A study on translation of economic and trade terminology from english into vietnamese

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ------------------------------- ISO 9001 : 2008 KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ HẢI PHÒNG – 2012 HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT ----------------------------------- GRADUATION PAPER A STUDY ON TRANSLATION OF ECONOMIC AND TRADE TERMINOLOGY FROM ENGLISH INTO VIETNAMESE By: Le Thi Ha Class: NA1201 Supervisor: Nguyen Thi Hoa, M.A HAI PHONG – 2012 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG -------------------------------------- Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp Sinh viên: ..............................Mã số:..................................................... Lớp: ............................ …….Ngành:...................................................... Tên đề tài: ........................................................................................... .................................................................................................. ...................................................................................... Nhiệm vụ đề tài 1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ). …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……………..……………………………………..………………………….. ………………..…………………………………………………………….. …………….………………………………………………………………….. ………………….…………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ………………..…………………………………………………………….. 3. Địa điểm thực tập. ………….…………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……..………………………………………………………..……………….. ……………………………………………………………..…………………… …………………………………………………………..……………………… ………………………………………………………..………………… CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Người hướng dẫn thứ hai: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày…….. tháng …… năm 20…… Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày…… tháng …… năm 20…. Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Người hướng dẫn Sinh viên Hải Phòng, ngày…. Tháng….. năm 20…. HIỆU TRƯỞNG GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN 1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp: …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán giá trị sử dụng, chất lượng các bản vẽ) …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn : (ghi bằng cả số và chữ) Hải Phòng, ngày ….. tháng ..… năm 20… Cán bộ hướng dẫn (họ tên và chữ ký) NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP 1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài. 2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện : (Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ) Ngày.......... tháng......... năm 20… Người chấm phản biện ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the process of completing this graduation paper, I have received a great deal of help, advice, guidance and encouragement from many teachers, friends and my family. It is my great pleasure I have got. First of all, I wish to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Nguyen Thi Hoa, M.A for her constant support, various materials, precious advice and valuable comments on draft chapters to complete this study. This would not have been possible without her supports. Besides, I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Hai Phong Private University for providing us professional learning environment and facilities as well as all the teachers in Foreign Language Department for their useful lessons, teaching, guidance, experience sharing with the kind heart and wholehearted instruction and giving enthusiasm, sympathies to lift us to be better ones as we are today. Especially, I am proud of my family and friends. They are always beside, support and encourage me throughout this study. I wishfully send the deepest gratitude to all of efforts, support for me to complete this graduation paper. Finally, It is an honor for me to extend my regards to all those who kindly gave their advice and supported me. If there are not these helps, I could not complete my graduation paper successfully. All your help and support are motive power for me to finish this study. Hai Phong, December 02nd 2012 Le Thi Ha-NA1201 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PART I: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 1 I. Rationale of the study…………………… ........... ………………………….…1 II. Aims of the study………………………… .......... ……………………….......2 III. Scope of the study………………………… ........... …………………………3 IV. Methods of the study………………………… .......... ..…………………......4 V. Design of the study…………………………… .......... ………………………4 PART II: DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................. 6 CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND…………… ........... ...........6 I. Definition of translation……………………………………… ........... ….……6 II. Translation methods…………………………………......... ........... …….……8 II. 1. Word- for - Word Translation …………………………… ........... ………..8 II. 2. Literal Translation ………………………………………… ........... ………9 II. 3. Faithful Translation ………………………………………… ............. …....9 II. 4. Semantic Translation ……………………………………… ........... …......10 II. 5. Adaptation ………………………………………………… ........... ……..10 II. 6. Free Translation …………………………………………… .......... …......11 II. 7. Idiomatic Translation………..