An investigation on studying english grammar for toeic exam by dong thap university students

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INTRODUCTION This section introduces some very first parts of the thesis. It is comprised of five parts: (1) motivation for the study; (2) aims of the study; (3) research methods; (4) subject and scope of the study; (5) significance of the study; (6) previous related studies; and (7) organization of the thesis. 1. Motivation for the study The 21st century is the century of the integration. In addition, the electronic media explosion and its implications for the processes of globalization highlighted issues of intercultural communication. Therefore, English has a crucial role to play in the current age. Indeed, all the work in any company are involved in English, such as transactions, communicating with foreign partners and customers, translating contracts, relevant documents for professional works. English can be divided into two categories: academic English language (used for scholarships, studying abroad, etc.) and English communication (daily use, works, etc.). If the academic English language is known as TOEFL and IELTS certificate, the English communication perhaps is of TOEIC one, which is a crucial requirement in the global labor market. In recent years, it has become one of the international English language testing programs, which is very popular all over the world. More than 70 corporations, companies, domestic and foreign associations in Vietnam have used it as a mandatory requirement of the standardization and staff recruitment. The state has special interest in foreign language teaching and learning. On September 30th, 2008, Prime Minister signed Decision No. 1400/QĐ-TTg, approving the Project entitled “Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages in the National Education System, Period 2008-2020”. Its general goals are “to renovate thoroughly the tasks of teaching and learning foreign language within national education system, to implement a new program on teaching and learning foreign language at every school levels and training degrees, which aims to achieve by the year 2015 a vivid progress on professional skills, language competency for human resources, especially at some prioritized sectors; by the year 2020 most Vietnamese 1 youth whoever graduate from vocational schools, colleges and universities gain the capacity to use a foreign language independently.‟‟ Consequently, achieving a standard level of a foreign language is a requirement for each student. For the significant role of English, the Rector of Dong Thap University issued Decisions No. 86/QĐ-ĐHĐT, which has required students of non-major English to pass the Toeic exam as one of graduation conditions. Specifically, the university students have to reach at least a Toeic of 300 score and 250 scores to the college ones. Therefore, they have to take these English courses and pass the exam be fore graduating. However, how is the reality of this issue? According to the report to the Rector by Informatics and Languages Center, there are only 231 students among 1651 candidates attained the requirement in the first Toeic exam hold on August 25 th, 2012. This statistic data also show that the number of those who passed the exam was 241 students making up 24.79% of all candidates (972 candidates). The number of candidates passing in the second exam has increased 10.8% compared to the first one (13.99%), but the rates of passing candidates is still very low compared to the total number of students at Dong Thap University. So, what is the reason for the reality of this issue? Must it be the fault of students‟ limited knowledge or their learning methods or teachers‟ training ones or other reasons? To answer these questions, I decided to carry out the topic “AN INVESTIGATION ON STUDYING ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR TOEIC EXAM BY DONG THAP UNIVERSITY STUDENTS” with an effort to find out some common problems in learning English grammar made by Dong Thap University students and suggest some possible solutions. 2. Aims of the study The thesis is carried out: - To find out the problems in the way of learning English grammar for Toeic exam by Dong Thap University students. - To suggest some possible solutions for these problems. 2 3. Research methods To attain the goals of the study in such a better way, many research methods as analyzing, synthetizing and calculating are employed based on the data of survey questionnaires, TOEIC course book analysis, and TOEIC test analysis. 4. Subject and scope of the study The subjects of the study are the students of Toeic 1, 2, 3 classes. Due to the scope of B.A thesis, time and experience limitations, the research is limited to the way of learning English grammar for Toeic exam by Dong Thap University students; and errors on main grammar points the students make, Toeic syllabus and teaching method will be not discussed in this thesis. 