Anxiety on learning english as a second language to learners

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CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH B. A. MINI THESIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ANXIETY ON LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TO LEARNERS Supervisor: Student’s name: Cao Thiên Lý Đặng Vũ Kim Chi, M.Ed. Code: 7118721 Class: HG11V1A1 Can Tho - 11/ 2014 1 A. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, as we all know, English is the one of important languages in the world. If we cannot speak English even a little bit, we are called as a very poor in the community. We also cannot improve our life if we are not good at English. We will feel loser if we in the group that use English as a medium to speak. According to the researches that have been made by the group of Malay University, there are 70% of undergraduate student especially Malay student use English as a medium to speak. Therefore, many people call English is an international language. For this reason, if we know English, we can communicate with the citizens of most of counties in this globe, without any confusion in expressing our feelings and thoughts. Similarly, English is a mean of international commerce which has become increasingly essential for inter-state commerce. Actually, this language helps us to express thoughts and feelings, to talk, to exchange views, and to contract between person and person though wherever we live. In short, when we know English, we can introduce many things about our country to people around the world such as history or culture. These are reasons why we can not deny the importance of English. However, studying English is not easy. Sometimes, people have to face with many difficulties. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to find out the anxiety in learning English as a second language to learners. I hope that this paper will help people pass anxiety and can speak English well. 2 B. SUMMARIES Tony, D. M & Thomas, S. (2012). Reducing public speaking anxiety for native and non-native speakers: the value of systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring and skills training. Retrieved from: http://www.relationalturningpoints.org/uploads/2012__Public_Speaking_Anxiety. pdf In this article, the researchers discuss the way learners have to do to reduce English speaking anxiety for native and non-native speakers. Here, the author defined speaking anxiety is often known as stage freight where the individual has to speak in front of an audience. The anxiety has characteristics of lack of selfesteem, fear, negativity, nervousness, and shakiness. Recently, the researchers have found that speaking in front of others is rated as the largest cause of anxiety for non-English speakers. According to Woodrow (2006), anxiety experience in communication in English can be debilitating and the achievement off educational goals to reduce anxiety in speaking, one of the experiments is used at Midwestern University in the United States. There are 64 participants including 17 non-native English and 47 native English speakers. For each year of the student, the total is 34 freshmen, 16 sophomores, and 5 juniors. There is a variety of majors among the students. The procedure required each student to attend one of the four workshops. Then, students are to complete two public speaking anxiety measures before and after the workshop. There is a three step process of relaxation and deep breathing, visualization, and speaking exercises. Next, students need to reevaluate what they will need to improve and get feedback on the process. Lastly, the students are taught skills training and practiced individual delivery skills. The results from the pre-test and post-test has shown differences based on Communication Anxiety Inventory (CAI) Form Trait and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) A-State scale. Scores for the CAI Form Trait has decreased for 3 the non-native English speakers while as STAI A-State scales shows unchanged scores. Likewise, native English speakers score has decreased from the STAI AState scale while remain unchanged in the CAI Form Trait. In the end, speaking anxiety continues to exist as a problem among the speakers. Ala' H, O. (2011). The Effect of Anxiety on Learning English as a Foreign Language. Received from: http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=58094 The aim of this research is find out the effect of anxiety on learning English as a foreign language. Here, researchers try to find out the factors such as attitude, motivation, perceived competence, and anxiety which create the environment for learners to learn English as a second language. The researchers use questionnaire which consists of thirty -three items, each one on a 5 - point scale ranging from " strongly agree " ( scale point 1 ) to " strongly disagree" ( scale point 5 ) and the middle point being " Neutral " ( scale point 3). The purpose of the scale is to examine the scope and severity of foreign language anxiety. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has shown facts of satisfactory consistency, internal consistency and construct strength (Horwitz, 1991). Moreover, the author used (FLCAS) questionnaire to analysis potential sources of anxiety in a language classroom. There are three related anxieties including communication apprehension, fear of negative evaluation, and general feeling of anxiety which are found during the research. After researching, the author finds out these results. The first one is introducing a theoretical background on the concept of foreign language anxiety as far as defining it and examining the role it performs in learning a foreign language. The second one is finding out the level of anxiety that EFL learners may experience in learning English as foreign language throughout controlling, Horwitz, et al (1986). Anxious learners may find difficulties in recognizing sounds and structures or in understanding