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BỘ CÔNG THƯƠNG TRƯỜNG CAO ĐẲNG CÔNG NGHIỆP VÀ XÂY DỰNG BÀI GIẢNG MÔN HỌC TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH TIN HỌC Dùng cho hệ Cao đẳng chuyên nghiệp (Lưu hành nội bộ) Người biên soạn: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Người phản biện: Tô Thị Thu Vân Uông Bí, năm 2011 CONTENTS Unit 1: What is a computer? Unit 2: Characteristics Unit 3: Computers capabilities and limitations Unit 4: Hardware and software Unit 5: Microcomputers Unit 6: The central processing unit Unit 7: Primary and secondary memory Unit 8: Types of memory - 1- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương page 3 page 8 page 15 page 21 page 27 page 33 page 38 page 44 FOREWORDS English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương The following collection of texts is collected from various textbooks. The texts are shortened, simplified and adapted to fit the skill level and interests of the learners in addition to meet the demand of the society. The collection, with five units, provides the learners with the technical terms in informatics with the hope that they can read, understand and translate simple technical textbooks, and magazines in English. As a result, learner can communicate with their partners in the future jobs. This collection is for students at the industry and construction of college. The author is always available to welcome any of your feedback, suggestions, corrections or comment. By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương - 2- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit one. WHAT IS A COMPUTER? < 1 > A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operates switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. The witches, like the cores, are capable of being in one of two possible states, that is , on or off; magnetized or demagnetized. The machine is capable of storing and manipulating numbers , letters and characters. The basic idea of a computer is that w can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or that magnetize or do not magnetize the cores. < 2 > The basic job of computer is the processing of information. For this reason, computers can be defined as devices which accept information in the form of instructions called a program and characters called data, perform mathematical and /or logical operations. The program, or part of it, which tells the computers what to do and the data, which provide the information needed to solve the problem, are kept inside the computer in a place called memory. < 3 > Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers. However, most computers, whether large or small have three basic capabilities. First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation. Second, computers have a means of communicating with the user. After all, if we couldn’t feed information in and get results back, these machines wouldn’t be of much use. However, certain computers (commonly minicomputers and microcomputers) are used to control directly things such as robots, aircraft navigation systems, medical instruments, etc. < 4 > Some of the most common methods of inputting information are used punched cards, magnetic tape, disks, and terminals. The computer’s input device (which might be a card reader, a tape drive or disk drive, depending on the medium used in inputting information) readers the information into the computer For outputting information, two common devices used are a printer which prints the new information on paper, or a CRT display screen which shows the results on a TV- like screen. < 5 > Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The kinds of decision which computer circuit can make are not of the type: “ Who would wind a war between two countries?” or “ Who is the richest person in the world ?”. Unfortunately, the computer can only decide three things, namely: Is one number less than another? Are two numbers equal? and, Is one number greater than another? < 6 > A computer can solve a series of problems and make hundreds, even thousands, of logical decisions without becoming tired or bored. It can find the solution to a problem in a fraction of the time it takes a human being to do the job. A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, but it has not - 3- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương originality; it works according to the instructions given to it and cannot exercise any value judgment. There are times when a computer seems to operate like a mechanical ‘ brain’, but its achievements are limited by the minds of human beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives it the appropriate information; but because electric pulse can move at the speed of light, a computer can carry out vast numbers of arithmetic- logical operations almost instantaneously. A person can do everything a computer can do, but in many cases that person would be dead long before the job was finished. * Vocabulary intricate: circuit: switch: magnet: magnetize: core: to store: to manipulate: character: to input: to process: instruction: data: memory: arithmetic: minicomputer: exponentiation: originality: microcomputer: punch: card: punched card: disk: terminal: medium: to output: printer: CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube): display screen: phức tạp, rối rắm mạch, mạch điện khóa ngắt, công tắc nam châm làm nhiễm từ lõi, nhân lưu trữ xử lý ký tự nhập vào, đưa vào xử lý, chế biến lệnh, chỉ thị dữ liệu, dữ kiện bộ nhớ số học máy tính mini số mũ, sự nâng lên lũy thừa tính độc đáo, tính sáng tạo máy vi tính đục lỗ, dùi lỗ miếng bìa bìa đục lỗ đĩa ( từ) thiết bị đầu cuối giá mang tin đưa ra máy in ống đèn tia âm cực màn hình hiển thị - 4- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương * Grammar notes I/ The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or that magnetize or do not magnetize the cores. Khái niệm cơ bản về máy tính là ( rằng) chúng ta có thể khiến cho máy thực hiện điều mà chúng ta muốn bằng cách đưa vào những tín hiệu, những tín hiệu này bật một số công tắc lên và tắt một số công tắc khác hoặc những tín hiệu này từ hoá hoặc không từ hoá các lõi. “ That we can make the machine do”: là mệnh đề bổ ngữ (Predicate clause ) đứng sau động từ “ To be”: Ví dụ : - The truth was that he never saw her: Sự thật là anh ta chưa bao giờ trông thấy cô ta - The trouble is that you get very little time: Điều rắc rối là anh có rất ít thời gian “ That turn contain switches on and turn others off ” là mệnh đề phụ tính ngữ hạn định, trong đó “ That là đại từ quan hệ ( Relative pronoun) Ví dụ: He that sows iniquity shall reap sorrơ Kẻ gieo gió sẽ gặp bão - Any students that wants to pass his examination must work hard. Bất cứ sinh viên nào muốn thi đỗ đều phải cố gắng học tập - “What we want” là mệnh đề phụ tân ngữ ( Objective clause) Ví dụ: - I don’t know what you are talking about Tôi không biết anh đang nói về cái gì - I’ll do just what I say. Tôi sẽ làm chính điều tôi nói II/ Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers Người ta nhận biết rằng máy tính có rất nhiều ưu thế nổi bật Subjecttive Infinitive Construction ( Cấu trúc động từ nguyên dạng làm chủ ngữ) Ví dụ: - She was thought to be honest:- Người ta nghĩ rằng cô ta trung thực - He was believed to have been murdered: - Người ta tin rằng nó đã bị ám sát - He is said to be a good doctor: - Người ta nói rằng anh ta là một bác sĩ giỏi Exercises: 1. Main ideas Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1 Computers have changed the way in which many kinds of jobs are done. 2 Instructions and data must be given to the computer to act on 3 Computers are machines capable of processing and outputting data. 4 Without computers, many tasks would take much longer to do. 2. Understanding the passage - 5- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Decide whether the following statements are true or false ( T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 1. …………..A computer can store or handle any data even if it hasn’t received information to do so. 2. …………..All computers accept and process information in the form of instructions and characters. 3. …………..The information necessary for the solving problems is found in the memory of the computer. 4. …………..Not all computers can perform arithmetic operations, make decision, and communicate in some ways with the user. 5. …………..Computers can still be useful machines even if they can’t communicate with the user. 6. …………..There are many different devices used for feeding information into a computer 7. …………..There aren’t as many different types of devices used for giving results as there are for accepting information. 8. …………..Computers can make any type of decision they are asked to 9. …………..Computers can work endlessly without having to stop to rest unless there is a breakdown. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references as in the example below. ……………1/ Computer accept information, perform mathematical and/or logical operations then supply new information. ……………2/ All computers have three basic capabilities. ……………3/ A computer is machine that canbe made to operate by receiving signals. ……………4/ A computer cannot work without being told what to do. ……………5/ A computer can make three types of decisions. ……………6/ The fundamental job of a computer is processing information. ……………7/ A computer can do the work of hundreds of people in a very short time. ……………8/ The memory of a computer is used for storing information. 4. Content review Try to think of a definition for each of these items before checking them in the Glossary. Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words ( Some can be used more than once). Make sure you use the correct form, i.e; singular or plural Core device data Circuit terminal switch Program memory medium CRT display - 6- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 1. Every computer has circuit for performing arithmetic operations, operating…………… or magnetized…………… 2. A ……………with a screen is normally referred to as a ……………unit 3. A computer is a…………… that process information in the form of …………… and …………… and can store this information in a …………… 4. Card readers, tape drives, or disk drives are different…………… for inputting information. 