After winning a seat in the House of Commons, you must make sure you have a majority of seats. finally Example: Finally, after all these steps, you can call yourself the prime minister. at last Example: At last, you can call yourself the prime minister. subsequently Example: Subsequently, you must make sure you have a majority of seats in the House of Commons. Time recently Example: She was recently elected prime minister. previously Example: She is the new prime minister. Previously, she worked as a lawyer in Toronto. afterwards Example: She won the party leadership last year. Afterwards, she won the election. when Example: When she won the party leadership, she was still working as a lawyer. after Example: After winning a seat in the House of Commons, you must make sure you have a majority of seats. 6. Choice Paragraph In a paragraph where you have to make a choice, you need to choose which object, idea, or action that you prefer. Often, you will need to give your opinion on a choice of actions or events. Example: Write a paragraph stating whether you would prefer to play hockey or lacrosse. The following words can help you to write a good choice paragraph: Point of View Personal Opinion in my opinion like/dislike belief hope idea feel understanding I think that I consider I believe it seems to me I prefer Point of View in my opinion Example: In my opinion, hockey is more fun than lacrosse. belief Example: My belief is that hockey is more fun than lacrosse. idea Example: My idea is that hockey is more fun than lacrosse. understanding Example: My understanding is that hockey is more fun than lacrosse. I think that Example: I think that I would prefer to play hockey and not lacrosse. I consider Example: I consider hockey to be more exciting than lacrosse. I believe Example: I believe hockey is more exciting than lacrosse. 164 it seems to me Example: It seems to me that hockey is more exciting than lacrosse. I prefer Example: I prefer hockey over lacrosse. Personal Opinions like/dislike Example: I like the sport of hockey because it is fast and exciting. hope Example: I hope that I can play hockey in the future. feel Example: I feel that hockey is my favorite sport. 7. Explanation Paragraph In an explanation paragraph, you need to explain how or why something happens. Very often in social studies class, you will be asked to explore causes and effects of certain events. Example: Write a paragraph explaining why so many Europeans moved to Canada during the nineteenth century. The following words can help you to write a good explanation paragraph: Cause Effect because therefore since thus as a result of consequently is due to hence it follows that if . . . then Cause because Example: People moved to Canada from Europe during the nineteenth century because they had poor living conditions in Europe. since Example: Since living conditions in Europe were terrible, many people moved to Canada. as a result of Example: People moved to Canada from Europe as a result of poor living conditions in Europe. is due to / was due to Example: The large influx of people to Canada was due to economic pressures in Europe. Effect therefore Example: Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Therefore, many people moved to Canada for a better life. thus Example: Living conditions in Europe were terrible. Thus, many people moved to Canada for a better life. consequently Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. Consequently, many people moved to Canada. hence Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. Hence, many people moved to Canada. it follows that Example: Living conditions were terrible in Europe. It follows that many people moved to Canada. if ... then Example: If living conditions were better in Europe, then fewer people would have moved to Canada. 8. Evaluation Paragraph In an evaluation paragraph, you make judgments about people, ideas, and possible actions. You need to make your evaluation based on certain criteria that you develop. In the paragraph, you will state your evaluation or recommendation and then support it by referring to your criteria. Example: Write a paragraph evaluating whether pesticides should be used on farms. 165 The following words can help you to write a good evaluation paragraph: Criteria for Evaluation Recommendation good / bad suggest correct / incorrect recommend moral / immoral advise right / wrong argue important / trivial Criteria good / bad Example: The use of pesticides such as DDT is bad for the environment. correct / incorrect Example: The belief that pesticides must be used is incorrect. moral / immoral Example: The use of pesticides to control pests is immoral because it harms the environment. right / wrong Example: It is wrong to use pesticides because they harm the environment. important / trivial Example: The issue of pesticides is an important one because it affects the environment. Recommendation suggest Example: I suggest that pesticides should not be used to control pests. recommend Example: I recommend that pesticides should not be used because they are harmful to the environment. advise Example: I would advise farmers not to use pesticides if possible. argue Example: I would argue that pesticides should not be used because they harm the environment. Writing a paragraph Một đoạn văn là một loạt câu phát triển, ủng hộ, chứng minh một ý nào đó, và ý này thường là câu chủ đề (topic sentence) của đoạn văn. Các câu còn lại (supporting sentences) phát triển, giải thích, minh họa cho câu chủ đề. Câu kết luận (concluding sentence) của đoạn văn là câu khẳng định lại câu chủ điểm, tóm tắt lại các ý chính của đoạn văn. 1. Topic sentence  Introduces the topic in the paragraph  Is the most general sentence in the paragraph  Contains controlling ideas that the following sentences in the paragraph will explain/ define/ clarify/ illustrate * A controlling idea is a word or phrase that the reader can ask questions about: How? Why? In what ways? What does that mean? Ex: The conical leaf hat is one of the typical features of the Vietnamese culture. Topic: conical leaf hat Controlling ideas: What is it? (typical feature of the Vietnamese culture), In what way is it typical? 2. Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence by giving:  reasons  examples  facts  statistics  quotations 3. Concluding sentence  Signals the end of the paragraph  Summarizes the main points of the paragraph/ restates the topic sentence without copying exactly 166  Gives a final comment on the topic Vậy trước khi viết một đoạn văn, HS hãy theo các bước sau:  Liệt kê tất cả những ý có thể nghĩ ra được có liên quan đến chủ đề đó.  Đọc chủ đề cho sẵn, rồi chọn viết một câu chủ đề. Gạch chân câu chủ đề này để nhắc các em về trọng tâm của đoạn văn.  Viết ra các ý giải thích và làm rõ câu chủ đề.  Với mỗi ý lớn, hãy viết ra các ví dụ, số liệu…dùng để minh họa.  Nghĩ cách kết thúc đoạn văn và viết nó ra. Sau khi đã làm dàn ý như trên, hãy bắt đầu viết và bám sát dàn ý đã vạch ra. Để đoạn văn có thể liên kết với nhau và thống nhất trong một mạch chảy của bài viết, HS phải biết cách sử dụng các từ nối câu cho hợp lý. Sau đây là bảng các từ/ cụm từ nối. Useful expressions Sequencing/ Listing First of all, First(ly), Initially, To begin with; Second(ly); Third(ly); Next; Then; After that (this); Following this (that); Finally; The first reason is…/ The second is…; Last but not least… Adding to what you have Also, Furthermore, In addition, said Additionally, Moreover, Besides, As well as, Similarly, not only…but also…, even beside this/ that Contrasting In contrast to this, On the contrary, In contrast, Conversely, On the other hand, While, Whereas, However, Despite/ In spite of, Although, Even though, Otherwise, Nonetheless Expressing similarity Similarly; Likewise, In the same way Showing results As a result, As a consequence, Consequently, Hence, Thus, Therefore, So Giving examples For example, For instance, In particular, Particularly, That is to say, Namely, Such as Restating In other words, That is to say, To put it simply Inferring In other words, In that case, or else, Otherwise Summarizing In summary, To sum up, To conclude, To recapitulate, In conclusion, In short, In brief, In a nutshell, Lastly, Finally Writing an essay Một bài luận là một bài viết dài hơn và thường gồm nhiều đoạn và mỗi đoạn văn thường theo cấu trúc đoạn văn trình bày trên. Tuy nhiên, cách viết đoạn mở đầu (introductory paragraph) và đoạn kết (concluding paragraph) đặc thù như sau: 1. The introductory paragraph • The attention getter - a sentence that gets the reader interested • The main idea - the topic or thesis of the essay • The guide/ thesis statement (the last sentence of the introductory paragraph) - a list of the points that will be discussed, thus showing the organization of the composition 167 Ex: There are many things that symbolize the Vietnamese culture. Among these is the conical leaf hat, a symbol of traditional Vietnamese girls. The hat is very special because of its physical features and its use. - Attention getter: There are many things that symbolize the Vietnamese culture. - Topic/ thesis: Among these is the conical leaf hat, a symbol of traditional Vietnamese girls. - The guide/ thesis statement: The hat is very special because of its physical features and its use. 2. Body Các đoạn tiếp theo sau đoạn mở đầu sẽ phát triển tương ứng các ý được đề cập trong câu chủ đề của bài luận, và cách viết tuân thủ theo cách viết đoạn văn đã được đề cập trên. Ví dụ, đối với phần mở bài trên, phần thân bài sẽ có 2 đoạn: Paragraph 1: physical features & Paragraph 2: its use 3. The concluding paragraph Là đoạn cuối của bài luận. Thường có 3 cách để viết đoạn kết. • A summary repeats the main points of the essay. • A prediction discusses what will happen in the future. • An evaluation compares the main points and states what is best. Tóm lại: Structure of the Paragraph and the Essay • Main idea (topic sentence or thesis) • Support for the main idea (a number of supporting details in a paragraph or a number of paragraphs in an essay) • Conclusion (summary of the main points of support for the main idea) The writing process for the Paragraph and the Essay • First steps  understanding the assignment  narrowing the topic  determining the writing context  formulating a main idea • Generating ideas  stating the main idea  brainstorming  freewriting  listing  clustering  diving • Organizing ideas  Drafting  Revising  Editing Writing an argumentative essay Thể loại viết tranh luận thường gặp đối với các vấn đề có 2 mặt, ví dụ như các ưu và nhược của máy tính/ Internet… Đề bài thường yêu cầu cho biết quan điểm về vấn đề nào đó; ủng hộ hay chống đối; hoàn toàn đồng ý hay bất đồng. Thể loại viết tranh luận cũng theo cấu trúc cơ bản của một bài luận, từ đoạn mở đầu, các đoạn thân bài, cũng như kết luận. Tuy nhiên, viết một bài tranh luận thường yêu cầu một kỹ năng viết riêng; đó là ngôn ngữ sử dụng để tranh luận, chứng minh hay biện giải cho quan điểm đưa ra. Sau đây là một số ngôn ngữ hữu dụng cần khi viết thể loại này. 1. Introducing arguments • First of all,… • On the other hand,… • It is worth remembering that… • Another advantage is… • In addition to this… • Another point is that… 168 • • • 2. a.                           b.  What is more,.. Some people believe that… To begin with… Contrasting a previous statement or justifying an opinion Common expressions On the other hand,… In spite of this,… It is worth pointing out, however,… In contrast,… There again,… Others feel that… Nevertheless/ However? Nonetheless That may be true, but… In my opinion, it is true to say… Personally, I believe/ I do not believe that… Having said that, it is important to remember that… At the same time, I feel that… Although some people feel… Perhaps the most important point, however, is… Another important consideration is that… One of the main arguments against … is… Several objections to…may be raised. All things considered/ On balance, it is fair to say that… It is inevitable/ undeniable that… While I appreciate the importance of…, I still think that… Most people would argue that… On the whole/ Overall,… Many people would disagree with the assertion/ idea that… The fact that… does not mean… It may be true that…but… However, it