Applying role-play in increasing student’ interest in learning speaking to grade 11 students at lai vung 2 high school

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STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP I declare that my thesis entitles: “Applying role-play in increasing student’ interest in learning speaking to grade 11 students at Lai Vung 2 high school” is the result of my own work, submitted in the fulfillment for the requirements of the B.A degree. Except where the reference is indicated, no others person's work has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis. The author Le Dinh Mai Thao i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS During the process of carrying out the study, I have received a large amount of contribution and support from many people. First, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, M.A. Ngo Ai Tuong, for her enthusiastic and useful guidance, insightful comments, and encouragement without which my thesis would not have been completed. Second, my special thanks go to all of the teachers in Foreign Language Department who provided me with necessary help as well as good suggestion whenever I got into trouble. Next, I am grateful to the teachers of English, who answered my questionnaire and interviewing questions, especially, Ms. Trinh Thi Hong Cam and Mr. Vo Minh Trung, who allowed me to carry out my observation and the students at Lai Vung 2 High school for what they have done to help me finish the thesis. Last but not least, I would like to express my special thanks to my family, my friend and so many others who have given me constant support and love during the completion of the study. Le Dinh Mai Thao ii ABSTRACT Using role-play activity is an effective way that helps to increase students' interest in learning speaking. When applying role-play, students are set into an interesting talking environment, therefore, they can be activated to talk as more as possible .The study about applying role-play in increasing students' interest in learning speaking is carried out to identify how students interest in learning speaking as well as role-play activity. Data used for analysis in this study is mainly collected through survey questionnaires, through observation of two classes whose teachers have applied this activity and through direct interviewing. One of the prominent results from data analysis is that students at Lai Vung 2 High school really interest in learning speaking whenever applying role-play. The usefulness and difficulties of applying this activity are mentioned in this thesis. Some solutions for overcoming these difficulties are also suggested. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP ............................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................... ii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... iii TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................. iv LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................... vii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................1 1.1. Motivation for the study ......................................................................................1 1.2. Aims of the study ..................................................................................................2 1.3. Research methods .................................................................................................2 1.4. Scope of the study .................................................................................................2 1.5. Significance of the study ......................................................................................2 1.6. Previous related studies .......................................................................................2 1.7. Organization of the study ....................................................................................3 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ..............................................................4 2.1 Teaching and learning English speaking skill ....................................................4 2.1.1 Communicative language teaching approach – an effective language teaching method........................................................................................................................4 2.1.1.1 Definition of communicative language teaching approach .......................4 2.1.1.2 The goal of communicative language teaching approach ..........................4 2.1.2 The way of learning English speaking effectively ...........................................5 2.2 Role-play in teaching speaking .............................................................................6 2.2.1 Definition of role-play ......................................................................................6 2.2.2 The steps for role-play activity .........................................................................7 2.2.3 The significance of role-play in teaching speaking ........................................10 2.2.4. The teacher‟role in this activity. ....................................................................10 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ...................................................................12 3.1 Research questions: .............................................................................................12 3.2. Research participants .........................................................................................12 3.2.1. The researcher ................................................................................................12 iv 3.2.2. The subjects ...................................................................................................12 3.3. Research procedure ............................................................................................12 3.4. Data collection instruments ...............................................................................12 3.4.1. Survey questionnaires ....................................................................................13 3.4.2. Observations ..................................................................................................13 3.4.3. Interview ........................................................................................................14 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .................................................16 4.1. Results analysis ...................................................................................................16 4.1.1. Questionnaires ...............................................................................................16 4.1.1.1. Questionnaire for students ......................................................................16 4.1.1.2. Teacher questionnaire .............................................................................31 4.1.2. Interviewing ...................................................................................................41 4.1.2.1. Teachers' interviewing ............................................................................41 4.1.2.2. Students' interviewing .............................................................................42 4.1.3. Observation ....................................................................................................43 4.1.3.1. The first observed class ...........................................................................43 4.1.3.2. The second observed class ......................................................................44 4.2. Discussion ............................................................................................................46 4.2.1. Research question 1: What attitude do teachers and students have toward learning speaking English and role-play activities? ................................................46 4.2.1.1. Students' attitude toward learning speaking English. .............................46 4.2.1.2. Teachers and students' attitude toward role-play activities. ...................46 4.2.2. Research question 2: What are the effectiveness and difficulties of applying role-play? .................................................................................................................47 4.2.2.1. The effectiveness of applying role-play. .................................................47 4.2.2.2. The difficulties of applying role-play. ....................................................47 4.2.3. Research question 3: What should be done to overcome the difficulties of applying role-play? ..................................................................................................48 4.2.3.1. The advices for teachers. .........................................................................48 4.2.3.2. The advices for students ..........................................................................48 v CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION .............................................................................50 5.1. Overview of the thesis ........................................................................................50 5.2. Limitations of the thesis .....................................................................................50 5.3. Suggestions for further research .......................................................................51 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ I APPENDIX 1 .................................................................................................................III QUESTIONNAIRE ...................................................................................................III APPENDIX 2 .................................................................................................................. V BẢNG CÂU HỎI ........................................................................................................ V APPENDIX 3 ................................................................................................................ IX OBSERVATION SHEET ........................................................................................ IX vi LIST OF TABLES Tables of students'questionnaire analysis Table 1: Students' attitude about speaking English .........................................................16 Table 2: Students' thought about learning speaking .......................................................17 Table 3: Students' speaking ability..................................................................................18 Table 4: The frequencies of teachers' applying role-play ...............................................19 Table 5: Students' thought about the way that teachers apply role-play .........................20 Table 6: Students' thought about role-play activities ......................................................21 Table 7: Students' opinion about the profit of participating in role-play .....................22 Table 8: Students' benefits when participating in role-play activities ............................23 Table 9: Students' interest in their role...........................................................................24 Table 10: Students' advantages when participating in role-play activities .....................25 Table 11: Student's difficulties when participating in role-play activities .....................26 Table 12: The students' preferences about the topics of role-play activities .................27 Table 13: Students' opinions about their teacher's instruction ........................................28 Table 14: The increasing of students' interest in learning speaking ..............................29 Table 15: The improvement of students' speaking ability ..............................................30 Tables of teachers'questionnaire analysis Table 1:Teachers' opinion about their students' attitude about learning speaking ..........31 Table 2: Teachers‟ opinion about their students' speaking ability ..................................32 Table 3: Teachers have applied role-play activities ........................................................33 Table 4: Teachers‟ opinion about applying role-play in increasing students' interest in learning speaking ............................................................................................................34 Table 5: The usefulness of role-play activities ...............................................................35 Table 6: Teachers' frequency of applying role-play activities ........................................36 Table 7: Teachers' opinion about whether applying role-play is difficult or not ............37 Table 8: Teachers' difficulties when applying role-play activities ................................38 Table 9: Teachers' thought about the increasing of their students' interest in learning speaking ...........................................................................................................................39 Table 10: Teachers' opinion about their students' speaking ability improvement .........40 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figures of students' questionnaire analysis Figure 1:Students' attitude about