Background report for asian development bank strategy and road map for agricultural science and technology in viet nam

  • Số trang: 281 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 14 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
tranphuong

Đã đăng 58976 tài liệu

Mô tả:

Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam ADB RSC C31072 - VIE Background Report for Asian Development Bank March 2003 AGRIFOOD CONSULTING INTERNATIONAL ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam Preface This project report1 is an analysis of the current situation, needs, and potential mediumand long-term strategies to develop agricultural research and extension in Viet Nam. The report provides a long-term road map for agriculture research and extension assistance and it will be used as a basis for the development of a forthcoming ADB technical assistance, which will in turn be used as a basis for a proposed investment loan in Agricultural Science and Technology. Specifically, the study collected relevant secondary information and data on the current organization and medium- and long-term plans for agricultural research and extension. The study undertook a consultative process with stakeholders to outline a vision for the future direction of agricultural research and extension, identify constraints to future development of agricultural research and extension and develop a preliminary set of strategies and roadmap for development of the research and extension system. The fieldwork for the study was carried out over four weeks in January and February 2003. The study involved the analysis of background data, key informant interviews, and focus group meetings with international NGOs, bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, government officials, and research institutes involved in agricultural research and technology in Viet Nam. The report is the result of a joint effort by the Study Team of Francesco Goletti, Dominic Smith and Tim Purcell from Agrifood Consulting International. The Study Team would like to thank all those people who assisted in providing information and help in completing the report. In particular, the team would like to express their appreciation to Dr. Nguyen Van Bo, Director of the Department of Science, Technology and Product Quality (DSTPQMARD) for his availability and encouragement and Mr. Nguyen Viet Hai from DSTPQ for his excellent support and sharing of information. Translation and interpretation services were provided by Mrs. Doan Bich Thuan, Mrs. Duong Thi Kim Lien and Mr. Nguyen Van Bang. The views expressed in this report are those of the consultants and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Asian Development Bank or the Government of Viet Nam. Francesco Goletti President, Agrifood Consulting International Ha Noi, Viet Nam 17 March 2003 Agrifood Consulting International 1 To be cited as: Agrifood Consulting International (2003) Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam. ADB RSC C31072-VIE. Background Report for Asian Development Bank. Agrifood Consulting International, Ha Noi, Viet Nam (March 2003). www.agrifoodconsulting.com 2 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam Table of Contents Preface ................................................................................................................................2 Table of Contents ................................................................................................................3 List of Tables .......................................................................................................................6 List of Figures ......................................................................................................................8 List of Boxes ........................................................................................................................9 List of Acronyms and Abbreviations...................................................................................10 Executive Summary...........................................................................................................12 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................19 2 Background and Methodology ....................................................................................22 3 A Long Term Vision for Agricultural Research and Extension ....................................24 3.1 Long Term Prospects for the Agricultural Sector in Viet Nam and the Implications for Agricultural Research and Extension ........................................................................25 3.2 A Vision for Agricultural Research and Extension ...............................................28 3.2.1 Elements of Vision for Agricultural Research ...................................................28 3.2.2 Elements of Vision for Agricultural Extension...................................................30 4 The Current Situation with Agricultural Research in Viet Nam....................................32 4.1 The Structure of Agricultural Research in Viet Nam ............................................32 4.1.1 Coordination and Management........................................................................34 4.2 Programs and Projects in Agricultural Research .................................................37 4.2.1 MOST Programs in Agricultural Research .......................................................37 4.2.2 MARD Programs in Agricultural Research .......................................................37 4.3 Funding and Financing for Agricultural Research................................................38 4.4 Plans, Policies and Legislation in Agricultural Research and Extension..............41 4.4.1 Planning and Program Documents ..................................................................41 4.4.2 Restructuring Documents ................................................................................41 4.4.3 Other Relevant Legislation...............................................................................42 4.5 Capacity in Agricultural Research........................................................................44 4.6 Recent Developments in Agricultural Research and Extension...........................45 4.6.1 ADB Policy Loan for Agricultural Sector Development.....................................45 4.6.2 Competitive Grant System in MARD................................................................47 4.6.3 Block Funding for Institutes under MARD ........................................................47 4.6.4 Restructuring Plans for Research Institutes