is doubtful/ I doubt whether… Use double negative to give emphasis to an unexpected While it is not unusual/ uncommon/ impossible for sb/ sth to do sth, it is quite usual/ common/ possible that…  While it is not inconceivable that…, there is slight possibility that… c. Summarizing Nên tóm tắt các ý chính vừa thảo luận để giới thiệu phần tranh luận tiếp theo, nhằm cho người đọc biết mình đang tranh luận theo hướng nào. Có thể dùng các ngôn ngữ sau:  Having looked at/ discussed a number of problems/ benefits, we should now consider…  Given the problems/ factors which have been outlined, we can now turn to the question of…/ we need to ask…/ we have to examine the case. 3. Concluding  In conclusion,…  In summary,…  To conclude/ To sum up/ To summarize,…  In short,…  In the last analysis,…  On balance, I would say that… Describing a film/ a book/ a place IV. Describing a film/ book 1. What to write 169 Khi mô tả một bộ phim/ cuốn sách, HS nên đưa vào các phần sau:  Title and author  Type of book/ film  Characters  Events in the film/ book  Your opinion of the film/ book  Personal recommendation 2. How to write a. Viết tiêu đề Tiêu đề phim/ sách thường được gạch dưới hoặc in nghiêng. Từ quan trọng thường được viết hoa, trong khi các từ chức năng như and, in, a… thường được viết thường trừ phi chúng là từ đầu tiên của tiêu đề. Ex: Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands b. Dùng tính từ để làm cho bài mô tả phim/ sách hấp dẫn  Type of book/ film: a detective story/ film; a romantic novel; a love story film; an adventure story; a science fiction novel; a historical novel; a humorous story; a thriller  Adjectives to describe film/ book: funny; hilarious; horrifying = frightening; interesting; gripping; exciting; fascinating; entertaining; brilliant; realistic; sad; tragic; imaginative; touching = moving; action-packed; well-written; well-directed; well/beautifully-filmed; wonderfully-acted…  Adjectives to describe author/ director: great; skilled; observant; gifted = talented; perceptive; entertaining… c. Cấu trúc  Mô tả: It’s called…; It’s by…; It was (written/ directed/ produced/ published/ designed) by/ in…; It’s by the same (writer/ director) as…; It’s his/ her first/ second (book/ film); It’s about/ tells the story of…; It stars…; It’s set in…; It’s based on…; It’s adapted from…; It lasts about…hour(s); The story is very simple/ complicated.  Bày tỏ ý kiến cá nhân: The (acting/ story/ graphics) is/ are brilliant/ terrible.; The best/ worst thing(s) about it is/ are…; …..is really boring/ annoying/ exciting.; Another thing I really liked/ hated was…; One weak point was…; It’s well worth seeing.; I’d recommend it to anyone who likes…; I wouldn’t recommend it to anyone…..  Thì V: dùng simple present để mô tả phim/ sách dù là kể lại các sự kiện xảy ra trong quá khứ.  Dùng ngữ đồng vị: Ex: Titanic, a tragic love story film, is about a couple on a sinking ship. V. Describing a place 1. Outline  What it is  Location  Size  Population  Area  Main attractions  Your feeling (s)/ opinion(s) 2. Useful language  What: It is a small/ big village/ town/ city.; It is … in area.; Its total area is …; It has a population of…  How: cosmopolitan; crowded; densely-populated; sparsely-populated; exciting; romantic; charming; historical; industrial; noisy; ugly; modern; old-fashioned; ancient; peaceful; polluted; popular with tourists…  Where: It is located/ situated in the west/ southern/ centre of…; It is near the border with…; It is on the river X.; It is famous for…; It is about/ approximately … km from… 170  Main attractions: an industrial area; beautiful scenery nearby; an underground system or trams; sandy beaches; docks or a habour; spectacular views; shopping malls or street markets; a carnival/ festival or other events VI. Writing an announcement about a sports event Writing an announcement cơ bản là viết một bản tin để thông báo một sự kiện nào đó. Vì thế, ngôn ngữ thông báo thường ngắn gọn, rõ ràng và dễ hiểu. Thông thường để thu hút sự chú ý của người đọc, các nội dung chính thường được in đậm, gạch dưới, hoặc viết in hoa. Tips  Keep it short, inviting and to the point.  Making the information in the announcement clear and complete.  Be straightforward and concise so the reader can get the information quickly and be able to refer to it easily. Ngoài ra, các chữ viết tắt đôi lúc cũng sử dụng, mạo từ, giới từ… cũng được bỏ đi. HO CHI MINH COMMUNIST YOUTH UNION In celebration of the International Workers’ Day Friendly Football Match Cantho Youth Union vs. Local Sports Club 4 p.m. Sunday, March 26, 201… School Stadium ************* All teachers and students are invited. Nguyen Van A Head of the Union Về nội dung, một thông báo về một sự kiện thể thao thường bao gồm các thông tin sau:  Who that announcer is.  What the event is.  The purpose of the event  When and where the event will take place.  Who can come. Ví dụ về một đoạn văn viết bằng tiếng Anh: Your school organizes a competition for students to write about The world in which I would like to live in the year 2020. Below is an essay by one of the studens. My ideal world would be a peaceful one. There are no wars or conflicts between nations. People won't have to live under the threat of terrorism but all live together in harmony. Everyone has a job to do, and there is a good healthy standard of living for all. I would also wish to live in a clean healthy environment with less noise and less pollution. There are more and larger parks where children can play and wildlife can be protected. But my main desire is to see people less materialistic, less selfish, less violent and more loving than they are now. (Trang 89 - 90 SGK Tiếng Anh 12) Bản dịch tiếng Việt: Thế giới lý tưởng của tôi là một thế giới hòa bình. (Thế giới đó) Không có chiến tranh hoặc mâu thuẫn giũa các quốc gia. Người dân sẽ không phải sống dưới nỗi sợ khủng bố mà tất cả mọi người cùng chung sống hòa thuận. Ai cũng có công ăn việc làm và mọi người đều có mức sống tốt đẹp. Tôi cũng muốn sống trong một môi trường trong sạch, lành mạnh có it tiếng ồn và it bị ô nhiễm. Nhưng khát vọng của tôi là được nhìn thấy mọi người bớt tôn sùng vật chất, bớt ích kỷ, bớt bạo lực và thương yêu nhau nhiều hơn.) Trong đoạn văn trên, câu đầu tiên (My ideal world would be a peaceful one.) là câu chủ đề, trong đó topic là My ideal world và controlling idea là a peaceful one (hiểu là a peaceful world) Các câu văn còn lại là supporting sentences. 