speaking English .......................................................16 Figure 2:Students' thought about learning speaking ......................................................17 Figure 3: Students' speaking ability ...............................................................................18 Figure 4: The frequencies of teachers' applying role-play .............................................19 Figure 5: Students' thought about the way that teachers apply role-play ......................20 Figure 6: Students' thought about role-play activities ...................................................21 Figure 7: Students' opinion about the profit of participating in role-play ....................22 Figure 8: Students' benefits when participating in role-play activities ..........................23 Figure 9: Students' interest in their role ........................................................................24 Figure 10: Students' advantages when participating in role-play activities ..................25 Figure 11: Student's difficulties when participating in role-play activities ..................26 Figure 12: The students' preferences about the topics of role-play activities ................27 Figure 13: Students' opinions about their teacher's instruction .....................................28 Figure 14: The increasing of students' interest in learning speaking ............................29 Figure 15: The improvement of students' speaking ability ...........................................30 Figures of teachers' questionnaire analysis Figure 1: Teachers' opinion about their students' attitude about learning speaking .....31 Figure 2: Teachers‟ opinion about their students' speaking ability ..............................32 Figure 3: Teachers have applied role-play activities .....................................................33 Figure 4: Teachers‟ opinion about applying role-play in increasing students' interest in learning speaking ............................................................................................................34 Figure 5: The usefulness of role-play activities .............................................................35 Figure 6: Teachers' frequency of applying role-play activities......................................36 Figure 7: Teachers' opinion about whether applying role-play is difficult or not ........37 Figure 8: Teachers' difficulties when applying role-play activities ..............................38 Figure 9:Teachers' thought about the increasing of their students' interest in learning speaking ...........................................................................................................................39 Figure 10: Teachers' opinion about their students' speaking ability improvement ........40 viii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION This chapter introduces some very first parts of the thesis; there are seven parts in this chapter: (1) motivation for the study; (2) aims of the study; (3) research methods; (4) scope of the study; (5) significance of the study; (6) previous related studies and (7) organization of the study. 1.1. Motivation for the study Speaking skill is one of important parts of learning English. Everyone who learns English always want to use this skill as well as they can. Speaking English fluently is the key that lets people can be easier to communicate with foreigners, accept the advance of technology and get success. However, sometimes, speaking is also the obstacle that obstructs them to reach to their aims. In fact, a lot of learners study English grammar very well, but they cannot master it just because they get difficulties in their speaking. This problem leads to disheartenment for learners so they lose their interest in learning speaking. In Vietnam, especially in many countryside schools, speaking skill usually is neglected. Teachers spend almost all class time for teaching grammar; therefore, students lack the chances to practice speaking (Nguyen Quoc Hung, M.A). In others case, speaking classes are the time for learning by heart dialogs or practicing repetition of drills. Students cannot cavalier this drills in their real conversations. The result is more and more students lose their belief in their ability of speaking English. To improve student‟s communicative skills, increasing student‟s interest in speaking is very useful. The more interesting atmosphere the teachers create the more effectiveness in oral skills the students get. Role- play activity is one of the best ways that can help teachers carry out this. Since teachers apply role- play activities in class, students are activated because they are set into an interesting speaking environment. For these reasons above, the researcher decide to carry out the thesis “Applying role-play in increasing student‟ interest in learning speaking to grade 11 students at Lai Vung 2 high school”. Through this thesis, researcher hope that it helps high school 1 teachers realize the usefulness of role-play activity as well as suggest some solutions to increase the effectiveness of this activity in speaking class. 1.2. Aims of the study The thesis aims to identify how students interest in learning speaking. The thesis, in addition, aims to find out the effect of using role-play in speaking classes. Also, it is intended to find out difficulties from using role-play activities so that the researcher can suggest some solutions to these difficulties. 1.3. Research methods During studying process, there are three research methods which are going to collect valuable data and information: questionnaires, observation and interview. Firstly, the questionnaires are employed. In order to collect the data, two types of questionnaires are designed: one in English and the other in Vietnamese. The English questionnaire is delivered to four teachers, who teach in grade 11 and the Vietnamese one is used for students. Collected data will be analyzed to realize how role-play is applied and the effect of using role-play in class. Next, personal observations are also carried out in some classes, which role-play is applied to observe teachers and students' role-play activities. Furthermore, interview is use to find out teachers and students difficulties from using role-play. 1.4. Scope of the study The scope of study is about applying role-play in increasing students' interest in learning speaking to grade 11 students at Lai Vung 2 high school. 