meaning. The last one is discussing the implications of the findings and presenting some suggestions to reduce anxiety and to improve foreign language learning in the 4 classroom. Moreover, Elkhafaifi (2000) finds out whether there is listening anxiety and what is in listening comprehension. The result shows that listening anxiety is related to listening skill which implies that listening anxiety prevents listening comprehension. The sources of language anxiety often are connected which cause difficulty in teasing out a disconnected factor or source. The findings prove that those learners are highly anxious. The study ends up with presenting 3 suggestions. that might be of aid to such learners to reduce anxiety which they are suffering from and to improve the environment of language learning in the classroom. Firstly, “preparation” helps learners avoide the anxiety in class room. Secondly, “relaxation” assists learners in the symptom of anxiety. Finally, the learners have to think positively in class room. such as that might be of aid to such learners to reduce anxiety which they are suffering from and to improve the environment of language learning in the classroom. Mona, M. H.(2013). Factors Negatively Affect Speaking Skills at Saudi Colleges for Girls in the South. Received from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n12p87 In this study, the author talks about factors negatively affect speaking skills at Saudi Colleges. The target students are graduates and students who will need English to communicate in society and European countries. These students may able to get high marks in tests and homework but there is trouble when they have to speaking in front of class. The study is carried on what can cause the students anxious in speaking English. Here, the researcher uses surveys and questionnaires to distribute the students. Each question is used to ask their opinions about learning English language. 10 students are chosen to do a face to face interview about the questionnaire information. The results show that the instructors have been using Arabic in an English class majority of the time. While the students show fear in speaking English, instructors are responsible on not providing aid for the students. The English course are lacking in training course needed to teach the classroom. In order to push the education where everyone can learn, the teachers 5 need to improve over their teaching methods. Teacher should encourage students to participant in classrooms and realize the needs of the student. Students can develop their skills better when they practice more in the classroom. Melvin, A., & Kenneth, W. (2009). Foreign Language Learning Anxiety in Japanese EFL University Classes: Physical, Emotional, Expressive, and Verbal Reactions. Retrieved from: http://www.jrc.sophia.ac.jp/courses/pdf/ver2901.pdf The article is about anxiety in studying English as a second language of many foreign language learners since the mid-1970s in Japan. Here, the problem with anxiety is that it can cause low self-esteem, fear or frustration on performance, and learning process. Researchers have been investigating on what are the physical, emotional, expressive, and verbal reactions of Japanese students. Horwitz and Cope (1986) has proposed a theory that foreign language anxiety was different from other anxieties. It is described in different ways happening in different situations. First, trait anxiety is viewed as relatively stable personality characteristics. Second, state anxiety is seen as a response to an event or situation where it can affect emotions, cognition, and behavior. In addition, there are some types of situation anxiety like communication anxiety, negative evaluation, cognitive tension, and affective tension. Also, the researchers have been researching on the factors to the speaking anxiety. In orde to do this, modified questionnaires have been passed out to the Japanese students to gather feedback on their level of anxiety. Participants were non-English majors from six different universities in Japan and are taking English speaking classes. The questionnaires include twelve Likert scales and multiple choice questions. The students have to answer the experience in learning English and what their thoughts are for improvement. The results show that the students have experienced anxiety in the fear of the performance and grade evaluation. When they are chosen to speak in front of the class, they experience nervousness and shakiness in a live audience. Overall, the students feel more comfortable in working small groups instead of 6 whole class together. Besides, studies of the Japanese students have been a found combination of anxiety, cultural differences, and personal factors in the classroom. The questionnaire has shown 75% of the students filled with anxiety during class. It is recommended for teachers should be aware of what the students are facing to create a teacher student relationship for students to be more enthusiastic in learning. The universities should offer more opportunities for the students out of class to practice more on their English. With more practice, students would not find the class to be difficult and they can build up confidence in speaking. Learners would benefit more if these kinds of strategies have been implemented. Hsu, T. C. (2012). A study on the EFL students’ speech related anxiety in Taiwan. Retrieved from: 10.5861/ijrsll.2012.v1i2.74 This study refers to EFL student’s anxiety in Taiwan. The author shows that challenges exist for enhancing Taiwan students in their English language. For example, many people would feel greater nervousness when they are on the stage and afraid of interacting with the audience. In this article, the author defines that there are four concerns affect to learn English to student. Factors make student axinous in public speaking. Second is the different of gender and time of preparation in Public Spkeaing Anxiety (PSA). The third is type of audiences. The last