under MARD ...............................48 4.7 Issues in the Agricultural Research and Extension System.................................49 4.7.1 Capacity ...........................................................................................................49 4.7.2 Equipment and Facilities..................................................................................50 4.7.3 Institutional Mechanisms..................................................................................51 5 Constraints in the Agricultural Research and Extension System ................................53 5.1 Monitoring and Evaluation ...................................................................................53 5.2 Equipment ...........................................................................................................54 5.3 Organization ........................................................................................................54 5.4 Methodology ........................................................................................................55 5.5 Incentives ............................................................................................................55 5.6 Capacity ..............................................................................................................55 5.7 Private Sector Involvement..................................................................................56 6 Strategies for Agricultural Science and Technology ...................................................57 6.1 Incentives, Monitoring and Evaluation .................................................................57 6.2 Equipment and Facilities .....................................................................................58 6.3 Capacity ..............................................................................................................58 6.4 Organization of Research Activities.....................................................................59 www.agrifoodconsulting.com 3 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam 6.5 Private Sector Involvement..................................................................................59 7 A Roadmap for Agricultural Science and Technology Investment ..............................61 8 Conclusions ................................................................................................................66 9 Tables.........................................................................................................................69 10 Figures ....................................................................................................................90 11 Boxes ......................................................................................................................95 Terms of Reference ...........................................................................................................97 References and Bibliography.............................................................................................99 Appendix A Background Document for Focus Groups...............................................105 Appendix A.1 Research Focus Group...........................................................................105 Appendix A.2 Extension Focus Group ..........................................................................109 Appendix B Tranche Conditions for ADB Science and Technology Policy Loan........113 Appendix C Selected Legislation................................................................................118 Appendix C.1 Decree 73/CP (1 November 1995) On the Establishment of MARD ...118 Appendix C.2 Decision No. 782-TTg (24 October 1996) On the Organization of Research & Development Agencies in Science and Technology ....................................121 Appendix C.3 Resolution 120-NQ-BCS (30 November 2001) On Restructuring the Research System 125 Appendix C.4 Resolution No. 16/2000/NQ-CP (18 October 2000) On Reduction of Payroll in Administrative Agencies and Public-Service Units ...........................................130 Appendix C.5 Decision 132/1999/QD-BNN-HTQT (22 September 1999) On the Management of External Fund Sources ..........................................................................135 Appendix C.6 Decision 40/1998/QD-BNN/VP (2 March 1998) Working Regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development..........................................................142 Appendix C.7 Circular 19/1999/TT-TCCP (June 30, 1999) International Cooperation and Administrative Reform...............................................................................................150 Appendix C.8 Decree 17/2001/ND-CP (4 May 2001) Regulation on the Management and Use of Official Development Assistance ...................................................................153 Appendix C.9 Law No 21/2000/QH10 (June 9, 2000) on Science and Technology...168 Appendix C.10 Regulation N2464 QĐ/BNN-KNCN (28 June 2002) On the Selection of Research Units for 2002-2005 Research Programs ........................................................185 Appendix C.11 List of National Research Programs in 2003 .......................................194 Appendix D Details of Selected Research Organizations...........................................195 Appendix D.1 Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) .....195 Appendix D.2 Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) ................206 Appendix D.3 Agricultural Genetics Institute..............................................................208 Appendix D.4 Can Tho University, Can Tho ..............................................................210 Appendix D.5 Forest Science Institute of Viet Nam ...................................................213 Appendix D.6 Ha Noi Agricultural University..............................................................220 Appendix D.7 Hue Agricultural University ..................................................................221 Appendix D.8 Institute of Agricultural Economics ......................................................222 Appendix D.9 Institute of Agricultural Science of Southern Viet Nam ........................223 Appendix D.10 National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection ....................225 Appendix D.11 National Institute of Animal Husbandry ...............................................229 Appendix D.12 National Institute for Science and Technology Policy and Strategic Studies 242 Appendix D.13 National Institute of Veterinary Research ............................................245 