An investigation into common mistakes in speaking performance of the first-year english-majored students case in can tho university

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CAN THO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AN INVESTIGATION INTO COMMON MISTAKES IN SPEAKING PERFORMANCE OF THE FIRST-YEAR ENGLISH-MAJORED STUDENTS CASE IN CAN THO UNIVERSITY Supervisor: Dr. Thai Cong Dan Name: Tran Nguyen Hong Anh Student code: 7106985 Class: NN 1054A3 Can Tho – 12/ 2013 CAN THO, 2013 45 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the preparation for this research, I am deeply indebted to many individuals who help me make this thesis in reality. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Thai Cong Dan for his supervisor for this thesis. I would like to give deeply thankful to Dr. Thai Cong Dan again for accepting me as your B.A students. When I start working on this study, he showed me how to make a plan, when and where to commence this thesis. He has showed your role as a very responsible supervisor to a novice researcher like me. He spent his valuate time for reading and giving me his feedback and the suggestion for the drafts until the whole thesis was done. He always gives helpful feedback for each section and chapter in my thesis. He would be arranging his valuable time for direct conversation with me in pleasure if I had any confusing about the thesis. During the thesis working time, he was always beside me with his patience, enthusiastic and encouragement not only in my good time but also in my hard time of working. I greatly acknowledge his whole-hearted supervision, without these it would be difficult for me to complete the thesis. I would like to say thank you to Ms. Tran Thi Phuong Thao, the teacher of the first-year English-majored speaking class. She was given me an opportunity to enter the classroom for the observation as well as implement the interview. She was helping me with all of the enthusiastic and pleasure, it was so useful for me to make the thesis done. Finally, with deep gratitude goes to my family and relatives, for their love, priceless gift of understanding and inspiration and for their moral and financial support. 45 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................... iii Table of contents ............................................................................................................................ iv List of tables ................................................................................................................................... .v List of figures ................................................................................................................................. vi Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study ................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Aims of the study .............................................................. 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Bookmark not defined. 1.3 Significance of the study ................................................................................................... 3 1.4 Organization of the study .................................................................................................. 3 Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................................... 5 2.1 Definition of English speaking skill .................................................................................. 5 2.2 English performance in higher education .......................................................................... 6 2.3Mistakes of ESL students' speaking performance ............................................................... 6 Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .......................................................................... 9 3.1 Research question and hypotheses .................................................................................... 9 3.1.1 Research question ...................................................................................................... 9 3.1.2 Hypotheses................................................................................................................. 9 3.2 Research design ................................................................................................................ 9 3.4 Setting and participants ................................................................................................... 10 3.5 Research instruments ...................................................................................................... 10 3.5.1 Questionnaire ........................................................................................................... 11 3.5.2 Observation .............................................................................................................. 12 3.5.3 Interviewing ............................................................................................................. 13 3.6 Procedures ...................................................................................................................... 14 Chapter 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................ 18 4.1 Findings .......................................................................................................................... 18 4.2 Discussions ..................................................................................................................... 32 Chapter 5: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ........................................................... 34 5.1 Summary ........................................................................ 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Bookmark not defined.7 REFERNENCES ............................................................................................................................... 38 APPENDICES............................................................................................................................................................. 