An investigation into english-major students’ attitudes and teachers’ perceptions on the use of watching films with english subtitles in learning english

  • Số trang: 48 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 15 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
minhtuan

Đã đăng 15929 tài liệu

Mô tả:

CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT -------- AN INVESTIGATION INTO ENGLISH-MAJOR STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE USE OF WATCHING FILMS WITH ENGLISH SUBTITLES IN LEARNING ENGLISH Supervisor: Researcher: Nguyen Minh Thanh Phan Thanh Xuan Code: 7106981 Class: NN1054A2 Can Tho, 2013 DECLARATION The thesis entitled “An investigation into English-major students’ attitudes and perceptions on the use of watching films with English subtitles in learning English” is conducted under the supervision of Mr. Nguyen Minh Thanh. I declare that the information reported in this study is the result of my own work, except where the due reference is made. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted to any candidature for other degree or diploma. November, 2013 Supervisor Researcher Mr. Nguyen Minh Thanh Phan Thanh Xuan Page ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper could not have been completed without the help, encouragement and support from many people who all deserve my sincerest gratitude and appreciation. First of all, I would like to send my deepest gratitude to my supervisor – Mr. Nguyen Minh Thanh for his continuous support, his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis. I would like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of Mr. Huynh Minh Hien for his precious advice. Also, I’d like to thank the teachers who took part in my interview, shared their precious time during the process of interviewing, and gave me useful suggestions. I would like to thank my beloved family, who was always with me when I had difficulties and gave me mental support to complete my thesis successfully. I also received much help and support from my friends through the time I carried out the thesis. Hence, I would like to send my appreciation to those who have supported me throughout entire process. I will be grateful forever for your love. Phan Thanh Xuan Page iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1 1.1 Rationale ............................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Research aims .................................................................................................... 2 1.3 Research significance ......................................................................................... 2 1.4 Thesis organization ............................................................................................ 2 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................. 4 2.1 Theoretical bases ............................................................................................... 4 2.1.1 The comprehensible Input Hypothesis .................................................. 4 2.1.2 The Affective Filter .............................................................................. 5 2.1.3 The Dual Coding Theory (DCT) .......................................................... 5 2.2 Positive effects of videos on English learning .................................................... 6 2.3 Subtitles ............................................................................................................. 7 2.3.1 Defining subtitles ................................................................................. 7 2.3.2 Advantages and disadvantages of subtitles ........................................... 8 2.3.2.1 Advantages of subtitles ........................................................... 8 2.3.2.2. Disadvantages of subtitles ................................................... 10 2.4 Research questions........................................................................................... 11 2.5 Research hypothesis......................................................................................... 12 2.6 Expected outcome ............................................................................................ 12 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY................................................ 13 3.1 Research design ............................................................................................... 13 3.2 Participants ...................................................................................................... 13 3.3 Instruments ...................................................................................................... 15 3.3.1 Questionnaire ..................................................................................... 15 3.3.2 Interview ............................................................................................ 16 3.4 Research procedure .......................................................................................... 16 3.4.1 Pilot stage .......................................................................................... 16 3.4.2 Administering the questionnaire ......................................................... 16 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS, DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS .................. 18 4.1 Data result ....................................................................................................... 18 Page iv 4.1.1 Overview of statistical procedures ...................................................... 