Appendix D.14 Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry ............................247 Appendix D.15 University of Agriculture and Forestry, Ho Chi Minh City.....................248 Appendix D.16 Viet Nam Agricultural Science Institute ...............................................249 Appendix D.17 Viet Nam Institute of Agricultural Engineering .....................................253 Appendix D.18 Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research..............................255 www.agrifoodconsulting.com 4 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam Appendix E Appendix E.1 Appendix E.2 Appendix F Organizational Charts .............................................................................266 Organization Charts of MARD ................................................................266 Organization Charts of DARD.................................................................273 Interview Minutes and Transcripts Annex ...............................................277 www.agrifoodconsulting.com 5 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam List of Tables Table 1 Global Public Agricultural Research Expenditures, 1976-95.................................69 Table 2 Estimated Global Public and Private Agricultural R&D Investments, circa 1995...69 Table 3 MARD Research Institutes in Viet Nam ................................................................70 Table 4 MARD Research Institutes in Viet Nam (Cont.) ....................................................71 Table 5 MARD Research Institutes in Viet Nam (Cont.) ....................................................72 Table 6 Other Agricultural Research Institutes in Viet Nam ...............................................72 Table 7 MARD Research Institutes by Sub-Sector ............................................................73 Table 8 MARD Research Organizations ............................................................................74 Table 9 Public Spending on Agricultural Research in Selected SE Asian Countries, 199974 Table 10 Sources of Research Funding for Selected Institutes, 1996-1998 ......................74 Table 11 MARD Expenditure on Agricultural Extension.....................................................74 Table 12 Research Funding in Viet Nam by Sub-Sector....................................................75 Table 13 Research Funding in Viet Nam by Selected Agricultural Indices ........................76 Table 14 Government Budget for Agricultural Science and Technology - MARD Institutes ...................................................................................................................................76 Table 15 Personnel and Budget Data for MARD Agricultural Research System, December 2000............................................................................................................................77 Table 16 MARD Agricultural Science and Technology Budget, by Program, 2000 - 2003 78 Table 17 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research Institutes, Year 2000 ......................79 Table 18 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research Institutes, Year 2001 ......................80 Table 19 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research Institutes, Year 2002 ......................81 Table 20 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research Institutes, Year 2003 ......................82 Table 21 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research Institutions, 2000-2003...................83 Table 22 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research, Top 15 Non-Institute Organizations, 2000-2003 ..................................................................................................................84 Table 23 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research, Top 15 Non-Institute Organizations, 2000-2003 (Cont.).......................................................................................................85 Table 24 Budget Allocation for Agricultural Research, Top 15 Non-Institute Organizations, 2000-2003 (Cont.).......................................................................................................86 Table 25 Staffing Levels for Selected MARD Research Organizations, 2003....................87 Table 26 Percentage of Degree Holders Engaged in Research by Sub-Sector, 1999.......88 Table 27 Age Distribution of MARD Agricultural Researchers, 2000 .................................88 Table 28 Types of Staff at NIAH, By Academic Level (1999).............................................88 Table 29 Age Distribution of Permanent Staff, NIAH (1999) ..............................................88 Table 30 Types of Staff at NIAH, 2002 ..............................................................................89 Table 31 MARD Ministerial Programs Research Program Areas, 2002-2005 ...................89 Table 32 CARD 2000 - Successful Proposals .................................................................206 Table 33 Card 2000/01 - Successful Proposals...............................................................207 Table 34 Sister Relationships between Can Tho University and Foreign Institutions ......211 Table 35 Can Tho University International Cooperation Projects ....................................212 Table 36 Details of Research Programs for FSIV, 2002 ..................................................215 Table 37 Details of Conferences and Workshops Organized by FSIV, 2002...................217 Table 38 FSIV Staff Training in 2002 ...............................................................................217 Table 39 International Cooperation Projects with FSIV, 2002..........................................218 Table 40 Training Courses for NIAH Staff, 2002..............................................................231 Table 41 Conferences and Workshops held by NIAH, 2002............................................231 Table 42 List of Articles Published by NIAH in 2002........................................................240 Table 43 List of Articles Published by NIAH in 2001........................................................241 Table 44 Number of Research Programs under VASI .....................................................250 www.agrifoodconsulting.com 6 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam Table 45 Conferences held by VASI, 2002 ......................................................................250 Table 46 International Cooperation by VASI, 2002..........................................................251 