5. Translate in to English Một máy tính điện tử là một máy xử lý thông tin. Máy tính xử lý thông tin một cách tự động, nhanh và chính xác. Tuy nhiên máy tính không thông minh. Để một máy tính có thể hoàn thành công việc nào đó, con người phải cung cấpcho máy tính một tập hợp các chỉ thị, gọi là chương trình, để máy tính theo đó mà làm việc. Dưới sự điều khiển của chương trình , máy tính tiếp nhận dữ liệu qua thiết bị nhập, thực hiện các phép toán số học và logic trên dữ liệu vào và thông qua thiết bị xuất, trả lại cho người sử dụng kết quả của những phép xử lý này - 7- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 2. CHARACTERISTICS < 1> Computers are machines designed to process electronically, specially prepared pieces of information which are termed data. Handling or manipulating the informations, adding information or making comparisions ia called processing. Computers are made up of millions of electronic devices capable of storing data or moving them, at enormous speed, through complex circuits with different functions. < 2 > All computers have several characteristics in common, regardless of make or design. Information, in the form of instructions and data, is given to the machine, after which the machine acts on it, and a result is then returned. The information presented to the machine is the input; the internal manipulative operations, the processing, and the result, the output. These three basic concepts of input, processing and output occur in almost every aspect of human life whether at work or at play. For example, in clothing manufacturing, the input is the pieces of cut cloth, the processing is the sewing together of these pieces, and the output is the finished garment. Input comput er Output SEC. storage Figure 2.1 < 3> Figure 2.1 shows schematically the fundamental hardware components in a computer system. The centerpiece is called either the computer, the processor or usually, the central processing unit (CPU). The term “ computer” includes those parts of hardware in which calculations and other data minipulations are performed, and the high-speed internal memory in which data and calculations are stored during actual execution of programs. Attached to the CPU are the various peripheral devices such as card readers and keyboards ( two common examples of input devices). When data or programs need to be saved for long priod of time, they are stored on various secondary memory devices or storage devices such as magnetic tapes or magnetic disks. < 4> Computers have often been thought of as extremely large adding machines, but this is a very narrow view of their functions. Although a computer can only respond to a certain number of instructions, it is not a single-purpose machine since these instructions can be combined in an infinite number of - 8- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương sequences. Therefore, a computer has no known limit on the kinds of things it can do; its versatility is limited only by the imagination of those using it. < 5> In the late 1950s and early 1960s when electronic computers of the kind in use today were being developed, they were very expensive to own and run. Moreover their size and reliability were such that a large number of support personnel were needed to keep the equipment operating. This has all changed now that computing power has become portable, more compact, and cheaper. < 6> In only a very short period of time, computers have greatly changed the way in which many kinds of work are performed. Computers can remove many of the routine and boring tasks from our lives, thereby leaving us with more time for interesting, creative work. It goes without saying that computers have created whole new areas of work that did not exist before their development. * Vocabulary: Characteristic: Design: Piece: Pieces of information: Term: To term: To handle: To manipulate: In such way as: To add: Comparison: To be made up of: Enormous: In common: Regardless of: In the form of: To act on: To present: Input: Output: Concept: To occur: Aspect: Clothing manufacturing: Finished: Schematically: Fundamental: Centerpiece: Processor: Central processing unit: đặc trưng thiết kế miếng, mảnh, mẩu những khối thông tin từ, thuật ngữ gọi, đặt tên là giải quyết, xử lý thao tác, xử lý, tác động theo cách như là cộng sự so sánh được tạo thành từ to lớn, rất lớn giống nhau, chung không phụ thuộc vào, không liên quan đến dưới dạng tác động lên trao cho, tặng, cung cấp cho thông tin nhập vào thông tin đưa ra khái niệm, ý niệm xảy ra, diễn ra khía cạnh, lĩnh vực việc sản xuất quần áo đã hoàn thành, đã làm xong bằng sơ đồ, bằng biểu đồ cơ bản, cốt yếu trung tâm, trung tâm điểm bộ xử lý bộ xử lý trung tâm - 9- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Internal: External: To execute: Execution: Attach: Peripheral: Peripheral device: Input device: Output device: To save: Secondary: Secondary memory device: Storage: Storage device: View: Narrow: To respond: Single-purpose: To combine: Infinite: Sequence: Versatility: Imagination: In use: To own: Reliable: Reliability: Portable: Compact: To remove: Boring: trong ngoài thực hiện sự thực hiện gắn, gắn liền, đi kèm ngoại vi thiết bị ngoại vi thiết bị vào, thiết bị nhập thiết bị ra, thiết bị xuất lưu trữ phụ, thứ yếu thiết bị nhớ phụ sự lưu trữ thiết bị lưu trữ cách nhìn nhận hẹp, hẹp hòi trả lời, đáp lại đơn năng, chỉ có một tác dụng kết hợp vô hạn thứ tự, trình tự, tuần tự linh hoạt,có thể sử dụng vào nhiều việc sự linh hoạt đang được sử dụng làm chủ, sở hữu đáng tin cậy độ tin cậy có thể xách tay gọn, thu nhỏ loại bỏ, huỷ bỏ tẻ nhạt, buồn chán * Grammar notes: I/ “ Morever, their size and reliability were such that a large number of support personnel were needed to keep the equipment operating” Hơn nữa, kích thước của chúng thì lớn và độ tin cậy lại thấp đến mức đòi hỏi phải có một số lượng lớn nhân viên phục vụ để duy trì thiết bị hoạt động Such that: Đến nỗi, đến mức Ví dụ: - The force of the exlosion was such that all glass windows were broken. Tiếng nổ mạnh đến nỗi tất cả các kính cửa sổ đều vỡ. - His behavior was such that everyone disliked him Tư cách của nó hèn đến nỗi mọi người đều ghét nó - 10- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương II/ This has all changed now that computing power has become portable, more compact, and cheaper. Tất cả những điều đó đã thay đổi hoàn toàn vì giờ đây máy tính đã trở nên dễ mang, gọn và rẻ hơn. Now that: Vì, vì rằng Ví dụ: - Now that you’re grown up, you must stop this childish behavior. Vì cháu đã lớn rồi, cháu phải bỏ lối cư xử trẻ con đó đi - Now that the fog melted away, they hurried off. Vì sương mù đã tan, họ vội vàng ra đi * Exercises: 1. Main ideas Which statement or statements best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1 Computers have changed the way in which we live. 2 All computers have an input, a processor, an output and a storage device. 3 Computers have decreased man’s workload. 4 All computers have the same basic hardware components. 2. Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false ( T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 1. …………..All information to be processed must be prepared in such a way that the computer will understand it. 2. …………..Because of the complex electronic circuitry of a computer, data can be either stored or moved about high speeds. 3. …………..Not all computers can process data given to them and produce results. 4. …………..The basic concepts of data processing are restricted to computers alone. 5. …………..The processor is the central component of a computer system. 6. …………..All other devices used in a computer system are attached to the CPU. 7. …………..Memory devices are used for storing information. 8. …………..Computers are very much restricted in what they can do. 9. …………..Computers today cost less, are smaller, and need fewer people to operate them than in the past. 10.…………..Computers haven’t changed oyr working conditions very much. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references as in the example below. .......... ....... 1/ All computers are basicaaly the same. - 11- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương .................. 2/ Then arithmetic and/or decision- making operations are performed. ……………3/ Computers are limited by man’s imagination more than anything else. ……………4/ All the equipment used in a computer system is the hardware. ……………5/ Computers are electronic machines used for processing data. ……………6/ If programs or data need to be kept for a long time, they are stored on tapes or disks. …………….7/ First the computer accepts data. …………….8/ Finally, new information is presented to the user. 4. Contextual reference: Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to 1. which are termed data (l.2) ........................................................................ 2 . or moving them ( l.6) ............................................................................. 3. the machines acts on it ( l.10) .................................................................... 4. They are stored on ( l.25) ........................................................................... 5.It isn’t a single- purpose machine( l.29) ..................................................... 6. The kinds of things it can do (l.31) ............................................................ 7. of those using it (l.32)................................................................................. 8. they were very expensive to own.(l.34) ................................................... 9. Moreover, their size and reliability.( l.34)................................................. 10. That didn’t exist (l.42) ............................................................................ 5.Word forms: First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentences. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1.imagination, imagine, imaginable, imaginative, imaginary. a. A computer is limited in its ability by the …………..of man. b. Some people are good at inventing……….. stories. c. It is practically impossible to………… the speed at which a computer calculates numbers. 2.Addition, add, added, additional, additionally, additive. a. Many terminals can be……………. to a basic mathematical operations. b…………….. and subtraction are two basic system if the need arises. d. When buying a system there is often no…………. charge for the programs. 3. Complications, complicate, complicated, complicating , complicatedly, a. There can be many…………. involved in setting up a computer in an old building. b. It is sometimes a very………… process getting into a computer installation for security reasons. c. It is sometimes very…………. to explain computer concepts. 4. difference, differ, different, differently, differential, differentiate, a. There isn’t a very big…………. in flowcharting for a program to be written in Cobol or Fortran. - 12- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương b. There are many…………..computer manufacturers today, and a buyer must be able to…………..between the advantages and disadvantages of each. c. The opinions of programmers as to the best way of solving a problem often………… greatly. 5. Reliably, rely on, reliable, reliability, a. Computers are……………machines. b. If you don’t know the meaning of a computer term, you can’t always …………an all- purpose dictionary for the answer. c. Computers can do mathematical operations quickly and……………. 7a. Content review Try to think of a definition for each of these items before checking them in the Glossary. Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words. (Some can be used more than once). Make sure you use the correct form, i.e. singular or plural. Processing Hardware Magnetic tape Input Processor Magnetic disk Output Secondary memory Personnel Single-purpose 1.Information ………………… takes place in the ………………… not in the…………………device or…………………device. 2.The …………………refers to all the electromechanical devices used in computer installation. 