18 4.1.2 Descriptions of the results .................................................................. 18 4.1.2.1 Students’ attitudes and perceptions on watching films with English subtitles ............................................................................... 19 4.1.2.2 Students’ attitudes and perceptions on the benefits and drawbacks of watching films with English subtitles ......................... 20 4.1.2.3 Teachers’ ideas ..................................................................... 21 4.1.2.4 Conclusions .......................................................................... 22 4.2 Discussions ...................................................................................................... 22 4.2.1 Students’ attitudes and perceptions ..................................................... 22 4.2.1.1 Students’ attitudes and perceptions on watching films with English subtitles ............................................................................... 23 4.2.1.2 Students’ attitudes and perceptions on the benefits of watching films with English subtitles ............................................... 23 4.2.1.3 Students’ attitudes and perceptions on the drawbacks of watching films with English subtitles ............................................... 24 4.2.2 Teachers’ attitudes ............................................................................. 25 4.3 Conclusions .................................................................................................... 26 CHAPTER 5: LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................ 27 5.1 Limitations ...................................................................................................... 27 5.2 Recommendations............................................................................................ 27 REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 28 APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................................... 31 APPENDIX 2: BẢNG CÂU HỎI ........................................................................ 36 APPENDIX 3: QUESTIONS FOR INTERVIEW ............................................. 41 Page v LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURE List of tables Table 3.1 Characteristics of the participants........................................................... 13 Table 3.2 Clusters of the questionnaire item .......................................................... 15 Table 3.3 The reliability of the questionnaires ....................................................... 16 Table 4.1 The Reliability Coefficient of the Questionnaire .................................... 18 Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics about students’ attitudes and perceptions on good study environment ................................................................................................. 19 Table 4.3 Descriptive Statistics about students’ attitudes and perceptions on watching films with English subtitles..................................................................... 19 Table 4.4 Descriptive Statistics about students’ attitudes and perceptions on the benefits of watching films with English subtitles ................................................... 20 Table 4.5 Descriptive Statistics about students’ attitudes and perceptions on the drawbacks of watching films with English subtitles ............................................... 21 List of figures Figure 1 The sensory system.................................................................................... 6 Figure 2 The percentage of participants ................................................................. 14 Figure 4.1 Percentage of four courses in agreement with item 3 “I think I can learn new things from watching films with English subtitles”. ............................... 23 Figure 4.2 Percentage of four courses in agreement with item 9 “With the subtitles, I can listen to the pronunciation and intonation of native speakers”. ....... 24 Figure 4.3 Percentage of four courses in agreement with item 24 “I can know how the words are pronounced but still I don’t know the meaning”. ...................... 25 Page vi ABSTRACT Watching films is one of the most popular ways of entertainment. However, films are not just relaxation; they are also a valuable language teaching tool. With advances in technology, options of how one can watch movies are various. Besides, the subtitles of the target language might offer a new path for learners in language learning. Films with English subtitles become a useful activity in classroom which provides students many new things. The study was conducted from September to November, 2013 in Can Tho University, to examine the three main aspects: (1) students’ attitudes and teachers’ perceptions on the use of watching films with English subtitles in learning English, (2) benefits and drawbacks of watching films with English subtitles, and (3) problems teachers may encounter when they use this activity in classroom. The study involved 145 students from 4 courses of English major (course 36, 37, 38 and 39) and three teachers. The research follows a descriptive approach with two instruments: a twenty-six-item questionnaire of the five-point scale to know students’ attitudes and perceptions on the use of watching films with English subtitles, and an interview to know teachers’ problems when using this activity. The data results from the questionnaire were treated via SPSS17.0. The results showed that the students had a positive attitude towards watching films with English subtitles