……………………………… .......... …….11 II. 8. Communicative translation………………………………… .......... …......11 III. Translation Equivalence ………………………………………........... ……12 III. 1. Definition of translation equivalence……………………… ........... …….12 III. 2. Types of equivalence………………………………….…… .......... …….13 IV. English for Specific purposes in translation (ESP) …….…… .......... …….15 IV. 1. Definition of ESP…………………………………………........... ……...15 IV. 2. Types of ESP…………………………………….……… ........... ………16 V. Terminology and its main characteristics…………………… .......... ………18 V. 1. Definition of terminology………………………………… ........... ….…..18 V. 2. Main characteristics of terminology……………………… .......... ………18 V. 2.1. Accurateness…………………………………………… .......... …….....19 V. 2.2. Systematism………………………………………………… ........... ….19 V. 2.3. Internationalism …………………………………………… .......... …...20 V. 2.4. Nationalism…………………………………………… ........... ………..21 V. 2.5. Popularity …………………………………………… ........... …….... ...21 V. 3. The distinction between terms and word……………….. ........... ……..…22 CHAPTER II: ECONOMIC AND TRADE TERMINOLOGY………….23 I. Definition of Economics and Trade…………………………........... …….….23 II. Language in economic and trade sector …………………… ........... …….…23 III. The role of terminology in Economic and Trade Translation ….. .......... .. ..24 IV. Classification of Economic and Trade terminology………… ........... ….….24 IV. 1. Single terminology……………………………………… .......... ……….24 IV. 1.1. Single terminology in form of Noun……………… ........... ………….25 IV. 1.2. Single terminology in form of Verb……………… ........... ……...... …26 IV. 2. Neologism ………………………………………… ............ ……………27 IV. 2.1. Eponyms………………………………………… ........... ………… ....27 IV. 2.2. Acronyms……………………………………… ........... ………….. ….28 IV. 3. Compound terminology …………………………… ........... ……………29 IV. 3.1 Terminologies consisting of classifier (noun) + thing …… ............... …29 IV. 3.2. Terminologies consisting of classifier (adjective) + thing … .......... ….30 IV. 3.3. Terminologies consisting of Classifier ( Present participle ) +thing…………………………………………………… ........... ……………...30 IV. 3.4. Terminologies consisting of Classifier ( Past participle ) +thing …………………………………………………… ........... ……………..31 IV.3.5. Terminologies consisting of Classifier (Noun + Present participle) +thing …………………………………………………………....................... ………..31 IV. 3.6. Terminologies consisting of thing + Qualifier……........... …………... 32 IV. 4. Phrase ……………………………………………… ........... ……………32 IV. 5. Positive terminology ………………………………… ........... ………….33 IV. 6. Negative terminology ……………………………… .......... …………...34 CHAPTERIII: POPULAR STRATEGIES AND PROCEDURES APPLIED IN THE TRANSLATION OF ECONOMIC AND TRADE TERMINOLOGY FROM ENGLISH INTO VIETNAMESE...................... 35 I. Popular strategies and procedure applied in non-equivalence…… .......... …..35 I. 1. Translation by paraphrase using unrelated word…………… ........... …….35 I. 2.Translation by paraphrase using related word ……………… ................ …38 I.3. Translation by addition………………………………………… ........... …..40 I.4. Translation by using loan word………………………………… ........... ….42 I.5. Translation by omission ……………………………………… .......... …....44 II. Procedures applied in the Equivalence translation………………........... …..45 II. 1. Literal translation …………………………………………… .......... ……45 I. 2. Shift or transposition translation…………………………… ........... ……..47 III: Main Findings ……………………………………………… ........... ……...49 PART III: CONCLUSION ............................................................................... 52 I. Strength and weakness of thesis……………………………… ........... ……..52 II. Suggestion for the further research and final comments…… .......... ………..52 REFERENCE ................................................................................................... 54 APPENDIX PART I: INTRODUCTION I. Rationale of the study Nowadays, with the development of our society as well as other countries in the world, economic and trade sector has become one indispensables field in the economy in general, development of the countries in particular, including our Vietnam. Thanks to the open-door policy and the renovation process, Vietnam is currently a developing country with many wonderful changes and processes in various fields such as economy, politics, culture and society, science and technology. The Party, Government and all Vietnamese are constantly trying the best to make Vietnam rub shoulders with powerful countries in five continents. Vietnam is on the way of international economic integration. In detail, many enterprises, companies, factories have been established. In addition, there have appeared here many representative offices of foreign companies. We have established the economic and trade relations with a lot of countries. Successful 1 economic and trade cooperation requires many factors, of which mutual understanding is the most importance. Therefore, the translation of economic and trade documents plays an important role and is of the greatest concern. However, the translation from English into Vietnamese or vice versa is a big challenge, because of the differences between English and Vietnamese