A study on translation of environmental terms from english into vietnamese

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ------------------------------- ISO 9001 : 2008 KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP NGÀNH: ………............ HẢI PHÒNG - 2010 HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT ----------------------------------- GRADUATION PAPER A STUDY ON THE TRANSLATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TERMS FROM ENGLISH INTO VIETNAMESE By: HOÀNG THỊ THU HƯỜNG Class: NA1004 Supervisor: ĐÀO THỊ LAN HƯƠNG, M.A HAI PHONG - 2010 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG -------------------------------------- Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp Sinh viên: ............................................................Mã số: ............................ Lớp: .............................Ngành:.................................................................... Tên đề tài: ................................................................................................. .................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. .................................................................................................. Nhiệm vụ đề tài 1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ). …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất: Họ và tên: ............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị: ................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Người hướng dẫn thứ hai: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010 Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010 Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Sinh viên Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Người hướng dẫn Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010 HIỆU TRƯỞNG GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN 1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp: …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số liệu…): …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ): …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. Hải Phòng, ngày ….. tháng ..… năm 2010 Cán bộ hướng dẫn (họ tên và chữ ký) NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP 1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài. 2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện : (Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ) Ngày.......... tháng......... năm 2010 Người chấm phản biện ACKNOWLEDGMENT In the process of implementing this graduation paper, I have received great deal of helps, guidance and encouragements from teachers and friends. First of all, I would like to express my deepest thanks to Mrs Dao Lan Huong – my supervior for her encouragement and guidance. During my study process , she has willingly and readily suggested and given me valuable advice and detail comments about my study. Next, I would like to express my gratitude to all teachers in foreign language department for their lectures during 4 years which help me much in completing this paper. Last but not least, I would like to thank my family and my friends who have always encouraged, supported and helped me to complete this paper. Hai Phong,…..2010 Student Hoang Thi Thu Huong TABLE OF CONTENT A Study on the Translation of Environmental terms from English into Vietnamese PART 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 8 1.Reason of the study ...................................................................................... 11 2. Scopes of the study. .................................................................................... 12 3 . Methods of the study. ................................................................................. 12 4. Design of the study. ..................................................................................... 12 PART II : DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................... 14 CHAPER I : THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ...................................... 14 I . Translation theory ....................................................................................... 14 I.1 Definitions.............................................................................................. 14 I.2 Translation types . .................................................................................. 15 I.3 Translation equivalence ......................................................................... 17 I.4 Conclusion ............................................................................................. 19 II. Translation of environmental terms............................................................ 20 II.1 Translation of ESP ............................................................................... 20 II.1.1. Definition of ESP ........................................................................ 20 II.1.2. Types of ESP ............................................................................... 21 II.2 Enviromental ESP translations ............................................................. 23 II.2.1. Definition of technical translation ................................................ 23 II.2.2. Translation in the case of environmental field ............................. 24 CHAPER II: A STUDY ON THE TRANSLATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TERMS FROM ENGLISH TO VIETNAMESE ................................... 26 I.Definitions of terms ...................................................................................... 26 II.General feature of term ................................................................................ 27 II.1.Accurateness ......................................................................................... 28 II.2.Systematism .......................................................................................... 28 II.3.Internationalism .................................................................................... 29 III.Popular Strategies and Procedures appied in the translation of environmental terms. ............................................................................................................... 