5. Significance of the study Finding out the non-major English students‟ problems in learning English grammar for TOEIC exam, the study will suggest some possible solutions that help them have effective methods in learning and practicing English grammar. Achieving these good learning and practicing methods, the students can pass the international exam more easily. Furthermore, there is a strong hope that the study will be a useful reference supporting not only non-major English students at Dong Thap University but TOEIC learners, major English ones wanting to know more about TOEIC exam as well. 6. Previous related studies Many scholars have been done researches on TOEIC exam. In January 2003, a team of content and statistical analysis specialists was formed to consider a redesign of the TOEIC Listening and Reading test as it then existed. The test redesign coincided with an effort to investigate the possibility of making high quality TOEIC Speaking and Writing tests available to test score users as additional test components. They brought the test into alignment with current theories of language proficiency and provided more proficiency information that is meaningful to test takers and score users. In January 2010, in their dissertation “Comparison of Content, Item Statistics and Test-Taker Performance for the Redesigned and Class TOEIC Listening and 3 Reading Tests”, Chi-wen Liao, Natalie Hatrak and Feng Yu analyzed 14 redesigned TOEIC form and 22 classic TOEIC forms. Their preliminary results at both the item and test level along with the results for test taker performance revealed the close similarity in statistical characteristics between the redesigned TOEIC test and the classic TOEIC tests. They claimed that test scores on the redesigned and classic TOEIC tests are comparable, even though the two contain slightly different item type structures. Though many researches on TOEIC exam and topics relating to it were done, there has been no study of grammar in the new TOEIC tests, especially ways of learning grammar for TOEIC exam. Nevertheless, the studies mentioned above are helpful to this study in terms of providing the theoretical background as they described obviously the differences of the format and test items between the redesigned TOEIC test and the classic one. 7. Organization of the study This thesis consists of the following parts: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1. The important role of English grammar 1.1.1. What is grammar? 1.1.2. The important role of English grammar 1.2. Method of learning grammar 1.2.1. Identifying grammar 1.2.1.1. Function and form 1.2.1.2. Contrasts with other languages 1.2.1.3. Exceptions and complication 1.2.2. Strategies for learning grammar 1.2.2.1. Relate knowledge needs to learning goals 1.2.2.2. Apply higher order thinking skills 4 1.2.2.3. Provide plentiful, appropriate language input 1.2.2.4. Use predicting skills 1.2.2.5. Limit expectations for drills 1.3. Description of the TOEIC Test 1.3.1. Listening comprehension section 1.3.2. Reading comprehension section 1.3.3. TOEIC classic test and TOEIC re-designed test CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOG Y 2.1. Research questions 2.2. Research participants 2.2.1. The researcher 2.2.2. The subjects 2.3. Research procedure 2.4. Data collection instruments 2.4.1. The questionnaire 2.4.2. TOEIC course book analysis 2.4.3. TOEIC test analysis 2.5. Method of data analysis 2.5.1. Statistics 2.5.2. Comparison and contrast CHAPTER 3: RESULTS, DICUSSION AND SOLUTIONS 3.1. Research results 3.1.1. Questionnaire 3.1.2. TOEIC course book analysis 3.1.2.1. Test type items 5 3.1.2.2. Grammar points 3.1.3. TOEIC test analysis 3.2. Discussion 3.3. Solutions 3.3.1. The method of learning English grammar 3.3.2. The method of practicing English grammar 3.3.3. The understanding of TOEIC exam CONCLUSION 6 CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 1.4. The important role of English grammar In today‟s global world, the importance of English can not be denied and ignored since English is the most common language spoken everywhere. English is one of the most important languages in the world. It can even be said to be the single most important language. Other languages are important too, but not for the same reasons as English is. It is important because it is the language that links the whole world together. Also, English is important for communication in a clear and unambiguous manner with other people. Because of universal usage it has become the universal communications tool in the world of today. Be one of the branches of linguistic and the components of English language, grammar has an important role to play as well. 1.4.1. What is grammar? The term “grammar” originates from the Greek language “grammatike” and it means “the art of writing”. The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English defines grammar as “(the study and practice of) the rules by which words change their forms and are combined into sentences”. There are two basic elements in this definition: the rules of grammar; and the study and practice of the rules. Grammar, then, is the way in which words change themselves and group together to make sentences. The grammar of a language is what happens to words when they become plural or negative, or what word order is used when we make questions or join two clauses to make one sentence. The term “grammar” is often used by non-linguists with a very broad meaning. As Jeremy Butterfield (2008) defines it: "Grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to .". However, linguists use it in a much more specific sense. Speakers of a language have in their heads a set of rules for using that language and this is grammar. The term "grammar" can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. In a narrow sense, grammar covers two subjects: morphology and syntax. To sum up the term “grammar‟‟ is used in a number of different senses- the grammar of a language may be understood to be a full 7 description of the form and meaning of the sentence of language or else it may cover only certain, variously delimited, parts of such a description. 