41 APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................................................................... 41 APPENDIX 2 CLASSROOM OBSERVATION .................................................................................... 43 APPENDIX 3 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS............................................................................... 48 45 APPENDIX 4 INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT......................................................................................... 49 APPENDIX 5 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE-GROUP 1 .......................................................... 55 APPENDIX 6 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE-GROUP 2 .......................................................... 57 APPENDIX 7 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE-GROUP 3 .............................................................. 59 APPENDIX 8 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE-GROUP 4 .......................................................... 61 APPENDIX 9 THE FREQUENCY-GROUP 1 ...................................................................................... 63 APPENDIX 10 THE FREQUENCY-GROUP 2 ....................................................................... 67 APPENDIX 11 THE FREQUENCY-GROUP 3 ................................................................................... 69 APPENDIX 12 THE FREQUENCY-GROUP 4 ....................................................................... 70 45 LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Clustering the questionnaires………………………………………………12 Table 4.1 Grammar in English speaking performance……………………………….19 Table 4.2 Wrong adjective orders…………………………………………………….20 Table 4.3 Transition words…………………………………………………………...21 Table 4.4 Problems in vocabulary intonation and pronunciation…………………….22 Table 4.5 The problems in lacking of vocabularies…………………………………..23 Table 4.6 Students’ confusion in word choice in the specific contexts………………24 Table 4.7 Students’ attitudes towards the benefits of slang understanding ………….25 45 LIST OF FIGURE Figure 4.1 The percentage of common mistakes in English speaking Performance ...………………………………………………………………………. 26 45 TÓM LƯỢC Nghiên cứu nhằm mục đích tìm ra những lỗi sai thường gặp của sinh viên chuyên ngành Anh văn năm thứ nhất thông qua những hoạt động nói của họ trong lớp học. Giả thuyết được đặt ra là sinh viên sẽ nhận ra được lỗi sai thường gặp của mình trong việc nói tiếng Anh, đồng thời có thái độ tích cực hơn với việc học kỹ năng nói tiếng Anh . Có 40 sinh viên năm thứ nhất chuyên ngành Anh văn của trường Đại Học Cần Thơ tham gia vào nghiên cứu này. Những công cụ được sử dụng trong nghiên cứu này là bảng khảo sát về những lỗi sai thường gặp trong việc nói tiếng Anh, khảo sát trực tiếp lớp học để ghi nhận lỗi sai và phỏng vấn trực tiếp thái độ của giáo viên và học sinh về những lỗi sai thường mắc phải trong việc nói tiếng Anh của những sinh viên chuyên ngành năm nhất. Sau khi hoàn thành bảng khảo sát, người thực hiên nghiên cứu sẽ tham gia vào lớp học trong 3 tuần để thực hiên việc quan sát và ghi nhận lỗi sai. Trong suốt quá trình quan sát, người nghiên cứu ghi nhận lại những lỗi mà sinh viên mắc phải, khi họ thực hiên kỹ năng nói tiếng Anh thông qua những hoạt động giao tiếp thực tế trong lớp học. Cuối quá trình nghiên cứu, giáo viên và sinh viên sẽ thma gia vào cuộc phỏng vấn để hoàn tất quá trình nghiên cứu, thu thập dữ liệu. Những dữ liệu từ các bảng khảo sát sẽ được phân tích bằng phần mềm thống kê SPSS phiên bản 16.0. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy việc tìm ra lỗi sai sẽ giúp cho sinh viên cải thiện và nâng cao năng lực nói tiếng Anh. Từ khóa: sai lầm phổ biến, trình bày kỹ năng nói, sinh viên chuyên ngành tiếng Anh, sinh viên năm nhất 45 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to figure out the common mistakes in English speaking performance of the first year English major students through their speaking activities in classroom. It is hypothesized that students would be realized the mistakes in speaking as well as they would have the positive attitudes in studying speaking English. There were 40 English major freshmen at Can Tho University attending in this research. The instruments used in this study were the questionnaires, the observation and the interview on students and teachers attitudes towards the common mistakes in speaking English caused by the first year English major students. After students taking the questionnaires, the researcher attended the classroom for three weeks for the observation. During the program, the researcher took note in the observation sheets about students’ mistakes in classroom through the real communication and actual conversation speaking in class. Finally, students and teacher took the interview to complete the instruments for researching. The data from questionnaires were statistically analyzed by SPSS English version 16.0 package. The results suggested that the common mistakes based on the research results need to be considered to help the students increasing their speaking abilities. Key words: common mistakes, speaking performance, English major students, freshmen 45 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study With the globalization, people from all over the world, communicating with the others by one common language and English is the gold key for all of them to get their aims in the international environment. According to AJ Hoge (2012), automatic English speaking is very important because it can help you get real results in studying English, such as: connecting with the native speakers easily as well as making friends, participating in business meeting, talking to customers, understanding movies, and getting better jobs. The communication in various fields is very important for students who study English as a second language. Robert, P. and