Table 47 Training of VASI Staff, 2002 .............................................................................252 Table 48 Publications of VASI, 2002 ...............................................................................252 Table 49 2002 National Level Research Programs for Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research ................................................................................................259 Table 50 2002 National Level Research Programs for Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research, Cont.......................................................................................260 Table 51 2002 Ministerial Level Research Programs for Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research ................................................................................................261 Table 52 2002 Ministerial Level Research Programs for Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research, Cont.......................................................................................262 Table 53 2002 International (Protocol) Research Programs for Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research ................................................................................................263 Table 54 Conferences Organized by Viet Nam Institute of Water Resources Research in 2002..........................................................................................................................263 Table 55 International Cooperation Projects with Viet Nam Institute for Water Resouces Research, 2002 ........................................................................................................264 Table 56 Viet Nam Institute of Water Resources Research Staff Training Courses in 2002 .................................................................................................................................265 www.agrifoodconsulting.com 7 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam List of Figures Figure 1 Implementation Steps for a Roadmap for Agricultural Science and Technology .65 Figure 2 Process for the Development of the Agricultural Science and Technology Report ...................................................................................................................................90 Figure 3 Distribution of MARD Research Institutes (Headquarters) in Viet Nam ...............91 Figure 4 Distribution of MARD Research Institutions (Headquarters and Centers) in Viet Nam ............................................................................................................................92 Figure 5 Flow of Funds to Research Institutes from Central Level ....................................93 Figure 6 Sources of Funding for Agricultural Research Institutes ......................................94 Figure 7 Organization of the Forest Science Institute of Viet Nam (FSIV) .......................219 Figure 8 Faculty and Staffing Structure for Hanoi Agricultural University ........................220 Figure 9 Organization Chart for National Institute of Agricultural Planning and Projection .................................................................................................................................228 Figure 10 Organizational Structure of National Institute of Animal Husbandry ................229 Figure 11 Organizational Structure of Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research .................................................................................................................................258 Figure 12 Organization Chart of MARD, Year 2000.........................................................266 Figure 13 Organization Chart of MARD, Year 2000, Cont. ..............................................267 Figure 14 Organization Chart of MARD, Year 2000, Cont. ..............................................268 Figure 15 Organization Chart of MARD, Year 2000, Cont. ..............................................269 Figure 16 Organization Chart of MARD, Year 2000, Cont. ..............................................270 Figure 17 Organization Chart of MARD, Year 2000, Cont. ..............................................271 Figure 18 Organization Chart of MARD, Year 2000, Cont. ..............................................272 Figure 19 Organization Chart of DARD – Vinh Phuc .......................................................273 Figure 20 Organization Chart of DARD – Son La ............................................................274 Figure 21 Organization Chart of DARD – Dak Lak ..........................................................275 Figure 22 Organization Chart of DARD – Thanh Hoa ......................................................276 www.agrifoodconsulting.com 8 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam List of Boxes Box 1 Functions and Responsibilities of the Department of Science, Technology and Product Quality ...........................................................................................................95 Box 2 Strategies for Agricultural Research and Extension in Viet Nam .............................96 www.agrifoodconsulting.com 9 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam List of Acronyms and Abbreviations ACIAR ADB ASPS AusAID CIAT CSIRO DANIDA DASTM FAO GOV HTYVN IAH IFPRI IRRI JICA MARD MOET MOF MOLISA MOST NISTPASS SOE VBARD VLA VLSS WB Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Asian Development Bank Agriculture Sector Programme of Support (of DANIDA) Australian Agency for International Development Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia) Danish International Development Agency Department of Agricultural Science and Technology Management (of MOST) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Government of Viet Nam Animal Health Association of Viet Nam Institute of Animal Health International Food Policy Research Institute International Rice Research Institute Japan International Cooperation Agency Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Ministry of Education and Training Ministry of Finance Ministry of Labour, War Invalids and Social Affairs Ministry of Science and Technology National Institute for Science and Technology Policy and Strategic Studies State Owned Enterprise Viet Nam Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development Viet Nam Livestock Association Viet Nam Living Standards Survey World Bank Acronyms of Departments Under MARD DAD District Agricultural Division DAFE Department of Agricultural and Forestry Extension DAH Department of Animal