languages and culture. Especially, in economic and trade field, the translation of its documents in general and terminology in particular is not a simple task because of their fully specific terminology. Moreover, economic and trade cooperation among different countries in the world is increasing, to become a good translator is not only the interest of many people but mine. However, I often meet many difficulties as well as challenges in translation process because of the linguistic differences between the two language systems and the most noticeable difficulty is the problem of how to deal with non-equivalence and equivalence economic and trade terminology. Therefore, with the hope of helping translators, as well as myself particularly, students who have just graduated begin to step out the university environment and have orientation to become future translators in economic and trade field, I implement this study to study on the translation of economic and trade terminology from English into Vietnamese. Hopefully, it can help translators enhance their translation skills after reading. II. Aims of the study The study on the translation of basic economic and trade terminology aims to figure out an overview on translation strategies and procedures which are commonly employed in translation of economic and trade terminology. In detail, my Graduation Paper is aimed at: 2  Reviewing the theoretical issues relating to translation, translation methods, translation equivalence and terminology , its definition and main characteristics.  Collecting and presenting basic English terminology in economic and trade sector.  Providing their Vietnamese equivalences or expressions.  Finding out the translation strategies and procedures applied in the translation of economic and trade terminology from English into Vietnamese.  Providing students major in the subject, translators and those who may concern a draft and short reference of basis English terminology in economics and trade and their corresponding Vietnamese meanings. Hopefully, the study will provide readers overall comprehension about the information of economic and trade terminology, especially for future translators who are willing to become good translators in economic and trade field. III. Scope of the study Terminology is various in different fields such as commerce and business, market, economic laws, insurance, investment, shares and securities, etc… However, it is impossible for me to carry out study on them, due to limitation of time and my knowledge. In my study and work process, recognizing that economic and trade terminology plays an important role in Business Management and Foreign Trade field, especially in the renovation period of our country. Therefore, the major aspects of the investigation are translation and popular translation strategies being applied in economic and trade terminology from English into Vietnamese. 3 IV. Methods of the study As this study is carried out for the sake of translation of economic and trade terminologies from English into Vietnamese, the quantitative method is applied. I have implemented this study with the support sources from economic and trade books and dictionaries, internet and other references. Then, from the collected data I will analyze their features to find the suitable procedures which are used to translate from English into Vietnamese. V. Design of the study This study includes three main parts: The first Part is an Introduction, consist of consist of rationale of the study, aims of the study, scope of the study, methods of the study and design of the study. The second Part is the main part which title Development, being divided into three chapters:  The first chapter is the theoretical background with definitions of translation, translation methods, translation Equivalence, main knowledge on English for Special Purposes (ESP) in translation and terminology along with the distinction between terms and word.  The second chapter is the chapter which I focus on Economic and Trade terminology including definition of economics and trade, language in economic and trade sector, the role of terminology in Economic and trade translation, together with classification of Economic and Trade terminology.  The third chapter is implication of the study which tittles “popular strategies and procedures applied in translation of economic and trade terminology from english into vietnamese”, basic methods applied in non4 equivalence and equivalence translation. Then, I denote main findings which I gained during the time of carrying out this study. The third Part is the Conclusion including strength, weakness of my graduation paper and suggestion for further study. 