as well as the good perception towards the benefits of this activity. The study also revealed students’ problems in learning pronunciation and vocabulary through English subtitles in films although the students did not have a clear perception towards the drawbacks of this activity. Page vii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, I would like to state rationale of the problem, and research aims. 1.1 Rationale Watching films is one of the most popular ways of entertainment. However, films are not just for relaxation; they are also a valuable language-teaching tool. Movies allow teachers to introduce variety and reality into the classroom. Furthermore, almost everyone finds watching film pleasurable and enjoys talking about them. However, the problem is on the teachers, who have to find the best way to make movies an educational tool for instruction. With advances in technology, options of how one can watch movies are various. Not only the sound and the images are adopted, but the subtitle of the target language is also called for assisting comprehension. Subtitles might offer a new path for learners in language learning. From a motivation aspect, it seems that using movies is a perfect choice in a language-learning classroom. Language learning is a complicated process. To be a successful English learner, one must be proficient in many skills, e.g. listening, speaking, reading and writing… etc. Having pressure while studying is a normal physical feeling anyone can face. Tsai and Huang (2009) agreed that a learner lacking interest or having stress in learning can often fail to make progress; films with different types can catch individuals’ interest and arouse learners’ motivation. Learning motivation has long been regarded as one of the essential factors in foreign language learning. According to Krashen (1982), in any aspect of education, it is always important to create a safe, welcoming environment in which students can learn. In language education, this may be especially important because learners need to feel that they are able to make mistakes and take risks in order to acquire language. This relates directly to Krashen’s hypothesis of the Affective Filter. As a fan of movies, I find myself interested in both the films and the benefits they bring to my learning English. Inspired by Krashen’s hypothesis, and my expectation, I Page 1 carry out my research on “An investigation into English-major students’ attitudes and perceptions on the use of watching films with English subtitles in learning English.” 1.2 Research aims:  To know students’ attitudes and perceptions on the use of watching English films with subtitle in learning English.  To know benefits and drawbacks of using films with subtitle in learning English.  To know teachers’ ideas on the use of films with subtitle. 1.3 Research significance The study is carried out to investigate the students’ attitudes and perceptions on the use of watching films with English subtitles – a useful activity which is not often used in classroom. The study will help students have a closer look at its benefits and drawbacks so that students can adjust this activity to be suitable for their level, and enhance their English competence. 1.4 Thesis organization The thesis is divided into five chapters: Chapter 1: Introduction provides readers with background information such as the rationale, three primary objectives of the study with three research questions. Chapter 2: Literature Review states the Theoretical bases, including the Comprehensible Input Hypothesis, the Affective Filter, the Dual Coding Theory (DCT), also the positive effects of videos on English learning, definition of subtitle, and its advantages and disadvantages are mentioned as well. Moreover, the research questions, research hypothesis and expected outcomes are listed in this chapter. Chapter 3: Methodology presents the research design, description of participants and instruments, and research procedures. Chapter 4: Results and discussion describe analysis of data collected from the questionnaire, the interviews. The results will specify three aspects: (1) attitudes and perceptions of English-major students on the use of watching films with English subtitles in learning English, (2) participants’ ideas on benefits and drawbacks of Page 2 watching films with English subtitles, (3) difficulties of teachers in the implementation of using films with English subtitles in teaching English Chapter 5: The study is concluded with some limitations and suggestions for further research in the future. Page 3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, I would like to state the Theoretical bases, including the Comprehensible Input Hypothesis, the Affective Filter, the Dual Coding Theory (DCT), I also state the positive effects of videos on English learning, definition of subtitle, and its advantages and disadvantages as well. The research questions, research hypothesis and expected outcome are also included in this chapter. 