3.………………and ………………… units are used as..............… storage devices. 4.A computer isn’t usually a …………………machine and may require quite specialized ………………… to operate it and all its related requirement. 7b. Content review Summarize the text on “Characteristics” by completing the following table. SYSTEM COMPONENTS PARTS Hardware 1. 2. Control unit 3. Peripheral devices A. Disks B. Others 3. 4. 5. 6. 8.Translate into English: Một hệ thống máy tính gồm nhiều thành phần cơ sở. Một thiết bị nhập ch phép nhập dữ liệu và chương trình vào máy. Dữ liệu và chương trình được chứa ở bộ nhớ trong của máy tính. Dưới sự điều khiển của chương trình, bộ xử lý của máy tính thao tác trên dữ liệu, chứa các kết quả trở lại trong bộ nhớ, cuối cùng - 13- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương các kết quả được gửi ra một thiết bị xuất, ví dụ như màn hình hoặc máy in. Ngoài các máy tính hiện đại đều sử dụng các thiết bị nhớ như đĩa từ, băng từ để lưu trữ lây dài dữ liệu và chương trình. Một máy tính xử lý dữ liệu một cách tự động mà không cần sự can thiệp của con người. Tuy nhiên máy tính không thông minh. Chúng không thể quyết định một cách độc lập khi nào cộng, trừ, so sánh, hay cần nhập dữ liệu. Để một máy tính thực hiện được các chức năng mà không cần sự can thiệp trực tiếp của con người, thì phải cung cấp cho máy tính một tập hợp các lệnh gọi là chương trình để hướng dẫn nó. Chương trình được chứa một cách vật lý bên trong máy, khiến cho nó trở thành một chương trình được lưu trữ ( stored program). Vì vậy, một máy tính có thể được định nghĩa như một cái máy xử lý dữ liệu thành thông tin dưới sự điều khiển của một chương trình được lưu trữ trong máy - 14- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 3. COMPUTERS CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS < 1> Like all machines, a computer needs to be directed and controlled in order to perform a task successfully. Until such time as a program is prepared and stored in the computer’s memory, the computer “ knows” absolutely nothing, not even how to accept or reject data. Even the most sophisticated computer, no matter how capable it is, must be told what to do. Until the capabilities and the limitation of a computer are recognized, its usefulness can not be thoroughly understood. < 2> In the first place, it should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repetitive operations. A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired or even careless. < 3> Secondly, computers can process information at extremely rapid rates. For example, modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster than a skilled mathematician. Speeds for performing decision- making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations but input-output operations, however, involve mechanical motion and hence require more time. On a typical computer system, cards are read at an average speed of 1000 cards per minute and as many as 1000 lines can be printed at the same rate. < 4> Thirdly, computers may be programmed to calculate answer to whatever level of accuracy specified by the programmer. In spite of newspaper headlines such as “ Computer Fails” these machines are very accurate and reliable especially when the number of operations they can perform every second is considered. Because they are man-made machines, they sometimes malfunction or breakdown and have to e repaired. However, in most instances when the computer fails, it is due to human error and is not the fault of the computer at all. < 5> In the fourth place, general- purpose computers can be programmed to solve various types of problems because of their flexibility. One of the most important reasons why computers are widely used today that almost every big problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems- one after another. < 6> Finally, a computer, unlike a human being , has no intuition. A person may suddenly find the answer to a problem without working out too many of the details, but a computer can only proceed as it has been programmed to. < 7> Using the very limited capabilities possessed by all computers, the task of producing a university payroll, for instance, can be done quite easily. The following kinds of things need be done for each employee on the payroll. First: Input information about the employee such as wage rate, hours worked, tax rate, unemployment insurance, and pension deductions. Second: Do some simple arithmetic and decision making operations. Third: Output a few printed lines on a cheque. By repeating this process over and over again, the payroll will eventually be completed - 15- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương * Vocabulary: Capability: Limitation: To direct: Absolutely: To accept: To reject: Sophisticated: Usefulness: Thoroughly: Recognize: Capable: Repetitive: Bored: Tired: Careless: Extremely: Skilled: Mathematician: Decision-making: Comparable: To involve: Motion: Hence: To require: Typical: To program: Level: Accurate: Accuracy: In spite of: Headline: To consider: To malfunction: To break down: Instance: For instance: Due to: Fault: General- purpose: Flexibility: Intuition: To proceed: khả năng, năng lực sự hạn chế chỉ dẫn, chỉ đạo, hướng dẫn hoàn toàn, tuyệt đối nhận, chấp nhận loại, loại bỏ, gạt bỏ tinh vi, tinh xảo tính hữu dụng, hữu ích một cách kỹ càng, cặn kẽ thừa nhận, công nhận có khả năng, có thể lặp đi lặp lại buồn chán mệt mỏi cẩu thả, không cẩn thận cực kỳ, hết sức giỏi, có chuyên môn nhà toán học lô gic, thực hiện các quyết định có thể so sánh với, ngang bằng với kéo theo, liên quan tới chuyển động do đó, vì vậy đòi hỏi điển hình, thông thường lập chương trình mức độ, cấp chính xác, độ chính xác mặc dù tiêu đề lớn xem xét, xét, xét tới trục trặc hỏng, hỏng hẳn trường hợp, tình huống ví dụ, chẳng hạn do, do bởi lỗi, lỗi lầm đa năng, đa dụng tính linh hoạt, mềm dẻo trực giác tiến hành, thực hiện - 16- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương To possess: Payroll: Easy: Easily: Employee: Wage: Wage rate: Tax: Tax rate: Unemployment: Insurance: Deduction: Pension: Pension deduction: To output: Line: Cheque: Over and over again: Eventually: sở hữu, có bảng lương dễ dàng một cách dễ dàng người nhân viên, viên chức lương mức lương thuế mức thuế sự thất nghiệp bảo hiểm sự, khoản trừ đi, khoản bị khấu trừ tiền trợ cấp, tiền hưu tiền đóng bảo hiểm xã hội đưa ra, xuất ra, gửi ra dòng séc nhiều lần, lặp đi lặp lại cuối cùng * Grammar notes I/ Until such time as a program is prepaied and stored in the company’s memory Cho tới lúc mà chương trình được chuẩn bị và lưu trữ trong bộ nhớ máy tính As (Đại từ): Mà Ví dụ: - He is the same man as I met yesterday: -Ông ta đúng là người mà hôm qua tôi gặp. - Such women as Nam knew, thought he was charming:-Những người đàn bà mà Nam biết nghĩ rằng anh ta là người quyến rũ II/ It should be recognized that computers are capable of doing repetitive operations:-Phải công nhận rằng máy tính có khả năng làm những thao tác lặp đi lặp lại “ It” trong câu là chủ ngữ giả, chủ ngữ thật là mệnh đề phụ danh từ mở đầu bằng “ that”. Ví dụ: - It is natural that birds of a feather flock together:-Lẽ tất nhiên là ngưu tầm ngưu mã tầm mã - It is said that England was the first country to have railways: Người ta nói rằng nước Anh là nước đầu tiên có đường xe lửa Exercises: 1. Main ideas Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. The most elaborate of computers must be programmed in order to be useful 2. It is important to know what a computer can and can not do - 17- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 3. A Computer is useless without a programmer to tell it what to do 2. Understanding the passage Decide whether the following statements are true or false ( T/F) by referring to the information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true. 1. ………….A computer can not do anything until it has beeb programmed 2. ………….A computer is a useless machine if its capabilities and limitations are unknown. 3. ………….A computer can repeat the same operation over and over again forever if permitted 4. ………….The speed at which different computer components function is considered to be one of the limitations of a computer 5. ………….Computers do not usually make mistakes unless they breakdown 6. ………….A computer can think and solve problems by itself 7. ………….A computer is a single- purpose machine in that it can not programmed to solve various types of problems 8. ………….Computers can solve big problems by following a series of simple steps 9. ………….A computer usually solves problems by doing some mathematical and decision-making operations 10.………….Computers are used because they are fast and exact. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references as in the example below. ……………1/ A computer can do the same operation millions of time without stopping ……………2/ A computer must work out the details of a problem before reaching a solution. ……………3/ A computer needs to be told what to do ……………4/ Computer can solve all kinds of different problems ……………5/ Knowledge of a computer’s capabilities and limitations is important ……………6/ A computer can process information very rapidly. …………….7/ Computers are exact and dependable ……………. 8/ Input and output devices operate more slowly than the arithmetic and decision-making devices 4/ Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1. no matter how capable it is (l.4) .................................................. 2. to those for arithmetic operations (l. 14) ................................................... 3. they are man-made machines ( l.22) .................................................. 4. they sometimes malfunction ( l.22) ................................................... 5. because of their flexibility ( l.26) ................................................... - 18- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương one after another ( l.28) .................................................. one after another ( l.28) .................................................. as it has been programmed to ( l. 31) ................................................. the following kinds of things need be done( l.34) ................................................ 10.by repeating this process ( l.38) ................................................. 5/ Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentence. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1. repetition, repeat, repetitive, repeatedly, repeating a. There are some people who……..…. arrive late to class whenever they’re working on a program because they forget the time. b. A computer can do……..….operations without getting tired or bored. c. ……..…., which can be a boring and unproductive task has been eliminated with the use of computer. d. A computer can……..…. the same operation over and over again accurately without becoming bored and tired. 2. Comparison, compare, comparatively, comparative. a. Renting a computer isn’t……..…. to owning one. b. Computers can……..….numbers. c. There is sometimes very little ……..