1.5. Significance of the study Hopefully, the findings of the study may make a contribution to increase interest in learning speaking English for student toward applying role-play activities. The thesis also may help to find out what are the difficulties when teacher applying role-play. Furthermore, it may not only help to find out the difficulties when teacher applying role-play but also will give some suggestions to help teachers over come these difficulties. 1.6. Previous related studies 2 In 2004, in the thesis " Rèn luyện kỹ năng nói tiếng Anh của học sinh khối lớp 10 trường THPT chuyên Thoại Ngọc Hầu thông qua hoạt động đối thoại và đóng kịch" (Improving speaking English skill of the grade 10 students at Thoai Ngoc Hau high school by using dialogs and role-play), Mach Buu Hien, students at An Giang University has stated some definitions about dialog and role-play. The thesis has shown the steps to carry out role-play activies. He also stated some advantages when teachers apply this activity in teaching speaking. This study is very helpful because it provides the theoretical background for the thesis. 1.7. Organization of the study The thesis consists of five chapters Chapter 1: Introduction, which presents an overview of the thesis in which motivation for the research, aims, research methods, scope, significance , previous related studies as well as the organize of the study are briefly presented. Chapter 2: Literatures review, this chapter provides the theoretical background relevant to the study including theory of teaching and learning English speaking and role-play in teaching speaking. Chapter 3: Methodology, this chapter focuses on presenting research questions, research participants, research procedure, data collection as well as methods of analysis. Chapter 4: Results and discussions, this part presents the results of survey questionnaires, observation and interview about teachers and students' attitudes towards teaching and learning English speaking and applying role-play activities in speaking classes. Chapter 5: Conclusions, this is a chapter consisting of overview of the study, presents the limitations of the study and provides some suggestions and implications for further research. 3 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Teaching and learning English speaking skill 2.1.1 Communicative language teaching approach – an effective language teaching method. 2.1.1.1 Definition of communicative language teaching approach "Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study." (www.wikipedia.org) Communicative language teaching makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Unlike the audio-lingual method of language teaching, which relies on repetition and drills, the communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will vary according to their reactions and responses. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. Margie S. Berns, an expert in the field of communicative language teaching, writes in explaining Firth's view that "language is interaction; it is interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society. In this light, language study has to look at the use (function) of language in context, both its linguistic context (what is uttered before and after a given piece of discourse) and its social, or situational, context (who is speaking, what their social roles are, why they have come together to speak)" (Berns, 1984, p. 5). 2.1.1.2 The goal of communicative language teaching approach The main goal of communicative language teaching is to build, to make, and to develop learners' communicative ability in the classroom and outside the classroom in order to the learners to be active speakers without many thinking about grammatical mistake. In other words, the main goal of this approach is to make an improvement of the communicative competence, especially ability for speaking in the classroom or out of class with other person by using oral language. 4 2.1.2 The way of learning English speaking effectively Speaking is" the process of sharing meaning through the use of verbal and nonverbal symbol, in a variety of context (Chaney, 1998, p.13). Learning English speaking as second language is actually not easy for Vietnamese students. According to Margre S.Berns again, "language is interaction, it is interpersonal activity and has a clear relationship with society" (Berns, 1984.p.5). Therefore, learning speaking is not just a process of imitation or repetition of drills. It requires a lot interaction between students. In speaking classes, the more communicative activities students attend, the more improvable speaking skills students get. The main criterion for success in learning speaking is whether or not the learners can communicate fluently in English. The below steps are some guidance that can helps learners reach to this aim. The first step is realizing the fact that learning the English language should not be a duty or chore for the learners; it should be taken as a fascinating hobby that will help learners to expand their horizons in many aspects of their life. One of the most important aspects of improving spoken English is to have an extensive vocabulary so that they could express their thoughts clearly and easily. Having a good stock of words would help them to be more precise with their construction and more articulate with their speech. . Next, having knowledge of basic grammar is another very necessary component of improving spoken English. It is not necessary to have an extensively detailed knowledge of grammar for speaking fluent English. In fact, speaking in absolutely correct grammar may sometimes lead to awkwardness in casual and informal meetings or talks. So, learners just have a basic knowledge of grammar would be enough to get learners started. The other step is to be able to convey what they want to express in a confident and easy manner. For this, learners need to believe in themselves. Also, do not hesitate to ask the other persons for clarification if learners do not understand them or they themselves are stuck on a word or two in the middle, and need some help. 5 Last but not the least, keep practicing.– Speaking English themselves as much as they can and trying to understand the different accents of native English speakers are two things that would take learners a long way in retaining what they learnt as well as improving their spoken English skills. Watch English movies, news channels, etc. to hear crisp English diction and absorb the different styles of pronunciations. 