one is benefit or drawback in public speaking course. The author uses the mixed method to ask participant. Besides, the researcher uses the Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) quantitative survey to examine student’s anxious level. For example, “aged between 20 to 25; student participants have garnered an average of 10 years of formal education in learning the English language. The researcher asks student many questions from five (5) scales (strongly disagree = 1, disagree = 2, neutral = 3, agree = 4, or strongly agree = 5); on various statements regarding speech anxiety”. Moerover, the qualitative focus group interview was used to understand clearlier the effects of PSA, gender differences and types of audiences. Most of the participants think that if they have longer preparation in their speeches, the anxiety will decrease. Group activities 7 and team work also helps the students in learning the language. In the end, the report shows many factors that causes anxiety such as different types of audience, being graded on based on performance, and fear of being judged. More methods are needed for students who are taking English as a major or using English as a language skill. In addition, factors such as personality of students, selfperceptions, beliefs, attitudes, intelligence, teaching style, classroom and campus climate, and many others should be included in the assessment of the various causes and implications of PSA. Kriangkrai, Y., & Siriluck, U. (2012). Thai students are known to show fear of speaking English in the EFL classrooms. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n12p23 The author shows that Thai students fear of speaking English in the EFL classrooms. Many of them feel less anxiety in reading class than they are in speaking class. For example, according to Kim (1998) “ in Asian EFL classrooms, students manifest less anxiety dramatically in the reading class than the conversation class and this leads to the intuitive feelings of both teachers and students that language classrooms requiring oral communication are found to be more anxiety-provoking than those requiring less speaking”. Reading helps the readers to be less discouraged in pronouncing words incorrect way. The researchers use Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale to measure anxiety in the classroom. It is said that speaking skill is one of the main reasons for anxiety and other learning skills have not been shown for anxiety. Besides, the author uses the questionnaire to interview student and after interviewing, public speaking anxiety in the Thai EFL context is reduced a lot. Unpreparedness, judgment, poor self-esteem, poor performance, and worry about the use of grammar are communication anxiety. Overall, the students feel shy to speak English to Thai professors and foreign professors. Also, the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scaled (FLCAS) was developed by Horwitz et al to measure student’s self-reports regarding anxiety. Students will write down either strongly agree or strongly 8 disagree on the survey about the level of anxiety they are facing. The analysis reported four factors: speech anxiety, fear of failing, comfort, and negative attitudes. FLCAS captures the student’s perceptions and attitudes about learning their language and the anxiety to speak. The results found the female students who major in business have a higher level of communication apprehension than males, whereas males who major in accounting have a higher level of communication than females. 34 statements are filled in the questionnaire concerning the student’s feelings in giving a speech. The final results show the factors of anxiety: test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and comfort in using English. The FLCAS should be more used often to measure the different response for the student’s thoughts about learning the language. Gathering responses can help teachers to find solutions on what they can do to reduce it. A speaking anxiety scale was developed to range the levels of existing foreign language classroom anxiety. Most of students feel anxious when they are required to speak in front of the class and professors. They experience anxiety triggers to speak in public and cannot maintain their focus on the objective. Therefore, it is essential to continue using the scale to gather feedback from students . Josefa, J. M. (2001). Humanistic Strategies in the EFL Speaking Class. Retrieved from: http://puslit2.petra.ac.id/ejournal/index.php/ing/article/view/15477 The aim of this study is to show the anxiety of students when leaning English. The author shows that every student will get anxiety when they are put on a test in English. They have problems of learning and speaking oral with one another and in public. In addition, students fear to repeat the same mistakes so they will try not to participate in the learning activities. The affective field is the emotional side of the human behavior. It is split into two categories: the intrinsic side of affectivity and extrinsic factors. Brown’s theory (1980) has pointed out there are three specific personality factors related to learning a second language. The personalities are egocentric factors, transactional factors, and motivation. An 9 egocentric factor is what a person views himself or herself. It is recommended for the students to practice speaking in order to improve their self-esteem. Transactional factors are the process of reaching out beyond the self to others. Humanistic strategies has been thought out and implemented for students to effective learn the language. The purpose is to provide a learning atmosphere and encourage students to help each other. By putting them in student activities, this can increase the practice of speaking the English language. With the humanistic strategies involved, students can now reduce the stress and fear they have to experience through in the class. Instead of criticizing at each other, the students and teachers can cooperate with each other on what they will need to improve and understand how the grammar is used properly. If the humanistic strategies be implemented in more often, the atmosphere in schools would lead to a better place. The experience in learning can be more enjoyable and valuable than ever before. This can be a rewarding experience for teachers and students to understand what problems are involved and how the problem should be fixed. Everyone would need to understand that teaching is not just about books and tests. There need to be a relationship between everyone to effective learn and achieve success. Students will be able to grow and improve if they have taken the opportunity to face their fears. Manoochehr, J., & Saeedeh, B. (2012). The Effect of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension among Distance EFL Learners. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ies.v5n2p159 In this study, the author presents anxiety on reading comprehension among distance EFL learners. The anxiety expresses fear, low self-esteem, frustration, and uneasiness. It affects performance and learning because students fear of doing mistakes and judge by others for performances. Besides, different types of anxiety are associated with different situations. For example, trait anxiety is viewed as relatively stable personality characteristics. State anxiety is seen as a response to an event or situation where it can affect emotions, cognition, and behavior. 10 Moreover, situation-specific anxiety is an anxiety the person experienced in a single context or specific situation. Many students who have experienced foreign language anxiety are related to situation-specific type of anxiety. Learning a second language will potentially create an anxiety despite of gender, age, and language experience. Horwitz (2001) argued the anxiety consist of three components: communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation. Female students are more worried about their preparation and conscious about their grades based on performances than male students. The, researchers have spread out questionnaires to the English learning students. A group of eighteen students were randomly selected from the original population at Mashad Payame Noor University. In order to gain accurate numbers of subjects in the study, the researchers have implemented Sample Population formula. Sample Population formula is to find the mean and standard deviation from the population. The questionnaire was modified according to the selected items from Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLRAS). The study had to go through three different phases. The first phase focused on the participant’s age, gender, years of studying English, and experience of traveling abroad. The second phase focused on the group of participants to take a psychology test called the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety. The test consists of thirty three Likert-style questions with points ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The third phase focused on the final test to the participants. It was a reading comprehension test consisting of twenty-eight multiple choices based on the three reading passages. The test was designed to test the relationship between the foreign language reading anxiety and reading comprehension. FLRAS was scored by assigning one to five points to the chosen response. Response with low anxiety will score one point while response with high anxiety with high score will score five points. The results from the test shows there is no distant relationship between the foreign language anxiety and reading comprehension anxiety, foreign language anxiety and gender, and foreign language anxiety and age. In the end, anxiety is a problem worldwide in language 11 classes and communication. For this reason, the teachers pay attention to find methods in order to reduce the anxiety. It is recommended to create a free stress environment and encourage students to help each other learning English. Moreover, teacher should create a teacher student relationship for students to be more enthusiastic in learning. Education should be pushed more and taken more seriously. Students will have more opportunities to have a positive approach and a better career future. Rochelle, I. L., et.al (2009P). English Language Learning Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners in the Philippines. Retrieved from: http://www.jrc.sophia.ac.jp/courses/pdf/ver2901.pdf This purpose of study is to find out the anxiety in learning English in the Philippines as well as the causes of these anxieties. Here, the study suggests some sensible approaches to help the students get rid of their problem. The author requires that students taking part in this research should have stayed in the country for at least three years which means only second/third-year in the tertiary level students are compatible for this research. Beside that, the researchers asked the Chairs of the Department of English in the targeted tertiary institutions permission for conducting the survey in their English classes where the target foreign respondents are enrolled. The Chairs were handed in the copy proposal of the research so that they could understand the importance of the research. The researcher used questionnaire in order to find out the causes of language anxiety. The enrolling students were asked to judge the statements in the questionnaire by using the 5-point interval, in which 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 respectively means ‘Strongly Agree’, ‘Agree’, ‘Neutral’, ‘Disagree’, ‘Strongly Disagree’. The result shows that those anxieties may hinder students from succeeding in acquiring foreign languages. The research has come to some possible implications for both educators and students. First, language teachers should have the ability to realize whether their students have language anxieties. Second, the students’ anxieties must be seen as a natural process of