…. to be made between two different brand-name microcomputers d. The difference in price of microcomputers from different manufacturers can be……..….small 3. repairs, repaired, repairable, repair a. When the computer is down it need to be……..…. b. Electronic equipment often takes a long time to……..…. c. ……..….to a computer system are often done by the same company who manufactured the system. 4. accuracy, accurate, accurately a. A computer is always……..…. in its results if well prepared b. ……..…. is on of the advantages of using computers in research or in statistical analysis. c. Computers can produce results quickly and……..…. 6/ a. Content review Match the words in column A with the appropriate statement in column B A B 1. Decisionmaking a. can solve different types of operations problem 2. Programmer b. all the equipment needed input, 3. Generalpurpose process and output information computers c. those which compare numbers 4. computer system d. decides what the program is to be 6. 7. 8. 9. - 19- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 6b. Decide which of the following statements are computer capabilities or limitations ( C/ L) 1………….. directed and controlled 2………….. must be told what to do 3………….. capable of doing repetitive operations 4………….. never gets bored or tired 5………….. fast and careful 6………….. input-output operations are slower 7………….. very accurate and dependable 8………….. man-made machine 9………….. can solve different types of problems 10………….. Finds a solution after working out all the details 11………….. Can’ t think for itself 12………….. producing a payroll is an easy task 7/ Translate into English: Máy tính điện tử, cũng như bất kỳ một máy móc nào khác, được sử dụng bởi vì nó có thể làm một số công việc tốt hơn và hiệu quả hơn con người. Một máy tính có thể nhận thong tin và sử lý thong tin nhanh hơn bất kỳ một con người nào. Một người bình thường sẽ phải mất một phút để cộng mười số có 7 chữ số, nhưng trong cùng thời gian đó, một số máy tính điện tử có thể cộng tới 1000 triệu số hoặc nhiều hơn nữa. Tuy nhiên máy tính không có khả năng suy diễn độc lập. Một máy tính chẳng thể làm được bất cứ một công việc gì, cho dù đơn giản đến bao nhiêu, nếu không được điều khiển bởi một chương trình nằm trong bộ nhớ chính của nó. Máy tính chỉ có thể làm việc theo đúng các chỉ thị của chương trình, nó không biết tự đặt câu hỏi: “ Không hiểu điều này nghĩa là gì nhỉ?” Vì vậy các kết quả mà máy tính điện tử trả lại cho người sử dụng hoàn toàn phụ thuộcvào các dữ liệu và chương trình nhập vào máy có đúng hay không? Nếu máy tính của một công ty điện thoại in ra một hoá đơn yêu cầu một khách trả 0,00 đồng, thì khi đó không phải là máy tính ngớ ngẩn, mà là do nó đã thực hiện đúng một lệnh ngớ ngẩn của chương trình - 20- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 4. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE. <1> In order to use computers effectively to solve problems in our environment, computer systems are devised. A “ system” implies a good mixture of integrated parts working together to form a useful whole. Computer systems may be discussed in two parts. < 2> The first part is hardware- the physical, electronic, and electromechanical devices that are thought of and recognized as “ computers”. The second part is software- the program that control and coordinate the activities of the computer hardware and that direct the processing of data. < 3> Figure 4.1 shows diagrammatically the basic components of computer hardware joined together in a computer system. The centerpiece is called either the computer, the processor, or usually the central processing unit ( CPU). The term “ computer” usually refers to those parts of the hardware in which calculations and other data manipulations are performed, and to the internal memory in which data and instructions are stored during the actual execution of programs. The various peripherals, and so on, are attached to the CPU. Input comput er Output Secondary storage Figure 4.1: Hardware components of a basic computer system < 4> Computer software can be divided into two very broad categoriessystems software and applications software. The former is often simply referred to as “ systems”. These, when brought into internal memory direct the computer to perform tasks. The latter may be provided along with the hardware by a systems supplier as part of a computer product designed to answer a specific need in certain areas. These complete hardware/software products are called turnkey systems. < 6> The success or failure of any computer system depends on the skill with which the hardware and software components are blended. A poorly chosen system can be a monstrosity incapable of performing the tasks for which it was originally acquired * Vocabulary: Hardware: Software: phần cứng phần mềm - 21- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Environment: To devise: Mixture: Integrated: Whole: To join: Processor: Central processing unit: Refer: Part: Manipulation: Instruction: And so on: To divide: Category: Systems software: Application: Applications software: To provide: Along with: To supply: Supplier: Specific: Area: Complete: Turnkey: Turnkey system: Skill: To blend: Poorly: Monstrosity: Incapable: Originally: Acquire: môi trường nghĩ ra, sáng chế, phát minh sự pha trộn, sự trộn lẫn, sự kết hợp được hợp nhất, thống nhất lại một khối, một tổng thể kết hợp, liên kết bộ xử lý bộ xử lý trung tâm, đơn vị xử lý trung tâm nói đến, chỉ bộ phận, thành phần sự thao tác, sự tác động lệnh, chỉ thị vân vân chia loại, phạm trù phần mềm hệ thống ứng dụng, chương trình ứng dụng phần mềm ứng dụng cung cấp cùng với cung cấp người cung cấp, hãng cung cấp cụ thể lĩnh vực, phạm vi, khu vực hoàn chỉnh chìa khoá trao tay hệ thống trao tay sự khéo léo, sự lành nghề, kỹ xảo pha trộn, kết hợp lại với nhau một cách nghèo nàn, kém cỏi, dở vật quái dị, thứ quái dị không có khả năng bắt đầu, từ đầu, ban đầu đạt được, kiếm được * Grammar notes: I/ In order to use the computers effectively to solve the problems in our environment, computer systems are devised: Để sử dụng máy tính hiệu quả nhằm giải quyết những vấn đề lớn trong hoàn cảnh của chúng ta, các hệ thống máy tính đã được phát minh Ví dụ :“ In order to”: - Để, mục đích để - He comes here in order to learn English- Anh ta đến đây để học tiếng Anh - She arrived early in order to get a good seat- Bà ta đến sớm để có được chỗ ngồi tốt - 22- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương II/ Computer software can be divided into two very broad categories-sustems software and applications software. The former is often simply referred to as “ system” Phần mềm máy tính có thể chia rộng làm 2 loại- phần mềm hệ thống và phần mềm ứng dụng. Phần mềm hệ thống thường đơn giản được gọi là hệ thống - The former (đại từ ): Cái trước, người trước, vấn đề trước - The latter (đại từ ): Cái sau, người sau, vấn đề sau * Example: Of these two men, the former is dead, the latter is still alive: Trong hai người đó, người trước đã chết, người sau còn sống - Of the two methods I prefer the former: Trong hai phương pháp tôi thích phương pháp trước * Exercises: 1. Main ideas Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. ………….Only hardware is necessary to make up a computer system 2. ………….Software alone doesn’t constitute a computer system 3. ………….A computer system needs both hardware and software to be complete 2. Understanding the passage Indicate whether the following ideas are stated or not stated ( S/NS) in the text 1. ………….A system implies a good mixture of parts working together 2. ………….Input and output devices operate more slowly than the decision making devices 3. ………….The control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit are part of processor. 4. ………….The computer is the hardware 5. ………….Software is the programs on cards, tapes,and disks 6. ………….The processor is usually referred to as the CPU 7. ………….The word “computer” means the processor and the internal memory 8. ………….Systems software is usually referred to as programs 9. ………….Complete hardware/software products are called turnkey systems. 10.………….Computers process specially prepared items of information. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references. ……………1/ The hardware consists of the physical devices of the computer ……………2/ In order to solve problems, an appropriate computer must be developed. ……………3/ The “computer” is the CPU and the internal memory ……………4/ The success or failure of a computer system depends on the proper mixture of hardware and software - 23- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương ……………5/ There are two parts to a computer system ……………6/ Computer software can be divided into two parts. …………….7/ The software is the programs …………….8/ The peripheral devices are attached to the CPU. 4. Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1............................. computer systems may be discussed in two parts (l.3) 2............................. That are thought of (l. 6) 3............................. That control and coordinate ( l.7) 4............................. and that direct the processing (l.8) 5............................. in which data and instruction (l.12) 6............................. in which calculations (l.13) 7............................. the former is often simply referred to ( l.18) 8............................. these, when brought into( l.19) 9............................. the latter may be provided along with ( l.20) 10. .......................... for which it was originally acquired( l.25) 5. Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentence. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1. integration, integrate, integrated, integrating a. Some computer manufacturers have………….both input and output devices into one terminal. b. The success of any computer system depends on the ……… parts to form a useful whole c. …………….input and output devices into one peripheral has reduced the area needed for a computer installation 2. coordination, coordinate, coordinated, coordinating, coordinator a. The control unit of a processor…………. The flow of information between the arithmetic unit and the memory b. ……………….the many activities in a computer department is the job of the department head c. The…………… of a language institute has assistants to help him and may have access to a computer to help him with the………… many programs, timetables, space and student results. 3. Diagram, diagrammatic, diagrammatically, diagrammed a. Very often manufacturers provide …………… representations of the internal workings of a computer. b. A …………….. is a drawing that shows how something is arranged rather than what it actually looks like. c. A few ideas have been ……………… for you in this book. 4. interchange, interchangeable, interchangeably, interchanged a. The word “ arithmetic- logic” and “ arithmetic- logical” can be used. b. There is often an …………. of ideas among computer scientists. - 24- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương c. There is a big difference between an input and output. These can’t be ……………… 5. division, divide, divisible a. It is often difficult for computer science students to…………. Their time up proportionally between studying and programming. b. Are all numbers…………… by three? c. There is always a…………….. of labor within a computer company. 