John, H. (2010). Nowadays, English has become more and more popular, so the elements of the global economic growth strategies are the recognition and confirmation through the importance of English. Language is an art, and languages can help you to know more about the civilization, the culture, as well as the people in the countries which are these languages belong to. Thus, learning to speak English is the way that you give your confidence and imagination in the language and the power for invention and recreation in life. If you could be able to express your feelings in the new language which is completely different from your mother tongue, it would be fantastic! Lulia. E, (2009). Besides, speaking effectively in English not only helps students in communication, information and research in studying but also in their careers and develops their jobs. English has a strong effect on students in schools, universities as well as communication outside. Some countries analyzed and demonstrated English have the important effect on their countries, such as “the ease of doing business, total of Foreign Direct Investment inflow, percentages of Foreign Direct Investment coming from English-speaking countries, total employed population, annual gross income per capita, and annual gross income per capita of a salaried professional job”. Robert, P. and John, H. (2010). However, lack of English communication environment is one of the reasons leading to the fact that students become confused whenever making conversation with 45 the foreigners. English skills include reading, speaking, writing and grammar, and they need to be improved together in order to use English fluently and effectively. But nowadays, students only focus on grammar when they study in high school or even in university. It leads to the fact that students are very good at grammar or doing exercise in English, but they cannot communicate with the foreigners confidently, fluently and naturally. Making mistakes in speaking performance is the most English common mistakes in school, universities or in our daily life of students who study English as a Second Language (ESL). Many studies mention about the difficulties in studying speaking skill of ELS students as well as the problems they have to face with in studying time (Kathleen.M, Issues in Teaching speaking skill to adult English for Speakers of Other Languages learner, 2002). It is believed that "the lack of interactive language skills sustains a pattern of high enclosure (i.e., the tendency to live in neighborhoods with people from one’s home culture and to interact almost exclusively in the native language)". Isolation in the deliberately way because of the desiring to retain the culture, the mother tongue or in the unintentional way such as the measuring of the economic effectively to impede the English practicing opportunities in real positions and situations as well as lack of the real environment for speaking English. In other study, it is believed that students who are trained in English centers do not focus on speaking skill. (Patchara, V. (2007)). This problem is not only happens in Vietnam but also in many other countries where English is spoken as a second language. 1.2 Aims of the study This study aims to investigate the common mistakes in speaking performance of students, who study English as a second language in Vietnam, with the case in Can Tho university, especially the first year English-majored students, in order to help them recognize as well as classify the mistakes. Besides that, students can help themselves avoid the mistakes while speaking. Furthermore, this study will expropriate, improve the teaching methods in teaching speaking English through the students common mistakes in speaking. 1.3 Significance of the study 45 The findings of this study provide the benefits information in the speaking field. These remarkable and valuable information are contribute to the speaking teaching as well as the students’ speaking performance and enhance the awareness of studying in speaking through students’ common mistakes in speaking. Firstly, this study will support the students’ attitude towards their common mistakes by taking the questionnaire, the researcher’s observation and the interview. Secondly, it could encourage the students studying in English speaking field. Finally, the findings from this study would give the positive effect on students in English speaking skills. Therefore, it is a background for further researches in English speaking skill not only on teachers’ teaching but also on students’ studying as well. 1.4 Organization of the study This study is organized in five chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. Literature review, 3. Research methodology, 4. Findings and discussion, 5. Conclusions and Implications. Chapter 1 presents the background of the study including the problems and benefits of speaking English in globalization society. After that, the aims of the study also are introduced. Next, the significance of the study provides the implication and the importance of the research in figuring out the common mistakes in English speaking of the first year students. Chapter 2 works with the literatures as the prior knowledge of the study. It includes several of definitions about the speaking skill and speaking performance in higher education as well as the classification about the common mistakes of students in some countries around the world, especially the mistakes of the first year students who study English as a second language in Vietnam. Chapter 3 describes the methodology of the study in detail including the research design and participants. It starts with the research aim, research question and research hypothesis. Next, it is followed by the research methodology in detail description of the instruments to collect the data and the explanation about how the data are analyzed. 