Health DARD (Provincial) Department of Agricultural and Rural Development DARDP Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Policy DFA Department of Finance and Administration DPP Department of Planning and Projection DSTPQ Department of Science, Technology and Product Quality OPD Organization and Personnel Department www.agrifoodconsulting.com 10 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam Acronyms of Research Institutes Under MARD AGI Agricultural Genetics Institute BRDC Bee Research and Development Centre CAMT Centre for Agricultural Machinery Testing CLDRRI Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute CRC Ba Vi Coffee Research Centre CSCR Central Sericulture Research Centre FCRI Food Crops Research Institute FIPI Forest Inventory and Planning Institute FSIV Forest Science Institute of Viet Nam IAE Institute of Agricultural Economics IAS Institute of Agricultural Science of Southern Viet Nam ICARD Information Centre for Agriculture and Rural Development ISCR Institute for Sugarcane Research IWRP Institute for Water Resources Planning NCIDB National Centre for Inspection of Drugs and Bio-Products NCVESC National Centre for Variety Evaluation and Seed Certification NIAH National Institute of Animal Husbandry NIAPP National Institute for Agricultural Planning and Projection NIPP National Institute for Plant Protection NISF National Institute for Soils and Fertilizers NIVR National Institute for Veterinary Research NMRI National Maize Research Institute PHTI Post-Harvest Technology Institute RIFAV Research Institute for Fruits and Vegetables RRIV Rubber Research Institute of Viet Nam SFRI Southern Fruit Research Institute SIWRR Southern Institute for Water Resources Research TRIV Tea Research Institute of Viet Nam VASI Viet Nam Agricultural Science Institute VIAE Viet Nam Institute for Agricultural Engineering VIWRR Viet Nam Institute for Water Resources Research WASI Western Highlands Agro-Forestry Scientific and Technical Institute www.agrifoodconsulting.com 11 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam Executive Summary Viet Nam will have to make more effective use of science and technology in the future in order to promote agricultural diversification from food crops to high value crops, livestock, and fisheries, and quality improvements comparable with neighboring countries and trade competitors. The Government intends to increase investments in agricultural science and technology, focusing on the application of new technology for higher economic efficiency. The Government is keen to increase the role of private research and extension and universities for a longer-term strategy in agricultural science and technology. It is important to realize at the outset that a long term vision for agricultural research and extension involves longer term periods than the current 5-year or 10-year plans of the government of Viet Nam. The needed adjustments in the research, extension, and market information systems are large and are expected to require a decade to reach a point where a major increase in the output of new technology can be expected. The job will require restructuring the entire system and training a large staff, and will require a blueprint prepared at the outset by MARD staff, drawing on experienced international and domestic consultants. This process will be undertaken in a proposed forthcoming Technical Assistance Project slated to commence in 2003. The current study is an analysis of the current situation, needs, and potential medium- and long-term strategies to develop agricultural research and extension in Viet Nam. The study aims at providing a long-term road map for agriculture research and extension assistance and it will be used as a basis for the development of the forthcoming technical assistance, which will in turn be used as a basis for the proposed investment loan in Agricultural Science and Technology. A road map for agricultural science and technology implies a sense of direction. The road map should facilitate the identification of policies, investments, and institutions required to move the agricultural research and extension system from the current state to a desired state in the future. The identification of strategies and plans also depends on the conceptualization of such desired state in the future. Specifically, the study collected relevant secondary information and data on the current organization and medium- and long-term plans for agricultural research and extension. The study undertook a consultative process with stakeholders to outline a vision for the future direction of agricultural research and extension, identify constraints to future development of agricultural research and extension and develop a preliminary set of strategies and roadmap for development of the research and extension system. A Vision for Agricultural Research and Extension Systems In consultation with stakeholders, a vision for agricultural research and extension systems in the long term (greater than 20 years) was formulated. The vision for agricultural research contains several elements: • • Research targeted towards needs of smallholder households as well as commercial farms Increased involvement of private sector in research www.agrifoodconsulting.com 12 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam • • • • • • • Private and Public Research will cater for different clients Increased emphasis on research for agroindustrial enterprises Research catering for diversification and intensification of agriculture Research should cater for a modern, highly competitive agriculture. Focus should be on quality Research should concentrate on development of an internationally linked agriculture sector Research should develop standards for increased commercialization Research topics should be tailored to different needs Similarly, the vision for agricultural extension contains several elements: • • • • • • • • • Public extension services focused on disadvantaged households Extension services should become a comprehensive advisory service Increased use of farmer associations and voluntary extension services Facilitate access to credit Provide a basket of opportunities and methodologies Provision of unbiased advice Development of an adaptive, learning and accountable extension service Development of a private sector (user-pays) extension service Strengthen extension service linkages with research system and private sector Issues in the Agricultural Science and Technology System Capacity of Researchers and Extensionists The capacity of researchers and extension workers can have a significant impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of the work that they undertake. A number of factors influence the level of capacity within the agricultural research and extension systems in Viet Nam. These include the limited resources of the education system, limited opportunities for ongoing study and access to latest research results, limited opportunities for undertaking studies abroad and the employment structure of research institutions. In the extension system, many extension workers at the district level have a strong technical capacity in their field of specialization. However, the extension worker often has to provide advice and assistance in areas outside their field of specialization. In addition, the training that many extension workers receive in vocational school or University does not generally include training on methods of extension. Equipment and Facilities Without adequate facilities and equipment it is difficult for researchers, no matter their capacity, to effectively undertake research. However, the amount and quality of facilities and equipment is highly variable between different institutions. In common with the variable distribution of facilities, the amount of equipment and the standard of equipment utilized by institutions are also highly variable. Often, the provision of equipment to institutions is linked with their involvement with multilateral or bilateral www.agrifoodconsulting.com 13 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam projects, with the project including a component providing equipment to the partner institution. However, the relatively short-term and non-coordinated nature of much bilateral assistance means that in many cases, equipment provision has been linked to specific project objectives, rather than to an institutional plan for development of equipment availability. Institutional Mechanisms The problems with institutional mechanisms have a number of significant impacts on the current operation of the system, including • • • • • • • • A dispersed and fragmented research system; Poor integration of research programs and a lack of connectivity with the rest of the world; Duplication of research efforts and a lack of research project priorities; Weak responsiveness to markets requirements and opportunities; Top-down approach to research and weak mechanisms for innovation; Limited responsiveness to the needs of farmers; Excessive focus on production issues rather than system or value chain issues; and Lack of effective networks and access to information about research results. Constraints in the Agricultural Science and Technology System Monitoring and Evaluation While the capacity for monitoring and evaluation is high, there are not clear incentives for evaluation to be undertaken objectively. Many of the members of the committee undertaking evaluation belong to research institutes and are themselves involved in research activities. Peer reviewers are under social pressures to evaluate the results of their peers favorably, as they may well have their results reviewed by the same peers. The criteria and standards for evaluating research effectiveness are not clear, and are often are developed in an ad-hoc manner. In the absence of clearly established criteria, evaluation of performance and monitoring becomes confused and cannot be effective. In terms of extension results, monitoring and evaluation is still focused on inputs (such as material supplies and number of training courses), rather than quality of service. Equipment and Facilities The amount of equipment and the standard of equipment utilized by institutions and extension services is highly variable and is often linked with their involvement with multilateral or bilateral projects. However, in many cases, equipment provision has been linked to specific project objectives, rather than to an institutional plan or research system-wide plan for development of equipment availability. Extension services are chronically under funded in terms of equipment, lacking transportation, fuel, training materials and resources to do their jobs effectively. www.agrifoodconsulting.com 14 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam Organization Often the terms of reference of the research institutes and centers are not clearly defined. This ambiguity of functions can lead to duplication of research efforts, with several research organizations undertaking research activities that have similar or identical programs and aims. The restructuring of the organization of the research system is constrained by the fact that there is institutional resistance within research organizations to a perceived loss of power and status that may accompany the merging process. The structure of most research organizations is overly bureaucratic, with the structure within an institute replicating the structure of MARD. Methodology Research planning is currently a top-down process. This priority-setting process has little or no involvement of the clients of research and may result in research activities being undertaken that have little or no practical value for the agriculture sector as a whole. Incentives The low levels of salary and the lack of opportunities for performance-based pay incentives means that staff in research institutes and extension services do not have strong incentives to perform their research and extension tasks to full capacity. Capacity Many research and extension students are unable to benefit from learning about the latest technical and methodological techniques in their field. There are limited opportunities for researchers to develop links with overseas researchers, or to undertake study overseas. While researchers are taught technical skills, they often have weak capacity for conducting, planning and managing research activities. Provincial extension service providers are tasked with creating their own extension materials, but often lack the capacity and resources to do this properly. Further, while extension personnel are very often subject matter specialists, they often do not have formal training in extension methodologies. A Strategy for Agricultural Science and Technology Incentives, Monitoring and Evaluation • • • • Implementation of an appropriate incentive structure to reward good research Transparent evaluation and monitoring of research Establishment of a monitoring and evaluation secretariat Establishment of monitoring and evaluation protocols for research Equipment and Facilities www.agrifoodconsulting.com 15 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam • • Needs assessment for equipment and facilities Inventory of existing