1.4.2. The important role of English grammar Grammar is important because it makes us possible to talk about language. Grammar names the types of words and word groups that make up sentences not only in English but in any language. According to Michael Swan and Catherine Walter (1999), “grammar is not the important thing in the world, but if you make a lot of mistakes you may be more difficult to understand and some kind of people may look down on you or not take you seriously”. Obviously, to conduct a simple conversation, we need a basic grammar, thus it has an important role to play in communication. Moreover, we can not deny the important significance of grammar in writing which helps writers develop grammatical systems to convey ideas meaningfully and approximately to readers. In second language writing, the role of grammar in writing is to both explicit explanations of grammatical principle and teacher correction of errors. Today, to evaluate one‟s English proficiency or any purposes like placement, scholarship, etc. such examinations as TOEIC, TOFLE or IELTS will be applied. Of the parts in these examinations, grammar is involved in some item types as well as devoting to the score of these. Consequently, there is no disclamation of grammar‟s importance in the field. Besides, grammar can be part of literature discussions when we read the sentences in poetry and stories. Knowing about grammar means that finding out all languages and all dialects follow grammatical patterns. Knowing about grammar offers a window into the human mind and into our complex mental capacity. 1.5. Method of learning grammar 1.5.1. Identifying grammar People who learn languages encounter a number of problems, especially with grammar which can be complicated and can appear confusing. There are three of the most important reasons for this: the clash between function and form; the similarities and differences between the student‟s own language; and the language that is being learnt and various exceptions and complications 8 1.5.1.1. Function and form Some of confusion about English arise because of the mismatch between form and function. For example, most learners know that the present continuous tense (e.g. he is running, they are eating their lunch) is used to describe actions taking place now; however, it also refers to a repeated habit (e.g. he is always complaining!) or to a future arrangement (e.g. he is meeting her at 2 o‟clock tomorrow afternoon) 1.5.1.2. Contrasts with other languages The second reason why English grammar is difficult for students lies in the differences between English and their own language. Adjectives behave differently in English and Vietnamese in terms of their position. English adjectives usually come before nouns (blue shoes, small cats). In Vietnamese the situation is reserved (đôi giày màu xanh, những chú mèo nhỏ). 1.5.1.3. Exceptions and complication It is full of exceptions to grammar rules. That is the way it appears to many people anyway. For example, when students think that they have worked out that the English past tense is formed by adding –ed to a verb, they are somewhat surprised to come across went, ran and put. In the same way, it seems peculiar that a noun like sheep doesn‟t change in the plural. The language learners catch these problems in such inevitable way. Therefore, after recognizing grammar errors, the learners should follow the step: classifying them and then seeking their causes. 1.5.2. Strategies for learning grammar Language learners are often frustrated by the disconnection between knowing the rules of grammar and applying those rules in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This disconnect reflects a separation between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge is knowledge about something. Declarative knowledge enables a student to describe a rule of grammar and apply it in pattern practice drills. For example, declarative knowledge is what you have when you read and understand the instructions for programming the DVD player. 9 Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something. Procedural knowledge enables a student to apply a rule of grammar in communication. Procedural knowledge is, for example, what you demonstrate when you program the DVD player. Procedural knowledge does not translate automatically into declarative knowledge; many native speakers can use their language clearly and correctly without being able to state the rules of its grammar. Likewise, declarative knowledge does not translate automatically into procedural knowledge; students may be able to state a grammar rule, but consistently fail to apply the rule when speaking or writing. To address the declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge dichotomy, students can apply several strategies. 1.5.2.1. Relate knowledge needs to learning goals Identifying the relationship of declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge helps students goal for learning the language. Students who plan to use the language only for reading articles need to focus more on the declarative knowledge of grammar and discourse structures that will help them understand those texts. Students who plan to live in other countries need to focus more on the procedural knowledge that will help them manage day to day oral and written interactions. 