45 Chapter 4 presents the results of the study and discusses the findings of the research. The analysis from the questionn3aire result gives the common mistakes that students often made in English speaking performance, the observation and interview adding the supplement and reinforcement for the research. Chapter 5 summaries the main findings of the study related to the research question. The implication of figuring out the common mistakes in English speaking performance is mentioned following the conclusions of the research. Finally, this chapter discusses the limitation and the recommendations for further research related to this research topic. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, the first section aims to give the definitions of speaking skill as well as English speaking performance in higher education. The second section is concerned 45 about students’ common mistakes in speaking English will be introduced not only in Vietnam but also around the world. 2.1 Definitions of English speaking skill Speaking is a way that helps people to communicate with each other by verbal language, which has the information exchange and contents building up in the conversation. According to Fayzeh.S (cited in Chaney,1998), speaking is the building and sharing meaning process expressing by the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols in many different situations. Another definition based on Situjuh.N thesis (2011, cited in Gumperz, 1999), speaking is made from the cooperation action of the contributions, assumptions, expectations and interpretations from the participants in each regular situation. Generally, speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. (Mary. A, cited in Brown, 1994; Burns & Joyce, 1997). Speaking skill is known as one of four main skills in teaching and studying English, including: Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking. And speaking skill does not simple like it seems, it is the complicated process of the development including more things than just pronouncing or reading aloud one word separately. (Trinh, 2008). Based on Chi's thesis (2008), having a good speaking skill is the most important aim of the learners who study foreign languages in order to communicating and interacting with others in classroom in particular contexts. We must give utterances most of the time for communicating and many other purposes, so that speaking skill is the necessary thing in classroom studying as well as in outside contacting. 2.2 English speaking performance in higher education Speaking performance is inferred as the ways of how to perform the speech including the performing styles, word choices or the structures which are used in the performance. In higher education, students not only making conversation with others 45 but also making the performance in front of the classroom. So they ways they choose the styles, the grammar structures or the vocabularies for using in the speeches are very important to create an impression for the listeners or the audiences. According to Adrian, J. (2011), English speaking performance was used grammatical correctly, including vocabulary appropriate to the topics, audiences and purposes as well as determines the author’s purpose and intended effect on the audience for media messages. So this was the reason why English speaking performance so important to people especially to students in order to express their ideas as well as cause a strongly impressed to the audiences. With the same idea, Ashfort, S. (2013) was also indicated that performance English would allow people to convey their messages in a clear, impactful way that would authentically engaged their audiences under all circumstances. Moreover, English speaking performance also retrained the information of the brain in the higher way in overriding undesirable habits as well as improved and managed the art of the presentations. 2.3 Mistakes of ESL student’s speaking performance Mistake is an error or fault and it is the result of the defective judgment, deficient knowledge, or carelessness. Mistakes appear in all aspects whenever we not pay attention to what we are doing, and the carelessness is the reason of creating mistakes. In communication, the mistakes are often appearing because of the characteristics of the speeches: expressing ideas quickly, understanding each other through the key words, grammar structures are not required. Besides that, lack of speaking performance skill also lead to the fact that, students often make mistakes when they have English speeches in front of class. The anxiety is one more reason causing mistakes, because the students have to overcome the limit of the mother tongue to reach to the limit of the new language, new culture and new way of thinking and performing fluently and effectively. These problem leads to the fact that, students not only in Vietnam but also in others countries where English spoken as a second language always have trouble in speaking skill as well as speaking performance. According to Hien, N. (2009) (cited in Brown (1994, p205), mistakes in speaking performance are the random or a “slip” using of English, and they are the 45 failure in using the language system correctly. So these mistakes are often caused by non-native speakers in the world. As indicated by Thomas, L. and Stephanie, F. (2011), common mistakes causing by Japanese students are made from the shyness in communicating, lacking of vocabularies in using both Japanese and English, bad pronunciation and the speed of speech. And the vocabulary is the most anxious problem of Japanese students in speaking performance. William. H (1984) believed that, grammatical errors are the mistakes which usually made by Japanese students because of the differences in English structures and the native Japanese structures. These similarities mistakes also happen with the Korean students when they performance English in classroom. Snaed (2009) was mentioned that pronunciation is the most common mistakes of Korean students, such as short vowels and long vowels, the confusion in pronouncing the consonants Whereas, the