6. a. Content review Match the words in column A with the appropriate statement in column B A B 1. hardware a. The computer 2. software b. Input/output and secondary 3. processor memory devices 4. peripherals c. Short for central processing unit 5. systems software d. Physical electronic and 6. applications electromagnetic devices. software e. Hardware plus software 7. turnkey systems f. Hardware/software packages 8. computer systems g. Used for a specific job 9. CPU h. Direct the computer i. The programs 6. b.Use the following diagram which shows the relationship between the system and its parts to complete the paragraph. A computer system consists of two components:…………… and ……………. Each component is subdivided into different parts. The Central Processing Unit and the………….. constitute the ………… component. Systems software and…………… comprise the …………… component. Devices that are used for secondary storage are considered part of the ………… component. These devices along with Input and Output devices are referred to as…………. devices. 7. Translate into English: Kỹ thuật máy tính có thể chia thành 2 lĩnh vực: kỹ thuật phần cứng và kỹ thuật phần mềm. Phần cứng bao gồm toàn bộ các thiết bị vật lý của máy tính như: bộ xử lý, bộ nhớ, các thiết bị vào và các thiết bị ra,……Nâng cao tốc độ tính toán, tăng dung lượng bộ nhớ, giảm thể tích, giảm trọng lượng của máy……… là những mục tiêu đặt ra cho kỹ thuật phần cứng. Phần mềm là các chương trình để điều khiển máy tính làm việc, phục vụ cho những nhu cầu hết sức đa dạng của người sử dụng. Làm cho máy tính ngày càng “thông minh”, càng dễ sử dụng, giúp đỡ ngày càng có hiệu quả cho con người trong mọi lĩnh vực hoạt động, đó là mục tiêu của công nghệ phầm mềm. Với tốc độ phát triển như hiện nay của kỹ thuật phần cứng và kỹ thuật phần mềm, chắc chắn trong một tương lai không xa chúng ta sẽ được chứng kiến và sử dụng những chiếc máy tính điện tử vô cùng “ thông minh” thuộc vào thế hệ thứ 5 - 25- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương - 26- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 5: MICROCOMPUTERS < 1> The early 1970s saw the birth of the microcomputer, or micro for short. The central processor of the micro, called the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor device; that is, the thousands of individual circuit elements necessary to perform all the logical and arithmetic functions of a computer are manufactured as a single chip. A complete microcomputer system is composed of a microprocessor, a memory and peripheral equipment. The processor, memory and electronic controls for the peripheral equipment are usually put together on a single or on a few printed circuit broads. Systems using microprocessors can be hooked up together to do thee work that until recently only minicomputer systems were capable of doing. Micros generally have somewhat simpler and less flexible instruction sets than minis, and are typically much slower. Different micros are available with 4-,8-,12-, 16- bit word lengths, and some new ones use 32- bit chips. Similarly, minis are available with word lengths up to 32 bits. Although minis can be equipped with much larger primary memory sizes, micros are becoming more powerful and converging wit minicomputer technology. < 2> The extremely low price of micros has opened up entirely new areas of application for computers. Only 20 years or so ago, a central processing unit of medium capability sold for a few hundred thousand dollars ( U.S), and now some microprocessors sell for as cheaply as $ 10. Of course, by the time you have a usable microcomputer system, the price will be somewhere between $ 200 and $ 5000 depending on the display unit, secondary storage, and whatever other peripherals are heeded < 3> The available range of microcomputer systems is evolving more rapidly than minicomputers. Because of their incredibly low price, it is now possible to use only a small fraction of the computer’s capability in a particular system application and still be far ahead financially of any other way of getting the job done. For example, thousands of industrial robots are in use today, and the number is growing very rapidly as this relatively new industry improves the price and performances of its products by using the latest microcomputers. < 4 > Microcomputer software is developing rapidly and it now covers a tremendous range of applications. As well as data processing, software can also be written for specialized tasks even as complex as navigating rockets. Some modern micros are even capable of multi-tasking. In addition to their extensive use in control systems of all types, they are destined for many new uses from more complex calculations to automobile engine operation and medical diagnostics. They are already used in automobile emission control systems and are basic of many TV game attachments. There is also a rapidly growing market for personal computers whose application potential in education is only just beginning to be exploited. - 27- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương < 5> It would seem that the limits for microcomputer applications have by no means been reached. There are those who predict that the home and hobby computer markets, and the education market, will grow into multi-billion of microprocessors could well increase ten- fold before 1990 while prices for micros could decrease by as much * Vocabulary: Mainframe: Minicomputer: For short: Microprocessor: Individual: Chip: To compose: Printed circuit board: To hook: Flexible: Set: Instruction set: Available: Word: Word length: Up to: To equip: To converge: Extremely: To open up: Secondary storage: To elvolve: Financially: máy tính cỡ lớn máy tính cỡ trung bình, máy mini gọi tắt là bộ vi xử lý riêng rẽ, riêng biệt chip bao gồm bảng mạch in móc nối, móc vào mềm dẻo, linh hoạt tập hợp tập hợp lệnh đã có, có sẵn để dùng từ (máy) chiều dài từ máy tới, lên tới trang bị hội tụ, hoà nhập cực kỳ, hết sức mở ra bộ nhớ phụ, thiết bị lưu trữ phụ phát triển, tiến hoá về phương diện tài chính, xét về mặt tài chính người máy đang được sử dụng tương đối bao phủ, bao trùm điều khiển, lái ( tàu biển, tên lửa) tên lửa, rốc két đa nhiệm, làm nhiều công việc đồng thời ngoài (thuộc về) y học, y tế sự chuẩn đoán, chuẩn bệnh thiết bị phụ trợ đi kèm tiềm năng khai thác Robot: To be in use: Relatively: To cover: To navigate: Rocket: Multi-tasking: In addition to: Medical: Diagnotics: Attachment: Potential: To exploit: - 28- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương To seem: To reach: By no means: To predict: Hobby: Enterprise: Decade: Ten-fold: To increase: To decrease: As much: hình như, có vẻ như là đạt được, đạt tới hoàn toàn không, hoàn toàn chưa tiên đoán, dự đoán sở thích riêng lĩnh vực, ngành kinh doanh thập kỷ, thời kỳ 10 năm gấp 10 lần tăng lên giảm xuống nhiều như thế * Grammar notes: I/ It would seem that the limits for microcomputer applications have by no means been reached. Dường như người ta hoàn toàn chưa đạt tới giới hạn máy vi tính * By no means: -Không tí nào, hẳn không, tuyệt nhiên không * Ví dụ: - She is by no means poor, in fact, she's quite rich. Bà ta không nghèo tí nào, bà ta rất giàu - These goods are by no means satisfactory Những hàng hoá này chẳng thoả đáng chút nào II/ There are those who predict that the home and hobby computer markets and the education market, will grow into multi- billion dollar enterprises within a decade or so: - Có những người tiên đoán rằng thị trường máy tính gia đình và giải trí và thị trường giáo dục, sẽ phát triển thành những công ty hàng tỷ đô la trong vòng 10 năm hoặc chừng khoảng như vậy " Those " là đại từ thay thế danh từ đứng trước đại từ quan hệ Ví dụ: - Those who don't wish to go need not go. Những người không muốn đi thì không cần đi - All those that I saw were old. Tất cả những người mà tôi thấy đều già cả * Exercises: 1/ Main ideas Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? 1. ……….Microcomputers will be everywhere in the future. 2. ……….There is no limit to what microcomputers an do. 3. ……….Microcomputers are cheap, reliable and efficient. 4. ……….Microcomputers are far superior to minicomputers. 2/ Understanding the passage Indicate whether the following ideas are stated or not stated ( S/NS) in the text 1. ………….Microcomputers were developed after minicomputers - 29- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 2. 3. 4. 5. ………….The processor of a microcomputer is printed on a chip. ………….A mainframe uses more power than a microcomputer. .................Microcomputers can do the work done by minicomputers ………….Microcomputers have the same memory capacity as minicomputers and can be hooked up to a variety of peripherals. 6. ………….Microcomputers are cheaper than minicomputers. 7. …………..Many different types of industries are using microcomputers to do their work. 8. ………….Microcomputers are now used in sophisticated toys and games. 9. ………….Because of microminiaturization, mainframes now occupy less space. 10.………….By the end of this century microcomputers will be cheaper, better and probably used in every aspect of life. 3/ Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references. ……………1/ Microcomputers can do work that until quite recently was done by minicomputers ……………2/ Microcomputers are mainly used for single- purpose jobs. ……………3/ The integrated circuitry of a microcomputer has been reduced to a minicomputers. ....................4/ Microcomputer technology will continue to improve ……………5/ Microcomputers are smaller, simpler and less flexible than minicomputers. ……………6/ Microcomputers are a recent development in computer technology. ……………7/ Microcomputer systems are increasing faster than minicomputers. …………….8/ In the future, microprocessors will be cheaper, and their capacity and performance will be greater. 4/ Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1........... that until recently (l.9) 2........... Because of their incredibly low price(l. 6) 3........... this relatively new industry ( l.7) 4........... performance of its products( l.8) 5........... it now covers( l.12) 6........... in addition to their extensive use ( l.13) 7........... they are designed for many new uses ( l.18) 8........... they are already used ( l.19) 9........... whose application potential ( l.20) 10. ........ who predict that ( l.25) - 30- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 5/ Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentence. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1. completion, complete, completely, completed a. When you've………….this book, you should have a basic knowledge of computers and how they operate. b. There are car manufacturing plants that are ………operated by robots. c. A…………….microcomputer system has a microprocessor, a memory and peripheral equipment. 2. simple, simplify, simply, simplest, simpler a. Microcomputers are usually………….to operate b. A microcomputer may be…………..to operate than a minicomputer. c. Using a computer to control the payroll will……….......matters for many companies. 