2.2 Role-play in teaching speaking 2.2.1 Definition of role-play According to Paul Procter in Cambridge International Dictionary of English, role defined as the person whom an actor represents in film or play, while role play is a method of acting out particular way of behaving or pretending to be other people who deal with new situations. It is used in training courses language learning and psychotherapy. In Role Play: Resources Book for Teacher Series, Gillian Porter Ladusse illustrated that when students assume a "Role", they play a part (either their own or somebody else's) in specific situation. "Play" means that is taken on in a safe environment in which students are as an inventive and playful as possible. Another definition is stated by Joanna Budden in British Council Teaching English on her article with the title "Role Play" . She said that role-play is any speaking activity when you either put yourself into somebody else's shoes, or when you stay in your own shoes but put yourself into imaginary situation. What is meant by imaginary people is that students can become anyone they like for a short time. The President, The Queen, a millionaire, a pop star..., the choice is endless. Students can also take on the opinions of someone else. 'For and against' debates can be used and the class can be split into those who are expressing views in favor and those who are against the theme. From those definitions above, the role play is described as a technique which involves imagination to be someone else or to be ourselves in a specific situation for a while, improvising dialog and creating a real world in scenario. Role –play activities can encourage students' thinking and creativity, helps students develop and practice new language and behavioral skills in a relatively non- threatening setting, and can create the motivation and involvement necessary for learning to occur. Role-play is a 6 powerful and effective teaching method for children and adult and can be adapted to deliver any learning objectives from simple to complex concepts. It really lends well to practice communication skills, debate complex ethical issues or explore attitudes and beliefs. The success lies in the construction and delivery with careful facilitation. According to Don Byrn, role-play can be grouped into two forms. Scripted roleplay, which involves interpreting either the textbook dialog or reading text in the form of speech is the first one. The main function of the text is after all is to convey the meaning of language items in a memorably way. The second one is unscripted roleplay. In contrast of scripted role –play, the situation of unscripted role-play do not depend on textbook. It is known as a free role-play. When participating in this form, students themselves have to decide what language to use and how the conversation should develop. In order to do this activity, good preparation from teacher and students is really necessary. 2.2.2 The steps for role-play activity In the book: Role-Play in Teaching Culture: Six Quick Steps for Classroom Implementation, Maria A Kodotchigova suggest that there are six steps to making a successful role-play. Step 1- A situation for a role- play To begin with, choose a situation for a role play, keeping in mind students' needs and interests (Livingstone, 1983). Teachers should select role plays that will give the students an opportunity to practice what they have learned. At the same time, role play need to interest students. One way to make sure role play is interesting is to let the students choose the situation themselves. They might either suggest themes that intrigue them or select a topic from a list of given situations. Teachers might make up an effective role play based on cultural differences. Step 2 - Role Play Design After choosing a context for a role play, the next step is to come up with ideas on how this situation may develop. Students' level of language proficiency should be taken into consideration (Livingstone, 1983). If teachers feel that the role play requires more profound linguistic competence than the students possess, it would probably be 7 better to simplify it or to leave it until appropriate. On low intermediate and more advanced levels, role plays with problems or conflicts in them work very well because they motivate the characters to talk (Shaw, Corsini, Blake & Mouton, 1980; Horner & McGinley, 1990). To build in these problems let the standard script go wrong. This will generate tension and make the role play more interesting. For example, in a role play situation at the market the participants have conflicting role information. One or two students have their lists of things to buy while another two or three students are salespeople who don't have anything the first group needs, but can offer slightly or absolutely different things. Step 3 - Linguistic Preparation At the beginning level, the language needed is almost completely predictable. The higher the level of students the more difficult it is to prefigure accurately what language students will need, but some prediction is possible anyway (Livingstone, 1983). It is recommended to introduce any new vocabulary before the role play (Sciartilli, 1983).At the beginning level, teachers might want to elicit the development of the role play scenario from students and then enrich it. For example, the situation of the role play is returning an item of clothing back to the store. The teacher asks questions, such as, 'In this situation what will you say to the salesperson?', 'What will the salesperson say?' and writes what the students dictate on the right side of the board. When this is done, on the left side of the board the instructor writes down useful expressions, asking the students, 'Can the customer say it in another way?', 'What else can the salesperson say?' This way of introducing new vocabulary makes the students more confident acting out a role play. Step 4 - Factual Preparation This step implies providing the students with concrete information and clear role descriptions so that they could play their roles with confidence. For example, in the situation at a railway station, the person giving the information should have relevant information: the times and destination of the trains, prices of tickets, etc. In a more advanced class and in a more elaborate situation include on a cue card a fictitious name, status, age, personality, and fictitious interests and desires. Describe each role in 8 a manner that will let the students identify with the characters. Use the second person 'you' rather than the third person 'he' or 'she.' If the role presents a problem, just state the problem without giving any solutions. Step 5- Assigning the Roles Some instructors ask for volunteers to act out a role play in front of the class (Matwiejczuk, 1997), though it might be a good idea to plan in advance what roles to assign to which students. At