studying foreign language. Lastly, educators 12 must be willing to offer possible solutions for their students to overcome these anxieties. Zsuzsa. T. (2011). Foreign language anxiety and advanced EFL learners: An interview study. Retrieved from: http://langped.elte.hu/WoPaLParticles/W5Toth.pdf The aim of study is about foreign language anxiety and advanced EFL learners. The author provides an insight into the nature and sources of second language (L2)-related anxiety from the advanced learner’s perspective. The research findings suggest that communication apprehension (McCroskey, 1970), fear of negative evaluation (Watson & Friend, 1969), and test anxiety (Sarason, 1978) are not merely the sum of these more general forms of anxiety transferred to language learning. The study also revealed that the Foreign Language Anxiety (FLA) mean score of the investigated sample of Hungarian EFL majors was not remarkably different from those of lower proficiency learners reported in previous studies using the same anxiety instrument. In this study, participants who are interviewed are five English major students in their first year of study from one Hungarian university. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, the purposive sample of extreme 42 cases (i.e., learners with the highest anxiety scores) was selected to allow an examination of FLA through the personal experiences of anxious learners themselves. The interview findings are presented according to the research questions of the study. First, the author examines how highly anxious English major participants feel and behave in their classes at university. Second, researcher explores the perceived sources of these advanced-level learners’ FLA. Finally, the author looks at what participants’ language learning histories reveal about the origins of their L2-related anxiety. To achieve a deeper understanding of the construct of FLA in the case of advanced-level language students, the present investigation follows a qualitative design with an aim to gain perspective on anxiety. The results of the anxiety survey provide a quantitative account of the scope and severity of English major students’ FLA. 13 C. CONCLUSION In summary, by analyzing many difficulties which influence to learners on learning English as a second language, the authors help us realize the anxiety in leaning English. Some of the research cited above show which anxieties learners get when they learn English. For example, the study of Mona, M. H.(2013), Hsu, T. C. (2012), Rochelle, I. L., et.al. (2009), W. (2009), Kriangkrai, Y., & Siriluck, U. (2012) show the fear of speaking English in the EFL classrooms in many countries where people learn English as a second language, while Josefa, J. M. (2001) examines humanistic strategies in the EFL Speaking Class. Docan-Morgan and Tony, D. M & Thomas, S. (2012) show the reducing speaking anxiety for native and non-native speakers: the value of systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring and skills training, whereas Manoochehr, J., & Saeedeh, B. (2012) refer to study about the effect of anxiety on reading comprehension among distance EFL learners. As mentioned above, learning English as a second language brings learners many difficulties. Nevertheless, the researcher also suggests some questions. For instance, Matsumoto et al. (1988) states that to contribute new way on foreign language learning anxiety in Japanese learners by applying a modified version of their questionnaire to the EFL classroom by questions: “What are the characteristics of anxiety in terms of occurrence, duration, intensity, expectation, and degree of hindrance? What are the physical, emotional, expressive, and verbal reactions to the anxiety-provoking situation?”. Clearly, learning English as a second language is not easy, we have to pass many difficulties to be good at it. To sum up, we can see that even though the anxieties influence on learning English a lot, we have to be confident and face to these anxieties to improve our English skills better and better. 14 D. REFERENCES Ala' H, O. (2011). The Effect of Anxiety on LearningEnglish as a Foreign Language. Retrieved from: http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=58094 Hsu, T. C. (2012). A study on the EFL students’ speech related anxiety in Taiwan. Retrieved from: 10.5861/ijrsll.2012.v1i2.74 Josefa, J. M. (2001). Humanistic Strategies in the EFL Speaking Class. Retrieved from: http://puslit2.petra.ac.id/ejournal/index.php/ing/article/view/15477 Kriangkrai, Y., & Siriluck, U. (2012). Thai students are known to show fear of speaking English in the EFL classrooms. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n12p23 Manoochehr, J., & Saeedeh, B. (2012). The Effect of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension among Distance EFL Learners. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ies.v5n2p159 Melvin, A., & Kenneth, W. (2009). Foreign Language Learning Anxiety in Japanese EFL University Classes: Physical, Emotional, Expressive, and Verbal Reactions. Retrieved from: http://www.jrc.sophia.ac.jp/courses/pdf/ver2901.pdf Mona, M. H.(2013). Factors Negatively Affect Speaking Skills at Saudi Colleges for Girls in the South. Received from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n12p87 Rochelle, I. L., et.al (2009P). English Language Learning Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners in the Philippines. Retrieved from: http://www.jrc.sophia.ac.jp/courses/pdf/ver2901.pdf Tony, D. M & Thomas, S. (2012). Reducing public speaking anxiety for native and non-native speakers: the value of systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring and skills training. Retrieved from: 15 http://www.relationalturningpoints.org/uploads/2012__Public_Speaking_A nxiety.pdf Zsuzsa. T. (2011). Foreign language anxiety and advanced EFL learners: An interview study. Retrieved from: http://langped.elte.hu/WoPaLParticles/W5Toth.pdf 16
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