3. Flexibility, flexible, flexibly, flex a. Because of their …………… microcomputers are becoming more popular than minicomputers. b. Minicomputers have a more …………….. set of instructions than microcomputers. 4. finance, financial, financially, a. The ...................implications of leasing a computer may be less than owning one. b. Companies often borrow huge sums of money to ………….large-scale projects to computerize their business. c. ………………speaking, a microcomputer is more affordable than a minicomputer. 5. education, educational, educationally, educated a. There are many…………................. institutes that teach computer programming. b. It is possible that by the year 2000, a well.................person will have to a good knowledge of computer science. c. There are many field of…………….. today that use computers as teaching tools. 6/ a. Content review Try to think of a definition for each of these items before checking them in the Glossary. Then complete the following statements with the appropriate words. ( Some can be used more than once). Make sure you use the correct form, i.e, singular or plural. microcomputer semiconductor chip microprocessor circuit board primary memory minicomputer micro memory 1.................are often referred to as.................... for short. 2. A.............. system is composed of a................................ and peripheral equipment. - 31- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 3. The.................... of a microcomputer is usually built as a single ....................... device known as a.................................. 4. Microcomputers have small......................... and can't hooked up to as many peripherals as........................ 5. A few ................... are normally used for the processor, memory and electronic controls of peripherals for microcomputers. 6 b/ Translate into English Có 3 loại máy tính điện tử đang được sử dung ngày nay: máy tính cỡ lớn, máy tính cỡ trung bình và máy vi tính. Tuy nhiên ranh giới phân chia các loại máy tính nói trên cũng chỉ là tương đối, một máy vi tính hiện đại ngày nay còn mạnh hơn cả một máy tính lớn chế tạo một hai chục năm trước đây. Năm 1980 công ty máy tính IBM của Mỹ quyết định thành lập một nhóm nghiên cứu đặc biệt để chế tạo các máy vi tính mà họ gọi là máy PC ( Máy tính cá nhân Personal computer). Chiếc máy PC đầu tiên của IBM được bán vào năm 1981 và nó đã trở thành 1 chuẩn cho ngành công nghiệp sản xuất máy vi tính khắp thế giới. Từ đó tới nay đã có tới 100 triệu máy tính cá nhân do IBM và các hãng khác sản xuất được bán ra trên thị trường. Ưu điểm chính của máy vi tính là giá rẻ, kích thước nhỏ, gọn nhẹ, dễ sử dụng trong khi sức mạnh tính toán tăng lên không ngừng. Ngày nay, nhiều công ty lớn đang sử dụng các máy vi tính để chạy những chương trình ứng dụng quan trọng của họ, điều mà 10 năm trước đây, không ai tin là có thể làm được trên một máy vi tính. Chính sự ra đời của máy vi tính là nguyên nhân chính dẫn đến việc ứng dụng rộng rãi tin học trong hầu khắp các lĩnh vực của xã hội hiện đại. - 32- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 6. THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT < 1> It is a common practice in computer science for the words ' computer' and ' processor' to be used interchangeably. More precisely, ' computer' refers to the central processing unit ( CPU) together with an internal memory. The internal memory or main storage, control and processing components make up the heart of the computer system. Manufacturers design the CPU to control and carry out basic instructions for their particular computer. < 2 > The CPU coordinates all the activities of the various components of the computer. It determines which operations should be carried out and in what order. The CPU can also retrieve information from memory and can store the results of manipulations back into the memory unit for later reference. < 3 > In digital computer the CPU can be divided into Two functional units called the control unit ( CU) and the arithmetic- logical unit ( ALU). These two units are made up of electronic circuits with millions of switches that can be in one of two states either on or off. < 4 > The function of the control unit within the central processor is to transmit coordinating control signals and commands. The control unit is that portion of the computer that directs the sequence or step- by- step operations of the system, selects instructions and data from memory, interprets the program instructions, and control the flow between main storage and the arithmeticlogical unit < 5 > The arithmetic- logical unit, on the other hand, is that portion of the computer in with the actual arithmetic operations, namely, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation, called for in the instructions are performed. It also performs some kinds of logical operations such as comparing or selecting information. All the operations of the ALU are the direction of the control unit < 6 > Programs and the data on which the control unit and the ALU operate, must be in internal memory in order to be processed. Thus, if located on secondary memory devices such as disks or tapes, programs and data are first loaded into internal memory. < 7 > Main storage and CPU are connected to a console, where manual control operations can be performed by an operator. The console is an important, but special purpose, piece of equipment. It is used mainly when the computer is being started up, or during maintenance and repair. Many mini and micro systems do not have a console. * Vocabulary Practice Common practice thực hành điều thông thường, điều thường làm, điều phổ biến - 33- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương To interchange Interchangeably Precisely Internal memory To make up To retrieve Memory unit Reference Later Unit Functional unit Control unit Arithmetic- logical unit Portion To interpret Flow To call for To load Operator Maintenance Console Input/output Peripheral devices Drive trao đổi, đổi lẫn cho nhau lẫn cho nhau một cách chính xác bộ nhớ trong tạo nên, tạo thành đi tìm, tìm được bộ nhớ sự tham khảo về sau, sau này đơn vị, bộ phận, khối khối chức năng bộ điều khiển, đơn vị điều khiển bộ số học và lô gic phần, bộ phận dịch, phiên dịch luồng, dòng, dòng chảy dòng tín hiệu đòi hỏi, gọi tới, cần đến nạp ( chương trình ) vào, chuyển vào người điều khiển, nhân viên điều khiển sự bảo trì ( thiết bị) bàn điều khiển devices các thiết bị vào/ ra các thiết bị ngoại vi ổ đĩa * Grammar note I/It is common practice in computer science for the words " computer" and " processor" to be used interchangeably Trong khoa học máy tính các thuật ngữ ' máy tính' và ' bộ xử lý' thường hay được sử dụng lẫn cho nhau " It": Là chủ ngữ giả, chủ ngữ thật là: For the words " computer" and " processor" to be used interchangeably . Đây là cấu trúc nguyên thể với " For" ( For- Infinitive construction) Ví dụ: - It's a shame for him to spend so much money for clothes= For him to spend so much money for clothes is a shame Thật xấu hổ cho anh ta đã dùng nhiều tiền vào quần áo như vậy - It is difficult for him to understand the pattern = For him to understand the pattern is difficult Để anh ta hiểu mẫu câu đó thì thật khó II/ If located on secondary memory devices such s disks or tapes, programs and data are first loaded into internal memory Nếu đặt trong các thiết bị nhớ phụ như đĩa hoặc băng từ, tì trước tiên chương trình và dữ liệu được đưa vào bộ nhớ trong - 34- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương " If located"= If programs and data are located( chủ ngữ được hiểu ngầm) Ví dụ: - If requested, I shall go with you Nếu được yêu cầu, tôi sẽ đi cùng anh - If distilled, water will become tasteless Nếu được cất, nước sẽ không còn mùi vị * Exercises: Ex 1: Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices? ...............1. Main storage is not a part of the processor ...............2. The CPU is made up of the control unit, the arithmetic- logical unit and internal memory ...............3. The CPU is composed of the arithmetic- logical unit and control unit only. Ex 2: Understanding the passage Decide whether the following ideas are true or false ( T/F) by referring to information in the text. Then make the necessary changes so that statements become true 1. ………….The central processing unit is made up of three components 2. ………….The CPU is responsible for all the activities taking place within a computer 3. ………….The processor itself has three components. 4. .................The control unit directs the flow of information within the processor 5. ………….The arithmetic- logical unit of the processor is responsible for the interpretation of program instructions. 6. ………….The arithmetic- logical unit is also responsible for choosing and comparing the appropriate information within a program. 7. …………..The processor can't operate on any information if that information isn't in main storage. 8. ………….Secondary memory and internal memory are located in the same place in the computer system. 9. ………….Only after the data has been processed by the CPU can results be transmitted to an output device. 10.………….Computers can solve problems more quickly if they operate on new information. Ex 3: Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references. ……………1/ The processor is the control unit and the arithmetic- logical unit ……………2/ The processor operates on information that is in internal storage. ……………3/ The CPU directs all the activities of the computer - 35- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương ....................4/ The control unit coordinates the sequencing of events within the processor. ……………5/ The word "computer" usually refers to the CPU plus internal memory. ……………6/ The CPU can get information from memory and put old or new information back into memory. ……………7/ The arithmetic- logical unit does the calculations and decisionmaking operations. Ex 4: Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1. ............ for their particular computer (l.6) 2. ............ It determines which operations (l. 8) 3. ............ These two units are made up of( l.12) 4. ............ that can be in one of two states( l.13) 5. ............ that directs the sequence( l.17) 6. ............ in which the actual arithmetic operations ( l.13) 7. ............ It also performs some kind of ( l.18) 8................on which the control unit and arithmetic-logical unit operate ( l.19) 9. ............ where manual control operations ( l.20) 10............ It is used mainly when the computer ( l.25) Ex 5: Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentence. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1. function, functional, functionally a. Learning to program is a………….part of any course in computer science. b. The central processing unit has many ………. c. In order for the computer to…………….properly, there should be no fluctuation in the electric current. 