2.1 Theoretical bases 2.1.1. The Comprehensible Input Hypothesis The comprehensible Input Hypothesis, proposed by Krashen, is a part of his theory of second language acquisition. He noted the idea that language learners acquire language when they understand messages or receive “comprehensible input”. The input can be in the form of oral and written language. The input hypothesis answers the question of how a language acquirer develops competency over time. It states that a language acquirer who is at "level i" must receive comprehensible input that is at "level i+1." In other words, the input materials must be slightly higher than the learners’ current level. Krashen stressed that the structures “i + 1” (above the existing level of competence) are understood by using context, knowledge of the world together with the existing competence “i”. The comprehensible input is done with the help of context and extra-linguistic information. Adding subtitles to films would appear to increase the chances to help the learners to comprehend the content of the films. Newman and Koskinen (1992) suggested that subtitled television is a valid form of comprehensible input, thus making subtitled films a source of comprehensible input, and leading to foreign language acquisition. Moreover, subtitled films provide learners with the opportunity to experience the target language in a rich, more natural context (William, 1960). The use of visual images, as a video-based instruction, has been claimed by many researchers to be effective in making listening input more comprehensible (Terrell, 1993; Mac William, 1986; Stempleski, 1990, 1991, 1992; Katchen, 1996; Raphan, Page 4 1996). Authentic listening materials are also recommended as a means of providing students with more realistic contexts and comprehensible input(as cited in Lin, 2002). Hwang and Huang (2011) claimed that multimedia have beneficial effects on language learning because of abundant and authentic comprehensible input. 2.1.2. The Affective Filter Krashen’s Affective Filter hypothesis captured the relationship between affective variables and the process of second language acquisition by assuming that learners fluctuate with respect to the strength and level of the Affective Filter. A student with high motivation, high self-esteem and low anxiety will have a low affective filter, and will be able to take full advantage of the input. On the other hand, a student with low motivation, low self-esteem and high anxiety will have a high affective filter, and will not be able to effectively process the input, even if it is “comprehensible.” To sum up, Krashen suggested that language learners might be distracted by emotional factors in language learning process. Negative emotions are formed through passive moods, including low motivation, low self-esteem, and anxiety. In order to reduce learners’ pessimistic mood and improve their learning motivation, Krashen implied that language teachers should create a comfortable, lower affective filter and motivation stimulating study environment, in which learners can develop higher selfesteem and a greater sense of confidence and fulfillment. King (2002) stated, “Films provide more pedagogical options and are a rich resource of intrinsically motivating materials for learners”. 2.1.3 The Dual Coding Theory (DCT) The Dual Coding Theory (hereafter DCT), was proposed by Paivio (1971), suggested that individuals learn best when information is represented using both verbal and nonverbal methods. Paivio pointed out that information could be represented by pictures and words at the same time. Verbal information includes spoken and written words, while non-verbal information includes images, actions and sensations (Clark & Paivio, 1991). The two information sources generate two coding systems: verbal codes and non-verbal codes which are functionally independent and interconnected by referential links. Page 5 Figure 1The sensory System The subtitled films provide two channels of verbal information (the audio track and the subtitles), in addition to one channel of non-verbal information (moving pictures). These three independent channels are interconnected and presented simultaneously. Therefore, they seem to be a very suitable form of media for activating the dual-coding systems with viewers’ brains. 2.2 Positive effects of videos on English learning Though video and other multimedia have been around since the late 1960’s, it is the recent drop in costs that have made these kinds of materials a practical possibility in a wide variety of classrooms. As such, more and more educators have come to consider these tools as media of instructions. Canning – Wilson (2000) suggested that “images contextualized in video or on its own can help to reinforce language learning, provided the learner can see immediate meaning in terms of vocabulary recognition” and revealed that the students enjoy learning language through the use of video. Snyder and Colon (1988) and some authors have already demonstrated how video clips are more efficient than still pictures when we teach unknown vocabulary items (Al-Seghayer, 2001). Among other reasons, this is due to the fact that video is able to improve the building of a mental image, to create a curiosity that leads to intense focus, and because it embodies that highly beneficial combination of media already discussed. Quoting Carter and McCarthy (1988), “the more opportunities that can be found for formal transfer between Page 6 foreign and mother-tongue words, the better the chances for retention”. Videos provide “slice of living language” in the sense that the amount of realism encoded in video is greater than those to be found in either written or audio media. Zarei & Rashvand (2011) believed that watching films is a useful way to learn a foreign language. However, it’s difficult for learners to understand films if they rely only on listening comprehension. Therefore, subtitles play an outstanding role in facilitating the learning process. 