29 III.1 The related terms in air pollution ........................................................ 32 III.2 Related terms in water pollution ........................................................ 40 III.3 Related terms in soil pollution ............................................................ 51 CHAPTER 3 . IMPLICATION ................................................................... 55 I.Difficulties in translation of environmental terms ........................................ 55 II.Some tips for environmental translation ..................................................... 55 PART3. CONCLUSION ............................................................................... 57 REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 58 PART 1. INTRODUCTION 1.Reason of the study In the recent years, English is more and more widely used as well as gradually proves itself in all fields in society.In Viet Nam, in the process of integration and development , especially after joining in WTO, English is considered as the golden key to make us access to the world‟s civilization. Thanks to translation texts , we can quickly update technical and scientific achievements, international laws , daily news , works of art , literatures , films and conversely , exchange information , culture and trade to other countries in the world . Hence , it is affirmed that the works of translation also acts as a bridge not only to connect people all over the world but also to convey knowledge between cultures and civilizations in the world. With its importance, nowadays, learning and teaching English in environmental terms is facing new challenges . As the matter of fact , this field has recently become more and more popular and the amount of learners goes up much more than it has ever . One recognizable feature of environmental terms is that its translation is much different from literature translation owing to the exaction and fidelity . Students certainly have to face with confusion when they begin their specialist translation , especially , with various environmental terms . Besides , at present , environmental specialist English study is informed in many kinds of broadcast such as : internet , newpapers ….. Teaching and learning environmental English are not standardized . I myself , sometimes , get trouble in translation of technical terms , so hoping that it is likely to accumulate translation skill both in foreign language and mothertounge, forming a capacity of consciously distinguist technical terms with cultural ones . Therefore , it is necessary to figure out some problems in transaltion techniques in general and translations of environmental terms in particular . This will help learners not only translate terms effectively but also master the information from written texts and from visual forms of presentation relates to this field . 2. Scopes of the study. Technical terms are divided into many fields with different vocabularies and own features . In case of environmental terms , readers must devote time and attempt to collect , discover or update new words , new vocabularies in different section of environment . Because the knowledge changes everyday or everytime , the accumulation of specialist information is considered urgent. This study shows more challenges arising during research process as well as patience from learners in environmental field with such a broad scale . Due to limitted knowledge and comprehension , all environmental terms can not be mentioned here . 3 . Methods of study. Documents for environmental terms study are found out from several soures such as : linguistic books , specialist books which are used in universities , and internet . Moreover, a lot of examples or illustrations are given out in each part , the exact or sincereness is certainly ensured because all of them are chosen and selected from believable sources. 4. Design of study. My graduation paper is divided into three parts , in which the second, naturally , is the most important part. Part I is the INTRODUCTION in which reason of the study ,scopes of study , design of study are presented . Part II is the DEVELOPMENT that includes 3 chapters: Chapter I is Theoretical background which focuses on the definition , methods ,procedures of translation in general and ESP translation , technical translation . Chapter II is definition of term , general feature of term and popular strategies and procedures applied in the translation of environmental terms Chapter III is Implication including difficulties in translation of environmental terms and some tips for environmental translation. Part III is the CONCLUSION PART II : DEVELOPMENT CHAPER I : THEORETICAL BACKGROUND I . Translation theory I.1 Definitions. Translation has existed in every corner of our life. It is considered an indispenable part in the fields of not only literature , culture and religion but also commercial advertisement ,popular entertainment , public administration, international, diplomacy, scientific, research publication, judiciary, procedure, immigration and education…..ect. Thus, definitions of translation are numerous , and a lagre number of writers have written about this subject . In this paper , some various concepts of translation have been collected as follows : -Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text and one language ( the source text ) and the production , in another language of equivalent text ( the target text ) that communicates the same message (Wikpedia). - Translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies behind its different verbal expressions ( Savory ,1968:10). -Translation is the transformation of a text originally in one language into an equivalent in the content of the message and the formal features and the roles of original text ( Bell, 1991:7). -Translation is the studying the lexicon , grammatical structure , communication . - Translation is producing in the target language , the closet natural equivalent of the source language message , firstly with respect to meaning and secondly with respect to style ( E.A.Nida, 1959:8) -Newmark (1988 : 9) : Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that author intended the text . -Duff : Translation , as the process of conveying messages across the linguistic and cultural barriers , is an eminently communicative activity, one whose use could be well considered in a wider range of teaching situation than may currently be the case ( Tudor , cites in Duff , 1989:5). -Spivak (1992:5) : Considering translation as the most intimate act of reading (p.398) writes that “ unless the translator has eared the right to become an intimate reader , she can not surrender to the next , can not respond to the special call the text ( p.400) ‟‟. In general , what seem to be understood as translation as Bassett (1994) writes , includes rendering an SL text to TL text so as to ensure that 1) surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar and 2) the structure of the SL will be preserved as closely as possible but no so closely that the TL structures will be seriously distorted . Although these definitions are different in expression , they share common features about finding the closest equivalence in meaning by the choice of appreciate target languages lexical and grammatical structures , communication situation , and cultural content . Some sort of movement from one language to another also depends on translation types that will be shown in the next part. I.2 Translation types . The translation types are often categorized by the number of areas of specialization . Each specialization has its own strategies and difficulties . Some translation types are list as following : -Word – for- word translation : The SL word order is preseved and the words are translated by their most common meanings . Cultural words are translated literally . The main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics of source language or to construe a difficult text as pre- translation process . -Literal translation : Literal translation is a broader form of translation , each SL word has a corresponding TL word , but their primary meanings may differ . The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical items are again translated out of the context . Literal translation is considered the basic translation step , both in communicative and semantic translation , in that translation starts from there. As pre- translation process , it indicates problems to be solved. -Faithful translation : It attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraint of the TL grammatical structures . It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical deviation from SL norms . It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text realization of the SL writer. -Semantic translation : It differs from faithful translation only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text , compromising on meaning where appropriate so that no assonance , word play or repetition jars in the finished version . It does no rely on cultural equivalence and makes very small concessions to the readership while faithful translation is dogmatic , semantic translation is more flexible . Newmark (1982:22) says that “…… semantic translating where the translator attempts , within the base syntactic and semantic constraints of the TL , to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the author ‟‟ . -Adaptation : This is the freest from of translation mainly used for plays and poetry : theme , characters , plots preserved , SL culture converted to TL culture and text is rewritten Dung Vu (2004) points out that : “ Adaptation has a property of lending the ideas of the original to create a new text used by a new language more than to be faithful to the original . The creation in adaptation is completely objective in content as well as form ‟‟. -Free translation : means the translation isn‟t close to the original , but the translator just transmits meanings of the SL in his own words . It reproduces the matter without the manner or the content without the form of the original . Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original . Therefore , the text in TL sounds more natural . On the contrary , translating is too casual to understand the original because of its freedom. -Idiomatic translation : Idiomatic translation is used for colloquialism and idioms whose literalism of the original , uses the translation of colloquialism and idioms . -Communicative translation : It attempts to reader the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both language and content are readily acceptable and comprehensible to readership “ ….. but even here the translation still has to respect and work on the form of the source language text as the only material basic for his work ” ( Peter Newmark ,1982:39). -Translation by using a loan word is particularly common in dealing with culure specific items , modern concepts and buzz words . Using a loan word is dramatically strong method applied for the word which have foreign origin or have no equivalence in TL. -Shift or transposition translation : A “shift” Catford term or “ transposition” ( Vinay & Darbelnet ) is a translation procedure involving a chance in the grammar from SL to TL . One type , the change in the world order is named “ Automatic translation “ and offers translator no choice. I.3 Translation equivalence The comparison of texts in different languages inevitably involves a theory of equivalence . Equivalence can be said to be the central issue in translation although its definition , relevance , and applicability within the field of translation theory have caused heated controversy , and many different theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated within this past fifty years . Pym (19920 has pointed to its circularity equivalence is supposed to define translation , in turn , defines equivalence . Here are some elaborate approaches to translation equivalence . Translational equivalence is the similarity between a word ( and expression ) in one language and its translation in another . This similarity results from overlapping ranges of reference . Translational equivalence is a corresponding word or expression in another language . ( Lingualinks library , Version 5.0 