1.5.2.2. Apply higher order thinking skills Recognizing development of declarative knowledge can accelerate development of procedural knowledge. Students should know how the language works and compare it with other languages they know, which allows them to lead to critical thinking and analytical skills. 1.5.2.3. Provide plentiful, appropriate language input Students develop both procedural and declarative knowledge on the basis of the input they receive. This input includes both finely tuned input that requires students to pay attention to the relationships among form, meaning, and use for a specific grammar rule, and roughly tuned input that allows students to encounter the grammar rule in a variety of contexts. 10 1.5.2.4. Use predicting skills Discourse analyst, Douglas Biber, has demonstrated that different communication types can be characterized by the clusters of linguistic features that are common to those types. Verb tense and aspect, sentence length and structure, and larger discourse patterns all may contribute to the distinctive profile of a given communication type. For example, a history textbook and an article in English both use past tense verbs almost exclusively. However, the article will use short sentences and a discourse pattern. The history textbook will use complex sentences and follow a timeline in its discourse structure. Awareness of these features allows students to anticipate the forms and structures they will encounter in a given communication task. 1.5.2.5. Limit expectations for drills Mechanical drills in which students substitute pronouns for nouns or alternate the person, number, or tense of verbs can help students memorize irregular forms and challenging structures. However, students do not develop the ability to use grammar correctly in oral and written interaction because these drills separate form from meaning and use. The content of the prompt and the response is set in advance. The student only has to supply the correct grammatical form, and can do that without really needing to understand or communicate anything. Communicative drills encourage students to connect form, meaning, and use because many correct responses are possible. In communicative drills, students respond to a prompt using the grammar point under consideration, but providing their own content. For example, to practice questions and answers in the past tense in English, teacher and students can ask and answer questions about activities the previous evening. The drill is communicative because none of the content is set in advance. 11 1.6. Description of the TOEIC Test The TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) Test is a multiple-choice, norm-referenced ESL (English as a Second Language) proficiency test designed to measure English language listening comprehension and reading comprehension skills in samples of nonnative-English speakers. TOEIC Test affairs worldwide are administered under the aegis of The Chauncey Group1. The TOEIC test is a two-hour multiple-choice test that consists of 200 questions divided into two sections: listening comprehension and reading comprehension. An examinee‟s score is based on the number of questions correctly answered, in increments of five points; both the listening and reading sections of the test are thus graded on a scale of 5 – 495 for a combined maximum score of 990 points. There is no penalty for wrong answers and examinees are encouraged to guess as this increases their potential for a higher score. 1.6.1. Listening section The listening section tests how well an examinee understands spoken English. It consists of four parts and contains 100 questions. The examinee will be asked to answer questions based on a variety of statements, questions, conversations, and talks recorded in English. The total time is approximately 45 minutes. To measure the skill, the test uses four different types of test items or questions. They are: photographs, question-respond, short conversations and short talks specialized as follows: Photographs: Each item involves a picture in the test booklet, showing a familiar situation. The examinee is asked to choose the letter in the test booklet that corresponds to most accurate of four spoken statements describing the picture. Question-Response: A question in English, spoken only one time is followed by three spoken responses, also spoken only one time in English. Questions pertain to situations deemed to be generally familiar. Examinees are asked to choose the letter in the test booklet that corresponds to the most accurate of the spoken responses. Short Conversations: Examinees hear a short conversation between two people, followed by a brief written question and four short, written answers. They 1 The subsidiary of the Educational Testing Service responsible for managing the TOEIC 12 ® test. are to choose the best answer to each question and mark it on the answer sheet. Conversations are on general topics. Short Talks: A short talk is presented on a general topic. Two or more written questions and response options (four) are provided in the test booklet. 