2.3 Subtitles 2.3.1 Defining subtitles The first closed-captioned TV program was transmitted by the National Captioning Institute of the USA in 1980. Captions were used in the news during the late hours for hearing-impaired audiences. Soon its educational potentials drew attention of teachers of English language. Subtitling is a branch of translation called audio-visual translation in which viewers can read statements of dialogues on the screen as well as watch the images and listen to the dialogues (Reich, 2006). Captions and subtitles have exactly the same definitions although some make a distinction and define that captions is for both deaf and hearing-impaired viewers, while subtitles is special to hearers. (Neves, 2008). According to Oxford Dictionary, subtitles means “captions displayed at the bottom of a cinema or television screen that translate or transcribe the dialogue or narrative”. (2010). The term “caption” usually comes when we mention “subtitle”, in UK English, “subtitle” is used to mean both caption and subtitle. Similarly, Wikipedia defines both caption and subtitle as “the textual versions of the dialogue in films and television programs, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen”. Katchen, Lin, Fox and Chun (2002) categorized six combinations of subtitles as following sections:  Standard Subtitling (L2 audio with L1 subtitles)  Bimodal Subtitling (L2 audio with L2 subtitles)  Reversed Subtitling (L1 audio with L2 subtitles) Page 7  Bilingual Subtitling (L2 audio with L2 and L1 subtitles simultaneously)  Bilingual Reversed Subtitling (L1 audio with L1and L2 subtitles simultaneously)  No Subtitling (L2 audio with no subtitles at all) This research aimed at focusing on Bimodal Subtitling, which means English movies with English subtitles. 2.3.2 Advantages and disadvantages of subtitles 2.3.2.1 Advantages of subtitles Subtitles were initially used in 1980s for hearing-impaired children. However, the potential use for foreign language learning soon became quite apparent, and many studies of Borras and Lafayette (1994), Dana (2004), Garza (1991) have confirmed that combining subtitles with audio-visual materials is an effective instructional method to enhance the listening and reading comprehension of a second language (as cited in Latifi, 2011). The studies that support subtitles have usually demonstrated improvement in two major aspects: a higher level of comprehension and better vocabulary recognition ability. In terms of comprehension, several studies have reported a significant improvement of the listening and reading comprehension after being exposed to the subtitled movies. A pilot study (Price, 1983) conducted with 500 ESL learners, revealed that their listening comprehension in English was greatly improved. In addition, “viewers, regardless of education level or language background, benefited significantly from captioning, even with only one viewing”. (p.8). Garza (as cited in Hsu et al, 2013) did an experiment to examine the effect of subtitles in ESL learners in Russia. Based on the findings of his study, Garza argued that subtitles had a significant effect on reading and listening comprehension. Similarly, Huang and Eskey (2000) investigated the effect of subtitles on the listening comprehension of intermediate ESL learners. Their study revealed that subtitles improved not only listening comprehension skills of college-level ESL learners but also their general comprehension and vocabulary development. When students watch videos in a foreign language, the contribution of comprehending and Page 8 connecting the foreign language and its meaning is limited if they cannot understand what they have heard. Therefore, Hsu and colleagues (2013) stressed the use of captions and subtitles in enhancing the effectiveness of listening comprehension. Caimi (2006) believed that subtitles improved second language learners’ listening comprehension because of the reproduction of oral language in written form. Goldman (1993) concluded that subtitled television motivated ESL students of intermediate and advanced levels in terms of their reading comprehension. Moreover, he stressed that subtitled programs is a powerful and dynamic supplemental teaching aid. In another study, the contribution of computer-based subtitling to language learning was investigated and conclusion was made that subtitling encouraged learners to understand the content of the films (Zanon, 2006). To investigate the effectiveness of subtitles on film comprehension, Grigon, Lavaur and Blanc (2005) compared three versions of films (dubbed, subtitled and original version) and found that dubbed and subtitled versions led to a better performance in comparison to the original version. Moreover, the effect of three kinds of subtitles (bimodal, standard and reversed) on target vocabulary recognition and recall was investigated by students in Iran(Zarei, 2009). Regarding to vocabulary recall, the Bimodal Subtitles was the most effective while reversed subtitles was the least effective of the three. In another study on the effect of subtitling, Steward and Pertusa (2004) explored gains in vocabulary recognition made by intermediate students by viewing films in Spanish with English subtitles and others group watching the same film with Spanish subtitles. They reported that the former outperformed in enhancing vocabulary recognition. Markham (1999) investigated the effect of subtitled videotapes on aural word recognitions skills and found that the presence of subtitles significantly improved the participants’ ability to identify the key words they subsequently heard aural words again. Neuman and Koskinen (1992) also pointed out that subtitled programs created a rich language environment which enabled students to learn incidental words through