equipment and facilities Capacity • Needs assessment of staff capacity Organization • • • Mechanisms to improve coordination Strengthen procedures for developing priorities and research projects Incentives to increase collaboration between researchers and institutions Private Sector Involvement • • • Strengthen Intellectual Property Rights Encourage private sector research through tax incentives Private sector access to government funds through the competitive bidding process A Roadmap for Agricultural Science and Technology Step 1. Consultative process with policymakers and stakeholders to identify a preliminary set of desired outcomes for the change process in agricultural research and extension Undertake consultative process with policymakers and stakeholders to identify a preliminary set of desired outcomes for the change process in agricultural research and extension. These desired outcomes should be compared with the current situation in the agricultural research and extension system. Step 2. Consultative process with policymakers and stakeholders to arrive at a preliminary identification of perceived constraints to change in the system Undertake consultative process with policymakers and stakeholders to arrive at a preliminary identification of perceived constraints to change in the system. These constraints should be categorized in terms of capacity, facilities/equipment and institutional mechanisms. Step 3. Detailed inventory of human resource capacity within the research and extension system Undertake detailed inventory of human resource capacity within the research and extension system. This inventory should be comprehensive, and include all research institutes and other organizations involved in agricultural research and extension. The analysis of human resource capacity should be based on a systemic approach, whereby the research and extension institutions are viewed as components of a complete system. Step 4. Detailed inventory of facilities and equipment within the research and extension system Undertake detailed inventory of facilities and equipment within the research and extension system. This inventory should be comprehensive, and include all research institutes and www.agrifoodconsulting.com 16 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam other organizations involved in agricultural research and extension. The analysis of facilities and equipment should be based on a systemic approach, whereby the research and extension institutions are viewed as components of a complete system. Step 5. Detailed analysis of the institutional mechanisms of agricultural research and extension systems Undertake a detailed analysis of the institutional mechanisms of agricultural research and extension systems. This analysis should concentrate on identifying positive and negative outcomes of the institutional processes and identifying potential bottlenecks to improved efficiency of the system. Step 6. Detailed analysis of alternative policy options Undertake a detailed analysis of possible alternative policy options for developing the agricultural research and extension systems. These policies could include such elements as strengthening of intellectual property rights, taxation incentives and other methods of encouraging private sector involvement in the system. As part of this process, alternative options for individual and institutional incentive schemes should be canvassed, within the framework of developing an effective monitoring and evaluation system. Step 7. Consultative development of formal set of goals for the agricultural research and extension system Based on the detailed analyses of the current situation of the system, a formal set of goals for development of the agricultural research and extension system should be developed in a consultative manner. These goals should be based on the development of an integrated system, rather than statements of desired number of projects or expenditure targets. Step 8. Evaluation of the expected levels of investment in the system The expected levels of investment in the system (including funds from government expenditure, bilateral projects and multilateral lending) should be evaluated, to provide a basis for informed decision making about the scope for investments in the system. This would include private sector investment expected to become available if adequate incentives and policies are set in place to encourage that investment. Step 9. Development of an investment framework and timetable The information about the current status of human resource capacity, equipment and facilities and institutional mechanisms, combined with the formalized vision for the system and the information about the funds available for investment can be used as a basis to develop an investment framework and timetable. Rather than necessarily concentrating on a particular form of investment or investment in a particular institution, the framework should consist of a series of investment “packages” aimed at achieving a set systemic objective within a particular timeframe. The investment package could consist of investment in training (to increase human capacity), investment in facilities and equipment and investments designed to facilitate improvements to institutional mechanisms (such as investments to develop committee secretariats and the development of appropriate monitoring and evaluation protocols). The www.agrifoodconsulting.com 17 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam objectives should be specified to give a logical progression towards achieving the ultimate vision of the research and extension system. At this stage an effective system of monitoring and evaluation of research and extension should be developed. This will facilitate the process of development of research and extension and will allow the progress of development to be tracked. Step 10. Adaptation of strategies and goals based on achieved results At the conclusion of each of the series of investment “packages” the format of the longterm vision and the subsequent investment packages should be re-evaluated in light of the actual performance of the investment package and any changes in conditions and available investment funding. www.agrifoodconsulting.com 18 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam 1 Introduction Viet Nam’s agriculture has grown rapidly in recent decades to move the country from food deficit to food surpluses. Underlying this agricultural growth were market-oriented policies, large public investments in irrigation, rural infrastructure, rural credit, and smallholder development programs. To a