1.6.2. Reading Comprehension The reading section includes three parts, testing how well an examinee understands written English. The examinee will read a variety of materials and respond at his own pace to 100 questions based on the content of the materials provided. The total time is 75 minutes. To measure the skill, the test uses three different types of test items or questions. They are: incomplete sentences, error recognition and reading comprehension specialized as follows: Incomplete Sentences: Examinees are asked to identify the word or phrase that best completes a sentence from which a word or phrase has been omitted; no spoken material is involved. Error Recognition: Four words or phrases are underlined and lettered in a sentence. Examinees are instructed to identify the one underlined word or phrase that should be corrected or rewritten and mark the corresponding letter on the answer sheet. Reading Comprehension A brief reading passage is followed by one or more written questions, each with four written answer options, to be answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the written passage. Examinees are instructed to choose the one option that best answers a question. Questions are based on a variety of reading passages, such as notices, letters, newspaper and magazine articles (e.g., announcement for prospective museum visitors, welcome card for hotel visitors, travel agency blurb, and so on). 1.6.3. TOEIC classic test and TOEIC re-designed test Now, in keeping with the policy of reevaluating and improving tests and following several years of ETS (Educational Testing Services) research, they have made some enhancements to the TOEIC test. And the new TOEIC Listening and Reading test was administered for the first time in the U.S and Canada in January 2007. Some enhancements include Listening and Reading section. (See Table a and Table b) 13 The re-designed TOEIC Listening and Reading test is believed to better reflect international business communication styles and real language contexts. The redesign is thought to be a valid measure of international communication today. Therefore, the Informatics and Languages Center of Dong Thap University has been applying the new TOEIC test as a tool for evaluating proficiency of non-English major students for approval of the mandatory graduation condition. Like the classic TOEIC Listening and Reading test, the new test features the same test time (2 hours, 45 minutes for Listening and 75 minutes for Reading), the same paper-and-pencil administration, and the same range of difficulty as the previous test. The score scale is still 5 to 495 points, increments of 5 points, and scores can be compared across both versions of the test. However, the new TOEIC test has some differences of both listening and reading section. The redesigned listening section has four major changes: a decrease in the number of photograph questions in part 1 (from 20 to 10), the use of both recorded and written question in part 3 (Conversations) and part 4 (Short Talks), an increase in number of questions that follow each talk in part 4 (3 questions instead of 2-3 in the earlier version) and the use of different English accents, as spoken in the U.S., Great Britain, Canada and Australia. Also, the new reading section has three major changes. They are the elimination of part 6 (Error-recognition questions), the addition of text completion questions (part 6) and the inclusion of reading sets of questions based on two interrelated passages (part 7). Of the item types in the classic TOEIC test, the error recognition items were determined to be the least appropriate from the point of view of current language proficiency theories. Therefore, this item type was eliminated and replaced with text-completion questions in part 6. Thus, the percent of questions on grammar in the re-designed TOEIC test decreases compared with those in the classic TOEIC one. Based on the statistics of New Real TOEIC staff 2 , 14-16 questions on grammar (equal to 7%-8%) will be included in part 5 (Incomplete Sentences). Nevertheless, the researcher‟ survey (see Table 3.1.3.b The number of grammar‟s 2 The staff of New Longman Real TOEIC Book did a research before publishing it. 14 test items in Part 6 of TOIEC test) of ten new TOEIC tests shows that there will be 3–7 questions on grammar (accounting for 1.5- 3.5%) in part 6 (Text Completion). Accordingly, in a new TOEIC test, the percent of test items on grammar fluctuates between 8.5 % (equal to 17 test items) and 11.5% (equal to 23 test items). Correspondingly, grammar contributes their test items to TOEIC exam. Table a TOEIC Classic Test (adapted from the TOEIC Examinee Handbook, The Chauncey Group Ltd. 1996) Part Name of each part Number of questions Listening Section (45 minutes) 1 Photographs 20 2 Question-Response 30 3 Short Conversation (30 conversations with 1 question each) 30 4 Short talks 20 Reading Section (75 minutes) 5 Incomplete Sentences 40 6 Error Recognition 20 7 Reading Comprehension 40 Table b TOEIC Re-designed Test (adapted from the TOEIC Examinee HandbookListening & Reading, The Chauncey Group Ltd) Part Name of each part Number of questions Listening Section (45 minutes) 1 Photographs 10 2 Question-Response 30 3 Short Conversation (10 conversations with 3 questions each) 30 4 Talks (10 talks with 3 questions each) 30 Reading Section (75 minutes) 5 Incomplete Sentences 40 15 6 Text Completion 12 7 Reading Comprehension 48  Single passages 28 (7-10 reading texts with 2-5 questions each)  Double passages 20 (4 pairs of reading texts with 5 questions per pair) 16 CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY This chapter focuses on introducing the methodology of the thesis. This chapter comprises five sections: (1) research questions; (2) research participant; (3) research procedure; (4) data collection and instruments and (5) data analysis method. As mentioned above, Informatics and Languages Center of Dong Thap University has been applying the redesigned TOEIC test for TOEIC exam, thus all of the term “TOEIC test” and “TOEIC exam” in this chapter and latter ones will be of the redesigned test format of ETS. 2.1. Research questions To obtain the above stated purposes, the study has to answer the following questions: (1) What is the reality of learning English Grammar for Toeic exam by Dong Thap University students? (2) What are the problems of the non-major students of Dong Thap University in learning English Grammar for Toeic exam? (3) What are the possible solutions for these problems? 