2. sequence, sequential, sequentially a. The control unit of the CPU directs the………….operations of the system b. Data must be presented…………..to the processor unless the computer is programmed otherwise. c. A program must be a detailed account of the……….......the processor must follow to solve the problem. 3. Logic, logical, logically a. To be a good programmer, one must be …………… in one approach to a problem. b. The …………….. operations performed by the arithmetic-logical unit are under the control of the control unit. c. A program must be ................ organized if successful results are to be obtained 4. connection, connect, connected, connective a. On- line equipment is usually........................... to the computer. - 36- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương b. Malfunctioning equipment can often be attracted to a bad electrical ………….. c. Whether one is writing computer science related information or not, the use of……………… is very important. 5. computer, compute, computerized, computed, computation a. The banking industry has become more and more……................. b. It is a fact that human can't.................as fast as ................. c. The…………….. requirements necessary to produce the payroll for a large company take a very long time Ex 6: Translate into English Một máy vi tính bao gồm các bộ phận chính sau đây: bộ xử lý trung tâm (CPU), bộ nhớ, các thiết bị vào/ ra và các thiết bị ngoại vi khác nhau. Các bộ phận chính nói trên liên kết chặt chẽ nhưng độc lập với nhau và thường được ghép chung để làm gọn nhẹ hệ thống, chẳng hạn như các ổ đĩa thường được ghép liền vào bộ phận trung tâm thành một khối. Bộ xử lý trung tâm bao gồm hai bộ phận: bộ điều khiển, có nhiệm vụ điều khiển các tín hiệu, các lệnh và bộ số học và lôgic, có nhiệm vụ thực hiện các phép toán số học và lôgic. Bộ xử lý trung tâm là bộ phận quan trọng nhất của máy tính, chịu trách nhiệm điều khiển mọi hoạt động của hệ thống. Chính bộ xử lý trung tâm của một máy tính điện tử sẽ quyết định tốc độ và khả năng xử lý thông tin của máy tính đó. Các máy vi tính sử dụng phổ biến hiện nay có CPU thuộc loại 775 hoặc 945 - 37- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 7. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MEMORY <1> The term " memory" is usually used to refer to the internal storage locations as a computer. It is also called real storage or primary, and is expressed as quantities of K. For example, computers are advertised as having memories of 16 K is equal to 1,024 bytes, and each byte is equal to 8 bits. Some modern computers measure their memory in megabytes (Mb) - a megabyte is equal to 1048576 bytes. <2> Primary memory is closely associated with the CPU because it stores programs and data temporarily, thus making them immediately available for processing by the CPU. To facilitate processing, 2 things are needed: random access and speed. The former means that any part of the memory may be read, or accessed, equally quickly. This is made possible by the system of addresses in primary memory, where the storage locations are like a series of tiny compartments, each having its own address. These addresses are like the addresses of houses in that they don’t change. Because they are always fixed, the control unit knows where to find them at a very high speed. When it finds them, it puts into the compartments whatever must go there and wipes out whatever was stored there. The information present in these compartments is called the contents of the memory. <3 > Most primary memory is costly, and therefore it is used transiently, which means that a program, or parts of it, is kept in internal storage while the program is being executed. This, however, is not true for mini and micro applications where the computer performs the same function, referred to as a dedicated function, all the time. But since computers must process vast quantities of data and programs, a lot of storage space is required. For this reason various secondary memory technologies have been developed. <4 > Secondary memory devices fall into two categories: sequential devices and random - access devices. Sequential devices permit information to be written on to or read off some storage medium in a fixed sequence only. In order to get at a particular data item, it is necessary to pass over all the data preceding it. An example of such a device is the magnetic tape. Its cost is low, but access to specified data may take a considerable length of time. On the other hand, random- access devices are designed to permit direct or almost direct, access to specified data. These devices bypass large quantities of irrelevant data and therefore reduce access time considerably. An example of this technology is the magnetic disk, which is faster than the magnetic tape and also more expensive. When disks are hooked up to the computer and used as an extension of internal storage on order to increase the capacity of primary memory, this is called virtual storage. For example, a computer with 256K bytes of real storage may seem to have 512K bytes of virtual storage by using disks to provide additional storage. The memory size of computers is increasing as memory chips become cheaper - 38- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương * Vocabulary: Primary Secondary Internal Internal memory Storage To advertise Capacity Storage capacity Equal To measure To associate Temporary Temporarily To facilitate Random Random access Address Location Compartment Fixed To wipe To wipe out Content Costly Transient To dedicate Dedicated Space Storage space To fall into Sequence Sequential To pass over To precede Random-access device To bypass Irrelevant To extend Extension Virtual Virtual storage Additional chính, chủ yếu phụ, thứ yếu trong, bên trong bộ nhớ trong sự lưu trữ, bộ nhớ quảng cáo dung lượng dung lượng nhớ, khả năng lưu trữ bằng đo lường gắn với, gắn liền với tạm thời, lâm thời một cách tạm thời làm cho dễ dàng, làm cho thuận tiện ngẫu nhiên, tình cờ truy cập ngẫu nhiên địa chỉ vị trí, sự định vị, sự định vùng ngăn, gian cố định, không thay đổi lau chùi xoá hết đi, quét sạch đi nội dung ( thường dùng ở số nhiều) tốn kém, đắt tiền tạm thời, ngắn ngủi, nhất thời, thoáng qua cống hiến, dâng hiến, dành cho dành riêng, được dành riêng cho không gian không gian nhớ được chia thành ( trong bài) sự tuần tự, sự liên tiếp nhau tuần tự, liên tiếp nhau duyệt qua, đi qua đi trước, đứng trước thiết bị truy cập ngẫu nhiên bỏ qua, không để ý đến không liên quan mở rộng ra, vươn rộng ra sự mở rộng, phần mở rộng ảo bộ nhớ ảo thêm, phụ thêm, bổ sung - 39- Memory chip Random Access Memoryl Read- Only Memory English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương chip nhớ bộ nhớ truy cập ngẫu nhiên, bộ nhớ RAM bộ nhớ chỉ đọc, bộ nhớ RAM * Grammar notes: I. This is made possibly by the system of addresses in primary memory, where the storage locations are like a series of tiny compartments, each having its own address: Điều này có thể thực hiện được nhờ hệ thống địa chỉ trong bộ nhớ chính, ở đó các vị trí lưu giữ giống như một dãy các ngăn nhỏ, mỗi ngăn có một địa chỉ riêng của nó " Each having its own address" là cụm từ tuyệt đối ( absolute phrase). Cấu trúc này gồm danh từ hoặc đại từ và một phần từ dùng độc lập với bất kỳ thành phần nào trong câu, nhưng nó có liên quan với câu về ý nghĩa. Đặc điểm của cấu trúc này là chủ ngữ của động từ đã được chia trong câu phải khác với chủ ngữ của phân từ. Cấu trúc này còn có tên gọi khác là ( absolute participial construction: Cấu trúc tuyệt đối phân từ) Ví dụ: The sun having risen, the travaller went away from the hotel: Mặt trời đã mọc, người du khách bèn rời khách sạn. His master being absent, the business was neglected Ông chủ của nó vắng nhà, công việc bị sao nhãng The holiday being over, we must now get on with our studies Ngày nghỉ đã qua, bây giờ chúng ta phải tiếp tục học tập II. Most primary memory is costly, and therefore it is used transiently, which means that a program, or parts of it, is kept in internal storage while the program is being executed Phần lớn bộ nhớ chính đắt tiền và do đó được sử dụng nhất thời, điều này có nghĩa là chương trình, hay các phần của chương trình, được lưu giữ ở bộ nhớ trong khi chương trình đang thực hiện " Which " trong câu là đại từ quan hệ thay thế cho cả một câu, Tiếng Việt thường dịch là" Điều mà, việc đó". Trong trường hợp này, trước " Which" bao giờ cũng có dấu phẩy Ví dụ: - He could swim, which saved his life Anh ta có thể bơi, điều đó đã cứu mạng anh ta - He told me to shut the door, which I hard already done Ông bảo tôi đóng cửa, việc đó tôi đã làm rồi - If he comes, which is not likely, I'll tell him at once Nếu ông ta đến, điều mà không có gì là chắc chắn, tôi sẽ bảo ông ấy ngay * Exercise: 1. Main idea Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? - 40- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương .....................1. There are 2 types of memory: primary and secondary .....................2. Primary memory is more important than secondary memory .....................3. Secondary memory devices are unimportant in a computer system 2. Understanding the passage Indicate whether the following ideas are stated or not stated ( S/NS) in the text 1. ………….The term ' memory' can be expressed in other ways 2. ………….Cmputers are often advertised according to their memory capacity. 3. ………….The CPU can easily eccess information from internal storage. 4. .................Minicomputers and microcomputers have a similar memory capacity 5. ………….The control unit needs to know the location where information is stored or needs to be stored. 6. ………….Primary memory is more expensive than secondary memory. 7. …………..There are 2 types of secondary memory device. 8. ………….Information stored on magnetic disk can be retrieve faster than if that same information were on tape. 9. ………….Disks and types can be stored in a library 10.………….Computers can process information even if complete programs are not put in internal storage. 3. Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expresses. Give line references. ……………1/ Speed and random access are important in processing information ……………2/ Random-access are important in processing information. ……………3/ The CPU and primary memory work closely together. ....................4/ Virtual storage increases the memory capacity of a computer ……………5/ Real storage, internal storage, and primary memory are all the same. ……………6/ Information is stored in memory in compartments with a specific location ……………7/ There are 2 classes of secondary memory device. …………….8/ Only parts of programs are kept in primary storage while a program is being run through. 4. Contextual reference Look back at the text and find out what the words in bold typeface refer to. 1.............. It is also called(l.2) 2.............. depending on their storage capacity(l.4) 3.............. thus making them ( l.8) 4.............. the former means that ( l. 10) 5.............. where the storage locations( l.12) 6.............. each having its own address ( l.13) - 41- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương 7.............. in that they don't change ( l.14) 8.............. where to find them ( l.15) 9.............. whatever must go there ( l.16) 10. ........... or part of it ( l.20) 5. Word forms First choose the appropriate form of the words to complete the sentence. Then check the differences of meaning in your dictionary. 