contexts. The two researchers supported that subtitled programs provided powerful comprehension input which had an effect on ESL learners’ acquisition of vocabulary and reading development. In support of the positive perception toward subtitles, Ben and Page 9 Wilsons (1989) reported that students show extremely positive attitudes toward subtitling and showed notable improvement in vocabulary acquisition, reading comprehension, listening comprehension and word recognition. Ellsworth (1992) reported that closed-subtitled programs motivated learners to use their target language with greater comfort and confidence. The researcher contended that subtitled videos may help learners who are not confident in their second language to use it, interact with it, and expand it. 2.3.2.2 Disadvantages of subtitles When subtitles have been used as a support in foreign language education, they have sometimes been considered distracting and tending to slow down the development of listening skills, because learners rely on the text rather than the streams of speech. In spite of the beneficial aspects described above, subtitles may not be suitable for all materials and viewers at all levels of language proficiency. In particular, it may be helpful for beginners only if the materials is carefully adapted to their levels and contains certain amount of familiar phrases. In a study conducted by Guillory (1998), the researcher found that if the materials were too advanced, many words used in the video were not listed in the textbook glossary, captions and subtitles could not sufficiently compensate for the fast rate of speech and difficult vocabulary level. The major problems with all the studies supporting the positive effect of subtitles lies in the fact that they all neglected the long-term effect of subtitles on improving the actual listening comprehension skills of the listeners. The immediate effect of using subtitles was investigated and no attention was paid to the actual performance of the listeners without the support of subtitles and captions. Moreover, the critics have pointed out some pitfalls of subtitles on several aspects. For example, there is a general traditional belief that subtitles are disturbing and are a source of laziness. The major challenge of using subtitles may be the fact that students become used to the written support and no actual gain made in listening comprehension ability which is the primary focus. In this regard, Robin (2007) argued the efficiency of subtitles in the long run and doubted the superficial improvement in the listening ability. Some empirical studies found that the use of subtitles even hindered the comprehension. Taylor (2005) in his Page 10 research found no-subtitled group performed significantly better compared with the captioned group. Caimi (2006) found that with the captioned texts, the students’ concentration was primarily on reading rather than listening. Some students found the captions distracting and were confused by the coinciding language presentation. These above ideas have mentioned about the effect of subtitled movies on English learning. Although many studies have hypothesized the effects of subtitled films on language learners, little research related to this interest has been found in CTU. Thus, there is a need for exploration. I intend to carry on this research to find out whether those believes are reliable or not. 2.4 Research questions:  To what extent do students like watching films with English subtitles in learning English?  What are some benefits and drawbacks of watching films with English subtitles?  What are teacher’s ideas to the use of films with English subtitles in teaching English? 2.5 Research hypothesis I hypothesize that  Most students like watching films with English subtitles as a tool to learn English.  The students and teachers agree that using films with English subtitles in learning English brings some advantages and disadvantages.  Teachers have encountered some problems when using films with English subtitles to teach students. Hopefully, the thesis would help the teachers of English as well as students realize the effects, the benefits and drawbacks of watching film with subtitles. Page 11 2.6 Expected outcome It is hoped that the findings of the research will be helpful for both teachers and students. The result will lead to some conclusions about the use of watching films with subtitles in learning English that are helpful for students, and provide some suggestions for teachers with some problems, which may be encountered when applying this method. Page 12 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In this chapter, I will present the research design, description of participants and instruments, and research procedures. 3.1 Research design This research follows the descriptive approach which surveys attitudes and perceptions of English-major students on the use of films with English subtitles in learning English. Moreover, some teachers’ problems when applying film subtitles and their suggested solutions are also mentioned. 3.2 Participants 145 students, including 113 females and 32 males in CTU were randomly invited to participate in this study. The participants consisted of students majoring in English in all four courses. The general characteristics of the participants are demonstrated in table 3.1 and the percentage of participants is described in figure 2. Table 3.1 Characteristics of the participants (N = 145) Total Female (%) Male (%) Course 36 31 93,5 6,5 Course 37 37 64,8 35,2 Course 38 40 82,5 17,5 Course 39 37 72,9 27,1 Page 13
- Xem thêm -