5 PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER I: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND In this section the issues relating to translation theory such as the definition of translation, translation method, and translation equivalence and relevant theory including: I. Definition Translation, a phenomenon traditionally considered as an “art”, has existed in every corner of our life. It has been approached from a scientific and technical point of view and considered as an indispensable part in the field of not only literature, culture and religion but also commercial advertisement, popular entertainment, public administration, immigration and education….especially in this current renovation economy. Thus, definition has been defined variously. They are defined under many different ways which were given by a lot of famous translators longtime ago as “Foster, Cartford, Reiss, Bell, Pinhhuck…and its definition is continuously discovered, definited in many new ways and began to appeared in books, dictionaries or websites. There have been a great number of books and articles which have been written about this subject. The following are some typical definitions which are basic theoretical background for my study:  Cartford (1965:20) considers as follows: “Translation is the replacement of text material of this language (source language) with text material of another (target language)”.  Hartman and Stork (1971:1) believes that : “Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language”.  Wilss (1982:3) shares as below: 6 “Translation is a transfer process, which aims at the transformation of a written SL text into an optimally equivalent TL text, and which requires the syntactic, the semantic and the pragmatic understanding and analytical processing of the SL”.  Nida, E.A. (1984:83) claims: “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language that closest natural equivalent to the message of the source language, first in meaning and secondly in style”.  Bui Tien Bao, Ha Noi National University has another definition: “Translation is rendering a written text into another language in a way that the author intended the text”.  Advanced Oxford Dictionary ( page 1632)defines: “Translation is the process of changing something that is written or spoken into another language”.  According to wikipedia , translation is claimed: “Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text, likewise called a translation that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language that it is to be translated into is called the target language; the final product is sometimes called the target text.” It is clear that the above definitions given by different linguists from different contexts, share common features of emphasizing the importance of finding closest equivalence in meaning with similar characteristics to the original by the choice of appropriate target language’s lexical and grammatical structures. Some sorts of transfer from one language to another also insist on the different methods of translation which will be taken into consideration in the next part. 7 II. Translation methods For learners of English, there are different approaches to translation with various methods. For a number of definitions of translation given above, we can see that the understandings of translation varies from one to another. The central problem of translating is whether to translate literally or freely. It all depends on some factors such as the purpose of the translation, the nature of readership and the text types. As stated by Peter Newmark (1988:45) there are eight methods of translation. And basing on the degree of emphasis on the SL and TL, he puts it in a flattened diagram as below: SL Emphasis TL Emphasis Word-for-word translation Adaptation Literal translation Free translation Faithful translation Idiomatic translation Semantic translation Communicative translation II. 1. Word- for- word Translation This is the type of translation that English learners are likely to take up in the process of mastering their translation skills. In word-for-word translation, the source language word order is preserved and the words are singly translated by their most common meanings, out of context. Cultural words are literally translated. The main use of this method is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as pre-translation process. For example: All worldly things may change with time, but the impression of the first love will remain a vivid as ever. (Victor Hugo) 8  Tất cả mọi vật trên thế gian có thể thay đổi với thời gian, nhưng ấn tượng về mối tình đầu sẽ tồn tại mãi mãi. (Vương Trung Hiếu, 1993: p.147) II. 2. Literal translation This is a broader form of translation, each SL word has a corresponding TL word, but their primary meaning may differ. The SL grammatical forms are converted to their nearest target language equivalents. However, the lexical words are again translated out of context. Literal translation is considered the basic translation step, both in communication and semantic translation, in that translation starts from there. As pre-translation process, it indicates problems to be solved. For example: I tried for a moment to see the situation through her eyes. (Deignan, 1998: p.6)  Tôi đã thử một lần cố nhìn nhận tình huống theo cách nhìn của cô ta. II.3. Faithful translation This method tries to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraint of the TL grammatical structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical deviation from SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer. For example: Whoever wants to hurt her shall first go over my corpse.  Đứa nào muốn đụng tới cô ấy thì bước qua xác tao đã. 9
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