the beginning level the teacher can take one of the roles and act it out as a model. Sometimes, the students have role play exercises for the home task. They learn useful words and expressions, think about what they can say and then act out the role play in the next class.There can be one or several role play groups. If the whole class represents one role play group, it is necessary to keep some minor roles which can be taken away if there are less people in class than expected (Horner & McGinley, 1990). If the teacher runs out of roles, he/she can assign one role to two students, in which one speaks secret thoughts of the other (Shaw, Corsini, Blake & Mouton, 1980). With several role play groups, when deciding on their composition, both the abilities and the personalities of the students should be taken into consideration. For example, a group consisting only of the shyest students will not be a success. Very often, optimum interaction can be reached by letting the students work in one group with their friends (Horner & McGinley, 1990). Whether taking any part in the role play or not, the role of the teacher is to be as unobtrusive as possible (Livingstone, 1983). He or she is listening for students' errors making notes. Mistakes noted during the role play will provide the teacher with feedback for further practice and revision. It is recommended that the instructor avoids intervening in a role play with error corrections not to discourage the students. Step 6 - Follow-up Once the role play is finished, spend some time on debriefing. This does not mean pointing out and correcting mistakes. After the role play, the students are satisfied with themselves, they feel that they have used their knowledge of the language for something concrete and useful. This feeling of satisfaction will disappear if every mistake is analyzed. It might also make the students less confident and less willing to 9 do the other role plays (Livingstone, 1983).Follow-up means asking every student's opinion about the role play and welcoming their comments (Milroy, 1982; Horner & McGinley, 1990). The aim is to discuss what has happened in the role play and what they have learned. In addition to group discussion, an evaluation questionnaire can be used. 2.2.3 The significance of role-play in teaching speaking It is easy to realize that role play is very significant in language teaching .It is really a worthwhile learning experience for both the students and the teacher. Not only can students have more opportunities to "act" and "interact" with their peers trying to use the English language, but also students' English speaking, listening, and understanding will improve. Role play lightens up the atmospheres and brings liveliness in the classes. Students learn to use the language in a more realistic, more practical way. Also, through role –play activities, the students learn how to express ideas, opinions, or felling to others by using words or sound of articulation. Larsen Freeman explained that role-plays are important in the communicative approach because they give learners an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and different social roles. In addition, it is also allows students to be creative and to put themselves in another person's place for a while. The roleplay would seem to be the ideal activity in which students could use their English creatively and it aims to stimulate a conversation in which students might find themselves so that they can practice and develop their communication skills. 2.2.4. The teacher’role in this activity. In this activity, the teacher defines the general structure of the role play, but generally does not actively participate once the structure is set. According to Jones (1982), "...the teacher becomes the controller, and controls the event in the same way as a traffic controller, helping the flow of traffic and avoiding bottlenecks, but not telling individuals which way to go." Again, this is consistent with Scarcella and Oxford's (1992) principles. Rather than a traditional, teacher- centered classroom structure, the teacher keeps a relatively low profile and students are free to interact with 10 each other spontaneously. This reduces student anxiety and facilitates learning. The teacher must keep learners motivated by stimulating their curiosity and keeping the material relevant, creating a "tension to learn" (Burns and Gentry, 1998). In particular, teacher must be a facilitator because students may need new language that be “fed” in by the teacher. The teacher watches the role-play and the role-play offers comments and advice at the end so the teacher is also a spectator in this activity. 11 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY The previous chapter has presented some theoretical background about communicative language teaching and the way of learning speaking effectively, the applying of roleplay activities in teaching speaking is also have been stated. This chapter focuses on introducing the methodology of the thesis; it means that the methods of collecting data for analysis are introduced. This chapter consists of four smaller parts: (1) research questions, (2) research participants, (3) research procedure, (4) and data collection instruments. 3.1 Research questions: The thesis will support the answers of these three questions: 3.1.1. What attitude do teachers and students have toward learning English speaking and role-play activities? 3.1.2. What are the effectiveness and difficulties of applying role-play? 3.1.3. What should be done to overcome the difficulties of applying role-play? 3.2. Research participants 3.2.1. The researcher The researcher of the study is Lê Đình Mai Thảo, English 2009B class, Foreign Language Department, Dong Thap University. 3.2.2. The subjects The subjects of the study are four teachers of English 11, and 100 students of grade 11 including 11A2, 11CB1 and 11CB2 at Lai Vung 2 High School. All of four the teachers have more than ten years in teaching. In general, they are experience teachers. 3.3. Research procedure The process of making the thesis comes through three major stages in order to achieve its aims. The very first stage is writing the proposal. This stage lasted more than two months from late August to early November 2012. Then from late February, the survey questionnaires, observation and interview were carried out. The last stage started from late March to late April, the results from data analysis were analyzed and discussed. Beside that, this was the stage when the thesis was finish. 3.4. Data collection instruments 12
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