1. expression, expressive, express, expressed a. Information sent via a computer is faster than using the......................... system os airlines or postal services. b. An ………... such as " He or she has a computer for a brain" means that he or she is a fast- thinking person. c. Computers understand commands…………….in the form of 0 and 1 2. equality, equal, equally, equalize a. The symbol # means that 2 thing are not...................... b. A microcomputer doesn't………….. a microcomputer in flexibility. c. The 2 computer languages Pascal and PL1 are……….......difficult. 3. consideration, consider, considerable, considerably a. There is a …………… difference between written and spoken English. b. It is important to …………….. the capabilities and limitations of a computer before buying one. c. New printers can print results....................... faster than previously. 4. design, designed, designation, designer, designing a. Due to the advances in computer technology, computer................. are faced with a more challenging job. b. Computers are …………. to process information accurately and quickly. c. Computer architects are constantly trying to improve on the ......................of computers. 5. advertisement, advertise, advertised a. There are many computer- related jobs…………................. in the New York Times. b. The Computer Center will soon................. for more operation and programmers. c. Career opportunities in computer science and relates fields can usually be found in the…………….. section of newspapers.. 6. Translate into English Bộ nhớ trong là thiết bị đặc biệt để lưu trữ dữ liệu và chương trình. Như ta đã biết, máy tính điện tử chỉ có thể xử lý thông tin theo chương trình một khi cả dữ liệu và chương trình đã nằm trong bộ nhớ trong của máy tính. Bộ nhớ trong của máy tính điện tử được chia thành 2 loại: Bộ nhớ truy nhập ngẫu nhiên, gọi tắt là RAM, và bộ nhớ chỉ đọc, gọi tắt là ROM. Người sử dụng có thể đọc thông tin từ RAM hoặc viết thông tin vào RAM, nhưng bộ nhớ RAM không lưu trữ được thông tin lâu dài. Khi 1 chương trình đã nằm trong RAM đã thực hiện xong thì 1 chương trình mới có thể được sao chép vào RAM, thay thế cho - 42- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương chương trình cũ. Đối với dữ liệu cũng tương tự. RAM là nơi lưu trữ dữ liệu và chương trình của người sử dụng - 43- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương Unit 8. TYPE OF MEMORY < 1 > As mentioned previously, one of the most important characteristics of a computer is its capability of storing information in its memory long enough to process it. Not all computers have the same type of memory. In this section, three types of memory will be discussed: core memory, semiconductor memory ( or chip ), and bubble memory < 2 > The memory of the first computers was made up of a kind of gird of fine vertical and horizontal wires. At each intersection where the wires crossed, there was a small ferrite ring called a core ( hence the name “ core memory”) which was capable of being either magnetized or demanetized. Every intersection had its unique address; consequently, when an electrical current was passed through the wires, the magnetized as well as the unmagnetized cores were identified by their respective addresses. Each core represented a binary digit of either 0 or 1 , depending on its state. Early computers had a capacity of around 80,000 bits; whereas now, it is not surprising to hear about computers with a memory capacity of millions of bits. This has been made possible by the advent of transistors and by the advances in the manufacture of miniaturized circuitry. As a result, mainframes have been reduced in both size and cost. Throughout the 1950s, 1960, and up to the mid- 1970s, core memory dominared the market, but it is now obsolete < 3 > In the 1970s, there was a further development which revolutionized the computer field. This was the ability to etch thousands of integrated circuits into a inty piece ( chip) of silicon, which is a non- metallic element with semiconductor characteristics. Chips have thousands of identical circuits, each one capable of storing one bit. Because of the very small size of the chip, and consequently of the circuits etched on it, electrical signals do not have to travel far; hence, they are transmitted faster. Moreover, the size of the components containing the circuitry can be considerably reduced, a step which has led to the introduction of both minis and micros. As a result, computers have become smaller, faster, and cheaper. There is one problem with semiconductor memory, however: when power is removed, information in the memory is lost- unlike core memory, which is capable of retaining information during a powerful failture < 4 > Another development in the field of computer memories is bubble memory. The concept consists of creating a thin film of metallic alloys over the memory board. When this film is magnetized, it produces magnetic bubbles, the presence or absence of which represents one bit of information. These bubblesb are extremely tiny, about 0.1 micrometer in diameter. Therefore, a magnetic bubble memory can store information at a great density than existing memories, which makes it small in size, and are highly reliable. There is probably a lot more to learn about them, and research in this field continues - 44- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương * Vocabulary Previous Bubble Bubble memory Core Core memory Grid Wire Vertical Horizontal Intersect Intersection Ring To identify Respective Early Advent To dominate To revolutionize Element To consist of Film Alloy Metallic To consume trước, trước đó bong bóng, bọt, tăm bộ nhớ bọt từ lõi, nhân bộ nhớ lõi từ lưới dây điện (kim loại) đứng, thẳng đứng ngang, nằm ngang cắt ngang, cắt chéo sự cắt nhau, sự giao nhau nhẫn, vòng nhận dạng, nhận ra riêng từng người, tương ứng sớm, ban đầu sự xuất hiện, sự ra đời thống trị, chiếm phần lớn cách mạng hóa nguyên tố (hóa học), nhân tố gồm có, bao gồm màng, lớp màng mỏng phủ bên trên hợp kim thuộc kim loại tiêu thụ, dùng * Grammar notes I/ There was a small ferrite ring called a core which was capable of being either magnetized or demagnetized Có một vòng ferrit nhỏ gọi là lõi có khả năng hoặc là bị nhiễm từ hoặc là bị khử từ 1. To be capable of doing something: Có khả năng làm gì Eg: - He is capable of running a mile in 4 minites - He’s quite capable of lying to get out of trouble 2. Either …………or…………. Either John or Alec will go with you Either you or I am to do it II/ Each core rerpresented a binary digit of either 0 or 1, depending on its state “ Depending on” là phân tử I làm chức năng trạng ngữ chỉ tình huống kèm theo Eg: - Gwendolen was silent, again looking at her hands - Our teacher is standing at the blackboard, writing some new words * Exercise Ex 1: Main idea Which statements don’t express the main idea of the text? - 45- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương ……………….1. Core memory was the first type of computer memory developed …………….…2. There are at least three different kinds of memory used in computers ……………….3. Bubble memory is the latest development in computer memory Ex 2: Understanding the passage: T/ F ....................... 1. The first important function of a computer is to hold information in its memory in order to process it ....................... 2. Minicomputers, microcomputers, and mainframes all have the same kind of memory ....................... 3. Semiconductor memory was developed before core memory and after bubble memory ....................... 4. Core memory uses small metal rings which can be magnetized or unmagnetized ....................... 5. The state of the core can be represented by either 0 or 1 ....................... 6. Early computer memories had less storage capacity than newer ones ....................... 7. A transistor and a chip are the same kind of device ....................... 8. The development of chips made it possible for minicomputers and microcomputers to be invented ....................... 9. Bubble memory is smaller than a chip ....................... 10. Bubble memory doesn’t have very many advantages Ex 3: Locating information Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed. Give the line references. ....................... 1. First there is cory memory ....................... 2. Further to this development, chips evolved ....................... 3. There are three types of memory ....................... 4. This consist of producing a thin film over a memory board ....................... 5. Then semiconductor memory was developed ....................... 6. There is still a lot to learn about this process ....................... 7. This is made up of thin wires and rings ....................... 8. Finally, bubble memory was invented Ex 4: Word form 1/ alteration, alter, altered a. When a program doesn’t work properly,it is often necessary to make………..to it b. The omission of data from a program can………….its result drastically c. The use of the computer in business has…………….the workload of many people 2/ electricity, electric, electrical, electrically a. A lot of……………. Is needed to operate large computer systems. b. Alexander Graham Bell invented the ………….. light bulb. - 46- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương c. Many students today are studying to become…………………engineers 3/ reduction, reduce, reduced a. The introduction of the computer in the workplace has……………… the workload of many people b. There will probably be a great……………. in the consumption of oil in the next decade due to the use of computer technology. 4/ creation, create, created, creative a. A programmer usually has a …………….as well as a logical mind b. It takes a lot of inspiration and hard work to come up with a new……………..in computer technology c. Computers have certainly………….new opportunities for fraud. Ex 5: Translate into English Cũng như RAM, ROM là phần của bộ nhớ trong để lưu trữ thônh tin nhưng khác với RAM, thông tin trong ROM được duy trì vĩnh viễn,chúng không bị xoá đi ngay cả khi mất nguồn điện. Người sử dụng có thể đọc thông tin trong ROM, nhưng không thể ghi thông tin mới vào hoặc sửa đổi thông tin tại đó. Trong ROM lưu trữ các chương trình điều khiển các hoạt động cơ sở của máy tính. Chúng được ghi vào đó ngay trong quá trình sản xuất bằng các công cụ chuyên dụng. Trong qua trình làm việc hệ điều hành cũng như các chương trình ứng dụng có thể truy cập tới ROM để sử dụng các chương trình cơ sở được lưu trữ sẵn tại đó - 47- English for informatics students By: Trịnh Thị Thu Hương * REFERENCES 1. Nguyễn Tường Luân, Lê Đức Mẫn (1997), English for students of informatics; Nhà xuất bản Hải Phòng 2. Raymond Murphy (1995) English grammar in use; Cambridge University Press. 3. Glen dinning, E.and McEvan,J, (1999), Basic English for Computing, Oxford University Press. - 48-
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