Brazilian students often get stuck in word choices while they making conversations or performances in English. The miscellaneous using in particular words such as "say", "tell", "talk", "speak" are the reason lead to the fact that their performances are not cause strongly impressive to the listeners. John (2011). According to David (2011), most of Chinese learners who learn English as a second language, they have problems with English pronunciation and their fluency in English. In addition, slang using was one of the difficulty for students in speaking English. According to Jorgen, A. (2010), in social life, slang appears when an individual applies language in a new and novel way to express the opposition, ridicule, or contempt. Slang often tinged with humor. It was the reason why understanding and using slang were so important for students in English speaking. It was necessary for students who wanted to use English fluently and naturally. In Vietnam, like others countries where English is spoken as a second language, mistakes in speaking performance are usually causing by many reasons, lack of environment, students' shyness and speaking skill is not mentioned while studying English. So the common mistakes in speaking happen in pronunciation, how to pronounce the vowels and consonants correctly are very difficult for them, because the students are taught how these sounds pronounced in classroom automatically, not 45 in real situation. Hien, N. (2009) mentioned, some pronunciation mistakes were the little used of stress and the wrong pronounce of the consonants at the end of the words as well as the mistakes in word choice, students often used the words with inappropriate meaning. Furthermore, Vietnamese is their mother tongue, so that they cannot practice in the English spoken environment. According to Nu (2009), the ways of how to pronounce the sounds in English correctly are very confusing for Vietnamese learners in studying English. Besides that, in grammatical errors, word form, comprehension errors and translation errors, "grammatical errors occupy the largest percentage in the total number errors". (Na, 2010). From this thesis above, mistakes in English speaking performance are the common problem of learners around the world. The common mistakes in speaking performance will be discussed in this study in order to figure out the mistakes that students often made in smaller environment, in the case of 40 first year students in English major at Can Tho University. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The methodology is presented in this chapter in order to show how this study was effectuated. First, the research aim is started which followed by research question and hypotheses. Next, it mentions the research design and the participants. This study followed by research instrument with the result of the observations, the interviewing and the questionnaire in details. 3.1 Research aim The main purpose of the research is to find out the common mistakes in English speaking performance of the first-year English majored students in Can Tho University. 3.2 Research question and Hypotheses 3.2.1 Research question The following question was addressed in the study: 45 What are the common mistakes in speaking performance of the first year Englishmajored students in Can Tho University? 3.2.2 Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: It is hypothesized that we would be realized the mistakes in speaking performance of the first year students while having conversations or communications. Hypothesis 2: Students would have positive points of view about speaking in English, and avoiding mistakes. 3.3 Research design This study was carried out to elicit the mistakes in speaking performance of the first year English majored students. It was designed as an experimental one. The major approach is the mistakes taken by students in their speaking class and this is a combination of quantitative and qualitative study. The experiment was conducted at Can Tho University. There were 40 students in one class chosen in the study. 3.4 Participants The participants were 40 first year students and an English teacher in charge of teaching listening and speaking in class at Can Tho University and their major is English. They started to take part in their English speaking class for the first semester in higher education level. All of the students in this class were engaged in this study. They all studied how to speak English at secondary and high school. And they had to talk with their teacher in the speaking class at university. This research was conducted in 5 weeks during the first term of the school year 2013-2014. 3.5 Instruments The data collection methods included the observations of the researcher in class, the questionnaire which were taken from students about their popular mistakes in speaking English in this class and the interviews of both teacher and some students’ attitudes towards these mistakes. The instruments include observations, questionnaires and interviews helped to collect quantitative data. Each of instruments was used at different method leading to the results and for the same purpose. The questionnaires were delivered for 40 students 45 involved in the study before investigating the students’ attitudes towards the speaking course. It was used to collect data from students while studying speaking English. Different data sources and analyses from these three instruments could result in a reasonable measure of reliability in the findings. These research instruments will be described in details in the following parts. These instruments for collecting quantitative data were divided into 4 stages. Firstly, the questionnaire would be delivered to 40 students in classroom with the carefully explanations of the researcher to collect their attitudes towards common mistakes which are often made by themselves. That step helped the researcher classify the mistakes into different kinds easier, in order to subscribe these mistakes in class. After that, when the participants finished these questionnaires, the researcher would invite some of them to join the interview directly about their opinions, comments, any others thinking about making mistakes in English speaking performance. Besides that, the researcher would go to the speaking class to take the observation as well as records the speaking performance of students to classify the mistakes and take note the new (if yes). Then, the researcher would invite one teacher teaching English speaking performance to give opinions about common mistakes of students in class to makes the information collected above more reliable. Last but not least, the collected data, information would be analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software. 