lesser extent, agricultural research and extension investments (including input subsidies and demonstration models) have played a role in increasing the productivity of agriculture. Despite national food surpluses, widespread poverty and hunger remain; particularly in remote and mountainous regions. This is because the growth of agriculture and the national economy have not adequately benefited the poor and disadvantaged. Viet Nam is undertaking policy reforms to liberalize the economy. This should improve the terms of trade for agriculture and promote greater private investment. However, policy reform alone will not be enough to increase agricultural growth and to make it more equitable. Policy reforms must be accompanied by appropriate investments in public goods, such as agricultural research and extension, in order to maximize the potential for growth and poverty alleviation. However, the current period of policy reform is accompanied by budgetary constraints that motivate careful rationing of public investment funds, making it increasingly important to assess the economic rates of return to agricultural research and other public investments. There is a perception that there are diminishing marginal returns to agricultural research because the “easiest” gains from the Green Revolution have already been reaped through the rapid spread of high yielding varieties (HYV), leading to high levels of HYV adoption and high input use in many regions of Viet Nam (Rosegrant and Pingali, 1994; Evenson, Pray et al., 1999). However, this perception ignores the vast literature on the contribution of agricultural research to total factor productivity, and the continuing returns to agricultural research in the post-Green Revolution era. The critical importance of effective agricultural research to the development of the agricultural sector has been shown by numerous international studies2. Internationally, public investments in agriculture are declining, and increasing shares of total public expenditures on agriculture have been allocated to budgetary support to the agricultural sector, input subsidies, and transfers, rather than to productivity-enhancing investments. This has been particularly so in the case of Viet Nam until recently3. The 2 See (Busch and Bingen, ; Hobbs, Bentancour et al., ; ISNAR, ; Evenson, 1968; Evenson and Jha, 1973; Kahlon, Bal et al., 1977; Nagy, 1985; Khan and Akbari, 1986; Pardey and Craig, 1989; Rubeiro, 1989; Evenson and McKinsey, 1991; Evenson and Pray, 1991; Pardey, Roseboom et al., 1991; Pray, Riberio et al., 1991; Morris, Dubin et al., 1992; Rosegrant and Evenson, 1992; Byerlee, 1993; Byerlee and Moya, 1993; Rosegrant and Pingali, 1994; Kumar, Rosegrant et al., 1995; Kumar and Rosegrant, 1997; Evenson, Pray et al., 1999; Fan, Hazell et al., 1999; Beintema and Pardey, 2001; Pardey and Beintema, 2001; Janssen, 2002; Perry, Randolph et al., 2002) as examples. 3 World Bank (2000b, Annex D pg 62) notes that agricultural subsidies and transfers in Viet Nam in 1998 amounted to 195 billion dong, which is 2.25 times the amount allocated to agricultural research institutes in that year (see Table 14). Of the amount going to subsidies and transfers, 65 billion dong went to www.agrifoodconsulting.com 19 ADB RSC C31072-VIE / Strategy and Road Map for Agricultural Science and Technology in Viet Nam balance between input subsidies and long-term investments will be a crucial policy question as Viet Nam proceeds with economic and agricultural reform. Given the ongoing reform process, the concern over sources of future agricultural productivity growth, and the continuing debate over subsidies and transfers versus investments in agriculture, it is important to highlight the contribution of agricultural research to agricultural productivity growth. Because of the long lags between agricultural research investments and the resulting increases in production, Viet Nam’s ability to meet the agricultural challenges of the next two decades will depend critically on the investments that are made today (Pardey and Craig, 1989; Pardey and Beintema, 2001). In addition to the need to invest in agricultural research in order to increase agricultural productivity, Viet Nam will have to make a more effective use of science and technology in the future in order to promote agricultural diversification from food crops to high value crops, livestock, and fisheries, and quality improvements comparable with neighboring countries and trade competitors. Policy reforms under the recently approved Agriculture Sector Policy Loan from ADB (Asian Development Bank, 2002b) will address constraints in agricultural research, extension, and market information and analysis. Reforms in these institutions will facilitate investments in human resources and infrastructure that will enable them to contribute more significantly to agricultural growth. The Government intends to increase investments in agricultural science and technology, focusing on the application of new technology for higher economic efficiency. The Government is keen to increase the role of private research and extension and universities for a longer-term strategy in agricultural science and technology. The needed adjustments in the research, extension, and market information systems are large and are expected to require a decade to reach a point where a major increase in the output of new technology can be expected. The job will require restructuring the entire system and training a large staff, and will require a blueprint prepared at the outset by MARD staff, drawing on experienced international and domestic consultants. This process will be undertaken in a proposed forthcoming Technical Assistance Project slated to commence in 2003. The goals of the proposed Technical Assistance Project and the ensuing investment loan are to: 1. Intensify and diversify agricultural production, 2. Increase farm incomes, and 3. Reduce rural poverty. resettlement programs, 31 billion dong to crops, 23 billion dong to livestock, and 21 billion dong to irrigation. This represented 17.7 percent of total current expenditures and 4.2 percent of total public expenditures in agriculture in 1998. According to World Bank (2000b, Annex D pg 61), current expenditure in 1998 consisted of expenditures on goods and services (64 percent), salaries and wages (15 percent), subsidies and transfers (18 percent) and other uses (3 percent). A large proportion of the expenditure on goods and services could be considered as budgetary support to the agricultural sector, even though not officially considered as such. www.agrifoodconsulting.com 20
- Xem thêm -