2.2. Research participants 2.2.1. The researcher The study is carried out by Ho Hoang Phuc, the fourth-year student of Pedagogical English class 2009A, Foreign Language Department, Dong Thap University. 2.2.2. The subjects As the thesis was about to find out the reality and problems of learning English grammar for TOEIC exam, the participants in the thesis were the students of TOEIC classes. Nevertheless, due to the scope of B.A thesis, time and enormous data analysis, the research is limited to the students of TOEIC 1, 2, 3 classes. 17 2.3. Research procedure In order to achieve the targets mentioned earlier as well as the thesis in general, the process of making the thesis goes into three major stages. Writing the proposal was the very first stage in the process. At this time the supervisor suggested good advice for the researcher to decide what should be done to orientate the way to develop the thesis. Next, the survey questionnaire was conducted while the researcher was analyzing the grammar points in TOEIC 1, 2 course books and TOEIC tests. In the last stage, the results from data analysis were analyzed and discussed. 2.4. Data collection instruments 2.4.1. The questionnaire: Survey questionnaire is the major data collection instrument employed in the thesis. This thesis purposes to investigate the way of learning English grammar for TOEIC exam by Dong Thap University students. Therefore, the nineteen items of survey questionnaire round the way of learning, practicing English grammar, selfstudy as well as students‟ concerns to English grammar of TOEIC exam. In order to attain the data with the existence of accuracy and objective, there will be no part for the respondents‟ personal information. Because the respondents are non-English major students and avoiding misunderstanding, the questions were translated into Vietnamese and round the way of learning English grammar for TOEIC exam. The contents of the survey questionnaires are as follows: Question (1) is to know the students‟ interest of learning English grammar. Questions (2), (3), (4), (5) are to know the students‟ method of learning English grammar. Questions (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11) are to know the students‟ way of practicing English grammar. Questions (12), (13) are to know about spending time studying English grammar for TOEIC exam. 18 Question (14) is to know the students‟ self-study. Questions (15), (16) are to know the students‟ viewpoint on English grammar. Questions (17), (18), (19) are to know the students‟ concern to English grammar of TOEIC exam. 2.4.2. TOEIC course book analysis There are three TOEIC course books used to be taught, and they are TOEIC 1, 2, 3 books. Through the research‟s study, most of the grammar points in the TOEIC 3 book are included in the others as well. Therefore, the TOEIC 1, 2 course books will be analyzed. A statistical analysis on TOEIC 1, 2 course books that consist of two student‟s books and 2 workbooks is implemented to find out grammar points and test type items of those. From these valid data, the researcher will categorize and count, then expressing the percentage of these compared to the total. Also, This TOEIC syllabus analysis aims to compare and contrast with the percentage of grammar points in TOEIC exam that the research carries out an analysis of ten TOEIC tests and it will be mentioned in the next part. 2.4.3. TOEIC test analysis As mentioned above, there will be an analysis conducted to find out grammar points as well as its percentage to the total 200 multiple-choice test items in TOEIC exam. It will be more reliable and objective to the enormous test conveyed. However, there are only ten included due to limitation of time and enormous data analysis. 2.5. Method of data analysis 2.5.1. Statistics Statistics method which all the data from questionnaires, TOEIC 1, 2 course books and ten TOEIC tests are analyzed to understand it in detail is very important in data analysis. All responses in questionnaires are listed and counted for number and the test items in TOEIC test and TOEIC course book as well. The number will be converted into percentage in each case. 19 2.5.2. Comparison and contrast There are similarities and differences between grammar test items in the new TOEIC tests and those in TOEIC 1, 2 course books. They have English grammar points in common, but their frequency tested is different from each other. For this reason, it affects the student‟s process and result of learning. From the data analyzed by statistics method, test type items and grammar points in both TOEIC tests and TOEIC 1, 2 course books will be compared to each other. After comparison and contrast, the differences between them are pointed out and considered as good suggestions for the international exam. 20
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