published on CD – ROM by SL International , 2003 ). Nida argued that there are two different types of translation equivalence , namely formal equivalence which in the second edition by Nida and Taber (1982) is referred to as formal correspondence and dynamic equivalence . Formal correspondence “ focuses attention on the message itself , in both form and content ” , it unlike dynamic equivalence which is based upon “ the principle of equivalent effect ” (1964 :159) . In the second edition (1982) or their work , the two theorists provide a more detailed explanation of each type of equivalence. Formal correspondence consists of a TL item which represents the closest equivalence of a SL word or phrase . Nida and Taber make it clear that there are not always formal equivalents between language pairs . They therefore suggest that these formal equivalents should be used wherever possible if the translation aims at achieving formal rather than dynamic equivalence . The use of formal rather than dynamic equivalence . The use of formal equivalents might at times have serious implications in the TL since the translation will not be easily understand by the target audience (Fawcett,1997) . Nida and Taber themselves assert that “ Typically , fromal correspondence distorts the grammatical and stylistic patterns of the receptor language and hence distorts the message so as to cause the receptor to misunderstand or to labor unduly hard” (ibid :201). -Dynamic equivanlence is defined as a translation principle according to which a translator seeks to translate the meaning of original in such a way that the TL wording will trigger the same impact on the TC audience as the original wording did upon the ST audience . They argue that “ Frequenntly , the form of original text is changed , but as long as the change follows the rules of back transformation in the source language , of contextual consistency in the transfer , and of transformation in the receptor language , the message is preserved and the translation is faithful” (Nida and Taber, 1982:200). -Newmark (1988) defined that : “ The overriding purpose of any translation should be to achieve “ equivalence effect to produce the same effect on the readership of translation as was obtained on the readership of the original” . He also sees equivalence effect as the desirable result rather than the aim of any translation except for two cases (a) if the purpose of the SL text is to effect and the TL translation is to inform or vice verse , (b) if there is a pronouncede cultural gap between the SL and the text. Koller (1979) considers five types of equivalence: -Denotative equivalence : The SL and the TL words refer to the same thing in the real world . It is an equivalence of the extra linguistic content of a text . -Connotative equivalence : This type of equivalence provides additional value and is achieved by the translators‟s choice of synonymous words or expressions. -Text – normative equivalence : The SL and the TL words are used in the same or similar context in their respective readers. -Formal equivalence : This type of equivalence produces an analogy of form in the translation by either exploiting formal possibilities of the TL , or creating new forms in TL . Although equivalence translation is defined with different point of view of theorists , it is the same effective equivalence between SL and TL. I.4 Conclusion All status mentioned above have obviously shown characteristics as well as types of equivalence in traslation . In order to discover the similarity between words in SL and ones in TL learners need spend a lot of time researching and seeking reference documents from various sources , then analysis evidence only when they have good understanding about this section . The chanllenges which need to be solved by translators are that what translators will do when there is no word in the TL to express the same meaning as the source language word or when a problem arises from lack of equivalence at word level or about word level . In general not all words can be analysed with correspponding equivalence in different languages,translators , however , have to find out a resonable expression for explaining terms or translation texts so that readers may get a near approach with contents which are included in the texts. II. Translation of environmental terms II.1 Translation of ESP II.1.1. Definition of ESP English for specific purpose (ESP) is a worldwide subject . Hutchinson and Waters (1987) note that two key historical periods breathed life into ESP . First , the end of the second World War brought with it an “…. Age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific , technical and economic activity on an international scale for various reasons , most notably the economic power of the United States in the post war world, the role international language fell to English” . Second, the oil crisis of the early 1970s resulted in western money and knowledge flowing into the oil – rich countries . The language of this knowledge became English. The second key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on the emergence of ESP was a revolution in linguistics whereas traditional linguists set out to describe the features of language , revolutionary pioneers in linguistics began to focus on the ways in which language is used in real communication . Hutchinson and Waters (1987) point out that one significant discovery was in the ways that spoken and written English vary . In other words , given the particular context in which English is used , the variant of English will change . This idea was taken one step farther . If language in different situations varies , then tailoring language instruction to meet the needs of learners in specific contexts is also possible . Hence, in the late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to describe English for science and technology (EST) . Hutchinson and Waters (1987) indentify Ewer and latorre , Swales , Selinker and Trimble as a few of the prominent descriptive EST pioneers. The final reason Hutchinson and Waters (1987) cite as having influenced the
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