171 Tác giả sắp xếp supporting sentences theo trật tự từ chi tiết ít quan trọng nhất đến quan trọng nhất Đề thi bạn có thể gặp: Write about the ideal world in which you would like to live in the year 2020. (Trang 90 SGK Tiếng Anh 12) Như vậy, nếu trong kỳ thi TN THPT 2014, đề bài yêu cầu viết một đoạn văn, các em cần bình tĩnh thực hiện các bước sau: 1/ Viết câu chủ đề. (cần triệt để lợi dụng đề bài để viết thành câu chủ đề.) 2/ Kiểm tra lại câu chủ đề để biết chắc trong câu chủ đề có topic và controlling idea. 3/ Tìm ý để chứng minh/diễn giải ý chính bằng cách đặt các câu hỏi mở đầu bằng từ nghi vấn. Lưu ý: do độ dài của đoạn văn bị khống chế nên các em chỉ cần đặt khoảng 5 câu hỏi là được. Nhớ rằng các câu hỏi phải liên quan đến câu chủ đề. 4/ Ráp các câu trả lời cho các câu hỏi (supporting sentences) lại thành một đoạn văn hoàn chỉnh. Cần nhớ mấu chốt ở bước này là phải biết chắc mình đang sử dụng trật tự nào để ráp nối supporting sentences. 5/ Cân nhắc có nên viết câu kết hay không. Nếu không chắc chắn thì bỏ qua bước này. 6/ Kiểm tra lại các lỗi chính tả, lỗi ngữ pháp có thể có trong từng câu viết của bạn. Lưu ý: cũng như phần viết thư, các em chỉ nên dùng những loại câu đơn giản như câu đơn, câu kép, câu phức. Nói chung, từ ngữ, cách diễn đạt càng rõ ràng, càng đơn giản càng tốt. 50 BÀI LUẬN MẪU TIẾNG ANH TRONG KỲ THI THPT QUỐC GIA PHẦN WRITING 1. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the kind of job you would like to do after you finish your education. After high school there are numerous things I want to do and accomplish in my life. I want to attend college and law school. After I start working for a few years, I plan to settle down, get married, and have children. I still want to have a career, but I want to raise a family too. I’m not sure what will happen after this or that even this will take place because I can’t really plan out my life. Life is an unpredictable thing. There are many obstacles that may get in the way of perusing my goals. Some of the obstacles are college and law school. It takes a lot of studying, hard work, and determination in becoming a lawyer. With hard work and determinationaI plan to accomplish my goals, whatever they may be, and live up to my full potential. 2. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about what life in the city is like. Life in the city is full of activity. Early in the morning hundreds of people rush out of their homes in the manner ants do when their nest is broken. Soon the streets are full of traffic. Shops and offices open, students flock to their schools and the day's work begins. The city now throb with activity, and it is full of noise. Hundreds of sight-seers, tourists and others visit many places of interest in the city while businessmen from various parts of the world arrive to transact business. Then towards evening, the offices and day schools begin to close. Many of the shops too close. There is now a rush for buses and other means of transport. Everyone seems to be in a hurry to reach home. As a result of this rush, many accidents occur. The city could, therefore, be described as a place of ceaseless activity. Here, the drama of life is enacted every day. 3. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about life in a multiracial community. Living in a community where there are people of various races could be a rewarding and an exciting experience. Such a community is like a small world with many types and races of people in it. Everyone, young or old, enjoys listening to stories about people in other lands. We read books and newspapers to learn about the habits, customs and beliefs) of people who do not belong to our race, but when we live in a community composed of many races, we have the opportunity to meet and talk with people or various races. We can learn about their customs and beliefs directly from them. For example, in Singapore and Malaysia, which are known as multi-racial countries, Malays, Chinese, Indians have 172 lived together for several decades. It could therefore be said that life in a multi-racial community teaches us many useful lessons in human relations. 4. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the trip you have made to a famous city. A few months ago my father and I visited Singapore, one of the most famous cities in Asia. Singapore, a small island, lies at the southern and of West Malaysia. A long and narrow piece of land joins Singapore with Johore Hahru, the southern-most town of West Malaysia. Singapore is now an independent. The city of Singapore is extremely beautiful. It is well known for its centres of business and other activities. There are many places of interest such as the Tiger Balm Garden, the Botanical Gardens and Raffles Museum. There are also many important centres of learning such as the University of Singapore, Science Centre, the Nanyang University and the Polytechnic. Being a famous city, hundreds of people come every day from various parts of the world to do business or to enjoy the sights of the city. 5. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about an unusual opportunity you have had. Seldom does one have opportunity of seeing a fight between a tiger and a crocodile. I, however, had this opportunity one day when I went with my father into a forest in search of some wild plants. I had never been to a forest before. Therefore, whatever I saw in the forest interested me greatly. I looked at the rich vegetation all round as well as the variety of colourful flowers and birds, large and small. I saw the activity of some of the wild creatures, such as snakes, squirrels and insects. Occasionally, I heard the cry of some strange animal in pain, perhaps while being eaten by a larger 2 animal. I also heard some rustling noises in the undergrowth; but I was not afraid of all these.Such things, I knew, were natural to the forest. 6. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the value of libraries. A good library is an ocean of information, whose boundaries continue to extend with the endless contribution of the numerous streams of knowledge. Thus, it has a peculiar fascination for scholars, and all those whose thirst for knowledge is instable. The usefulness of libraries in the spread of knowledge has been proved through the years. The field of knowledge is so extensive and life is so brief that even the most avid reader can never expect to absorb it all. Those who have a love for knowledge, therefore, try to master only a small fraction of it. Even this requires reading of hundreds of books, cheap and expensive, new and old. But few people are able to buy all the books on the subject in which they wish to attain proficiency. It is therefore necessary for them to visit a good library. 7. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about a horrible sight you have experienced. On the main roads of Vietnam accidents occur almost every day. Most of them are caused by young drivers who are long of speed. On the day in question, I was travelling with my brother to Hue. Then, suddenly, a car, running at great speed, out took our car. The car that had overtaken our car was in a ditch and four young girls were lying dead on the road-side. Their faces and clothes were covered with blood. Some people were trying to extricate the other occupants, including the young driver, who were still alive in the car. But all of a sudden, the car was on fire, and their efforts failed. Thus, the occupants in the car were burnt alive, and it was indeed heart-rending to hear their last screams. Soon a fire engine and the police arrived with an ambulance, but it was too late. 8. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to discuss the part that money plays in our lives. Money plays an important part in our lives. In several aspects, it is the most important thing in life. It is therefore much sought after. Without money we could not buy our food, clothes and all the other things that we need to live comfortably. We require money to travel, to buy medicine when we are ill and also to pay for the services rendered to us by others. In truth, money is almost indispensable to our 173 survival. Most of our activities are therefore directed towards earning as much money as possible. Lack of money also causes great hardship and sorrow in hundreds of families. Thousands of people are dying everyday throughout the world because they are not able to pay their doctors fee or because they cannot buy nutritious food. All this shows what an important part money plays in human affairs. 9. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to discuss science and its effect on our lives. One of the most striking features of the present century is the progress of science and its effects on almost every aspect of social life. Building on the foundation laid by the predecessors, the scientists of today are carrying their investigation into ever-widening fields of knowledge. Modern civilization depends largely on the scientist and inventor. We depend on the doctor who seeks the cause and cure of disease, the chemist who analyses our food and purifies our water, the entomologist who wages war on the insect pests, the engineer who conquers time and space, and a host of other specialists who aid in the development of agriculture and industry. The advance of science and technology has brought the different parts of the world into closer touch with one another than ever before. We are able to reach distant lands within a very short time. 10. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the rights and duties of a citizen. Almost every modern state, especially a democracy, allows its citizens several rights; but in return, it expects its citizens to perform certain duties. Among the rights enjoyed by the citizen in a democracy are the right to pursue his own affairs as he prefers; the right to express his views, however silly they may appear to others, and the right to move about as he pleases. The citizen is considered so important that his rights are protected by the law of the state, and whenever they are infringed, he can secure redress. But in a totalitarian state, the rights of the citizen are so restricted that he has practically no freedom. The citizen is supposed to exist for the state. His interests are always subordinated to those of the state. Thus, his duties exceed his rights. 11. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to describe the most important day in your life. The most important day in my life was the day when my parents decided to send me to school. I was then about seven years old. I had been playing with the children living around my house for some years. I had no thought of ever going to school. I enjoyed playing to catch fish from the shallow streams near by. Sometimes we went to the forest to catch birds and squirrels, and I had always thought that life would continue to be the same for me. But, one day, to my great sorrow, my parents suddenly announced that I was no longer to play about and that I was to go to a school. Words can hardly describe how sad I felt at the thought of having to go to a school. I had often heard that school teachers were very strict and cruel. 12. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the subject you consider most important. Of all the subjects that I study in school, I think that English is the most important subject. It is mainly through the English language that we gain access to the various sources of knowledge. English is a language which is spoken and understood by many people in most countries of the world. It is, in fact, the most important means of communication among the various countries of the world. Knowledge of new discoveries and inventions in one country is transmitted to other countries through English for the benefit of the world. In this way English helps to spread knowledge and progress. It is true, however, that in the modern age, the study of Science and Mathematics too should be considered very important. Science has conferred many benefits in man. But it requires little thought to realise that scientific principles cannot be understood well without a good knowledge of a language. 13. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the incident you shall never forget. Certain incidents so impress us that they leave an indelible mark on our memory. I was once involved in an incident of which I shall always have vivid recollections. The incident occurred when I visited a 174 village in India together with my parents, sometime during my holidays last year. Early in the morning on the day the incident occurred, I was talking with a few of my new friends in that village. All of a sudden, a boy of my age came rushing towards us to break the news that violence had broken out in the neighbourhood. Alarmed at this news, we began to protect ourselves, and before long the violence spread like wild fire throughout our area. I was a little confused at first for I had no idea about the cause of the outbreak of violence there. 14. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to discuss the value of music in the happiness of man. Music has always been a source of happiness to all men on the earth. From their primitive days, men's love of music has led them to make instruments of all descriptions to produce beautiful music for their enjoyment and happiness. Without music the world would indeed be a very dull place to live in. Even nature is full of music. There is music in the movements of the winds, the sea, as well as the trees; there is music in the calls of the birds, flies and insects and also in the night of the birds and animals. It is from all these things that men have learnt to appreciate the value of music. The same things have also taught men how to produce music from the simplest of things such as sticks, bamboos, and animal horns. 15. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the advantages and disadvantages of the cinema. The influence that the cinema exerts on the minds of those who visit it is at once beneficial and harmful. The films shown in the cinema are often very instructive and informative. Almost every film shows something about the activities and customs of the people in other lands. By seeing such films, one learns a lot about human activities. One also gains a better understanding of people of the world. Films which show the activities of criminals have encouraged many youths to commit acts or crime. Other films, too, such as those dealing with sex and other natural weaknesses of man, have corrupted the morals of many people. As a result, the governments of many countries have been compelled to interfere in the display and production of certain films. Yet, the cinema continues to retain its popularity. 16. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to describe some of the interesting places in your country. Though my country is small, yet there are many places of interest spread throughout the country. In the southern most part of the country, where the state of Johore lies, there are some very interesting and beautiful places. In Kota Tinggi, for example, there are beautiful waterfalls which are visited by many people everyday. Then, there is Johore Lama, a place of great historical interest. In Johore Bahru, there is a beautiful beach which is visited daily by several people who love the sea. In Batu Pahat, another town in Johore, is Minyak Buku, an interesting place on the coast. As we go towards the north, we arrive at Malacca, the oldest town that the Europeans occupied in Malaya in the past. The influences of the Portuguese and the Dutch can still be seen in many of the buildings there. 17. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about what career would you like to choose after leaving school. Today, it is not easy to choose a career. Hundreds of students pass various examinations every year and compete with one another for positions in the various professions which are not so many as there are applicants. I would, however, like to choose teaching as my career. Teaching is an interesting career for several reasons. As a teacher I can learn many things, especially if I teach to an uddersecondary school. If I teach History or English, for example, I have to read many books to make my teaching lessons more interesting to my pupils. Thus, I can acquire more knowledge of the subjects that I teach than what I can learn from the class text books. It is indeed a fact that a teacher learns a lot from the class text books; but that is hardly enough to make the teacher's lessons interesting to pupils. 18. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the reason agriculture is important in the world of today. Since the dawn of history, agriculture has been one of the important means of producing food for 175 human consumption. Today more and more lands are being developed for the production of a large variety of crops. In Asia, vast areas of land are being used to produce rice, wheat, rubber and a variety of other crops. More than half of the lands occupied and developed by human beings in the world are devoted to agriculture. That agriculture is one of the most essential means of producing food is realised easily when we think of the types of things that we eat. The rice or wheat that we eat comes from the land. Even potatoes and other roots or vegetables and even leaves such as tea, as well as the fruits that men eat are the products of the soil that covers the earth. 19. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about a heroic deed you have seen. The story of man is full of heroic deeds. One of the acts of heroism that I have seen myself was that of my uncle, who was attacked by a huge tiger while we were in our plantation, one day. While we were working, however, to our horror, a huge tiger soon emerged from the bush. But my uncle was prepared to face it, to escape seemed impossible. Then all of a sudden, it sprang on my uncle, but his agility enabled him to escape the sharp claws of the brute with the slightest injury. Now with the axe still in his firm grip, my uncle struck the tigers face again and again, until it was bleeding profusely. In the end, however, the tiger collapsed and died. It was indeed a greatest act of heroism that I had witnessed. 20. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to discuss crimes in society. The human society is full of activity. People work in all kinds of business Firms, government offices, factories and other places, to earn their livelihood. Some work from dawn till dark; many work only at night; and others work during the day. At the same time men with criminal tendency are engaged in all kinds of activity, which often cause great hardship and sorrow to a large number of people in society. Men develop criminal tendencies because of numerous frustrations. Society has always failed to satisfy the social, emotional and other needs of a large number of people, many of whom have therefore turned to crime for either survival or recognition. The activities of such men represent a constant threat to the welfare society, and much being done to reform them. 21. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about a strange happening. The mysteries of nature have always fascinated the human mind, and many of them remain unsolved for a long time. One morning, my brothers, sisters and I arrived at a house, not very far from ours. As we enter the house we were greatly surprised to find a baby boy and a large snake playing with each other mirthfully. Soon, the mother of thechild appeared and narrated the events that led to the snake and the child to live together. A man was called in to kill the snake; but every time the man struck at it with the stick that he brought, the child cried with pain. The mother ordered the man to stop molesting the reptile, and to the surprise of all those who had arrived on the scene, the child stopped crying. 22. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about a journey by train. The house in which I lived before was near the railway station. Trains used to pass by at regular interval and I had become so familiar with their sound and sight that I took little interest in them. However, when my father decided to take up a new appointment in the place where we now live, it was decided that we should travel by train. It was only then that I discovered how pleasant a journey by train might be. My father, mother and I boarded a train one afternoon. As the train moved out of the station, I began to think of the days I had spent in our old house which I could still see from the train. But soon the house went out of sight, and I began to think of my journey itself. 23. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to discuss “news travel fast” Until a few decades ago news travelled very slowly. It took several days to know what was happening in places only a few miles away. But today news travels at a speed much greater than ever before. In the past, men had to travel on root to get information, even about the most unimportant thing.There were no motor vehicles and travel was slow and difficult. As a result, news too travelled very slowly. If one's relative died in some distant place, one received the news of the death several days later. Sometimes there was no news at all. The 176 difficulty in getting news and information about people in other places made life dull and miserable. There was little communication among those whom we would regard as neighbours today. News was therefore difficult to send and in times of need, it was hard to obtain help. 24. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about world trade. In the past when men’s needs were few, it was not necessary to get things from distant lands. But today, the people of one country depend on the people of another country for a variety of things. As a result, world trade has developed. Without world trade, it would be difficult for the people of any country to get many things which are now considered necessaries. Some countries are not rich in mineral resources. They have no iron or coal mines, while others have too many of them. Again, some countries are not suitable for agriculture while others have several fertile plains to grow crops. Further, even if a country is rich in natural resources, it may not have enough skilled men to exploit them. So, people around the world learn that they cannot produce profitably and to sell things for which they have a special ability to produce. 25. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to describe a narrow escape. Whenever my mind travels over the past events in my life, one incident stands out prominently to remind me of the narrow escape I once had from almost certain death. My brother and I were then spending our holidays in an estate where our father was employed. A cobra, about six feet long, was lying along the water's edge of one side of the stream in which we were fishing. Thinking that it was a fish, I gripped it at once and tried to bring it out of the water. My brother then picked up a stick and ran after the cobra and managed to kill it just at the time when I was almost exhausted. If he had been a little late, I might have been killed by the cobra. That was indeed a very narrow escape, an escape I shall never forget. 26. In about 140 words, write a paragraph to discuss travel as a means of education. In the past travel was considered an essential part of education. Poets and writers realised the value of travel and went out to other countries in search of knowledge. A man's education was not completed until he had visited foreign lands. That travel broadens the mind cannot be denied. Those who remain within the confines of their homes are cut off from the outside world. As a result, they develop a narrow outlook on life. But those who travel come into contact with various types of people whose ways of life are completely different from theirs. They see things with their own eyes and have a better understanding of the affairs of the world. The impressions that they receive while they travel remain fresh in their minds for many years, and all false impressions and ideas are removed from their minds. 27. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the country you would like to visit. I have heard much about the beauty of the East as well as the West, about the wonderful islands in the Pacific and also in the Atlantic. In short, the whole world seems to be full of beautiful places. The country that I would like to visit, however, is the United States of America. My knowledge of the United States of America is derived from the geography and history books that I have read, the films that I have seen and the stories that I have heard from people who have visited this country. The United States of America is a vast country with a mixed population. People from many different lands have come and settled here. This mixture of different races of people with different customs, religions, cultures and abilities have created a nation unique in history. 28. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about good manners. Good manners play an important part in maintaining peace and good- will in a community. A man who has good manners does not hurt the feelings of others, and therefore he is on good terms with his friends and neighbors and also with others. In this way he helps to keep peace in society. But a man whose manners are bad has no respect for others. He uses words carelessly and behaves rudely towards other and causes a lot of ill- will and unpleasantness. In the end, it is he himself who suffers the most. 177 Everyone avoids him and he is forced to live almost in isolation. To live well in a society, money alone is not enough. We should also have good manners, for it is human nature to seek friendship; and friendship cannot be bought with money. 29. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about choosing a career. It is not easy to choose a career today. Hundreds of students are leaving schools and universities every year to seek employment in the various professions, though employment opportunities are not increasing proportionately. As a result, there is a lot of unemployment. The inability of the various professions to absorb all those seeking employment makes the choice of a career more difficult. Before one leaves school or university, one has many plans, confident that choosing a career will not be difficult. But when the time comes to choose a career, one finds that there are others with better qualifications waiting to enter the same profession. Disillusioned, one then looks for any kind of employment. In this way, many who wanted to become police, inspectors or field assistants in the rubber estates in this country, become teachers instead, and many who wanted to become teachers, have become clerks. 30. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about a visit to a zoo. The zoo is an artificial forest created by man. Though there are few trees compared with the natural forest, the animals, birds and other creatures found in the zoo must always remind us of the forest. It is indeed an interesting place to visit. Until I visited the zoo at Johore Bahru, a few months ago, I had no idea how informative a visit to a zoo might be. Though the zoo at Johore Bahru is not big, I found many kinds of interesting animals and other creatures there. Lions, tigers and other animals were moving about lazily in their cages. Some of the animals appeared to be bored, and they took little interest in the visitors. The monkeys, however, showed their natural agility. Whenever they saw a visitor, they ran towards him and begged for something to eat. 31. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the importance of the newspaper. The newspaper, today, plays a vital role in human affairs. Its importance has not been diminished by the appearance of the radio or the television. Men no longer have travel to get information. The newspaper has become the main source of information about local and foreign affairs. Though the radio and television convey important news and messages quicker than the newspaper, they seldom give the details of an incident. The newspaper, on the other hand, gives not only more details about a particular incident but it also contains more new items. This is of great importance today when political changes occur with a rapidity unknown before. Besides, the newspaper is easier to carry and it could be read at any time during the day. Further, the permanence of the printed word helps one to refresh one’s memory of certain facts and incidents reported in the past. 32. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the things that you like the most. There are so many things around us that one finds it hard to have a special preference for a few particular things. I, however, take a special interest in motor-car and television. Motor-cars have always fascinated me. Since my childhood I have been travelling in motor-cars, and I have visited hundreds of places in this country. I have been to remote villages and almost all the towns, large and small. Travel has broadened my outlook on life. I have met various types of people, and my knowledge of the people and places of this country has increased greatly. If I am at home or if I am walking along a road, I feel the urge to travel as soon as I see a car. It is because of motor-cars that I am able to do various types of work. 33. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about your hobby. To have a hobby is to know how to spend one's leisure moments. A hobby, besides providing an avenue of escape from boredom, can also add to one's knowledge of human affairs. My hobby is reading. When my day's work is over, I sit down in the privacy of my room and read the newspaper. Reading the newspaper is like travelling round the world. As I read about the developments in the various parts of the world, I fell that I am there myself observing the incidents. I also feel that I am having contacts with many leaders and peoples of the world. This feeling is a source of pleasure to me. By reading the newspaper I have acquired a better knowledge of the world. I am aware of what 178
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