3.5.1 Questionnaire The survey questionnaire was used as the most important instrument because the large amounts of information could be collected from a large number of people in a short period of time and in a relatively cost effective way. Besides that, the results of the questionnaires can usually be quickly and easily quantified by either a researcher or through the use of a software package. These questionnaires were written in simple English with the examples of the difficult items in order to avoid the students’ misunderstanding which has influence on the analysis results. The questionnaires are distributed at the beginning of the research to investigate the attitude of the students towards their mistakes in speaking. Besides that, they can help the researcher to divide the kinds of mistakes through the data applying in the questionnaires. The questionnaire is designed with a 5-point Likert scale: (5) strongly 45 agree, (4) agree, (3) neutral, (2) disagree, (1) strongly disagree. According to Hiep, M. (2012) stated that the surveys are often used in education and others fields because the accurate information are obtained in a small sample for a large numbers of people. (cited in McMillan and Schumacher (1993)). The reason for using the questionnaire in the research as an instrument for data collecting was that it has the uniformity. Each respondent received the identical set of questions. With closed-form questions, responses were standardized, which could assist in interpreting from large numbers of respondents. Furthermore, the questionnaires were designed to control the information taking from the participants because the participants were asked the same questions and were exposed to answer to the same opinion. There were four parts containing 20 questions. The questions for measuring were related to four aspects of speaking performance mistakes: (1) Students’ attitudes in the grammar mistakes, (2) Students’ opinions towards the mistakes in vocabulary, (3) Students’ difficulties in word choice, (4) Students’ perception towards the benefits of slang understanding. The data were statistically analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Table 3.1 Clustering the questionnaires No. Names of clusters Questions 1. Students’ attitude in the grammar mistakes Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q8, Q9. 2. Students’ opinion towards the mistakes in Q10, Q11, Q12, Q13, Q14 vocabulary 3. Students’ difficulties in word choosing Q15, Q16, Q17 4. Students’ perception towards the benefits of Q18, Q19, Q20 slang understanding 3.5.2 Classroom observation To collect more reliable data as well as the evidence of students’ mistakes in the real situations through the classroom’ activities, the classroom observation was also 45 implemented in this research as one of the data instruments. During the research conducting time, four observation sheets were carefully completed to achieve more practical data. The observation checking report included four sections about four kinds of common mistakes that often made by students in the speaking class. The first one was the mistakes in grammar field. The second was some kinds of problems in the vocabulary, about some difficulties that students have to face with in speaking studying. This section got the special attention by the students, the teacher and the researcher because the vocabulary pronunciation and intonation are the most popular mistakes in speaking performance of students. The next section was the word choice, some understanding in speaking situation and wrong word using was mentioned in this section. The last one was the mistakes and misunderstanding in slang use, one of the popular speaking points in practical English. In the speaking class, students have more chances to practice speaking English so the researcher could note down their mistakes while speaking exactly and conveniently. 3.5.3 Interviews The interviews were designed for both students and the teacher to have an insight into the common mistakes while performing the English speaking. The interviews were useful to obtain detailed information about personal feelings, perceptions and opinions as well as they allowed more detailed questions to be asked. The interview questions for the students were concentrated on the mistakes that they often made, the kinds of mistakes that made them confused and their attitudes towards the difficulties in making mistakes while having a performance. Their perception on their own causes of making these mistakes as well as the influence of these mistakes on their speaking performance were also asked in this stage. The questions with both close-ended and open-ended questions were collected with more and more ideas, thoughts as well as evidence to support the research aim. To be more specific, the questions for the teacher had the main objective that obtaining more reliable and practical information about first year students’ mistakes and the teacher’ attitude towards these mistakes, and how influence of these mistakes on the students’ performance thanks to the teacher’ working experience with these students for quite a long time. The teacher was asked to share her opinion about the 45
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