A study on how to translate related terms in business administration from english into vietnamese

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ------------------------------- ISO 9001 : 2008 KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP NGÀNH NGOẠI NGỮ HẢI PHÒNG - 2010 1 HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT ----------------------------------- GRADUATION PAPER A STUDY ON HOW TO TRANSLATE RELATED TERMS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION FROM ENGLISH INTO VIETNAMESE By: Class: Supervisor: HAI PHONG - 2010 2 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG -------------------------------------- Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp Sinh viên: ............................................................Mã số: ............................ Lớp: .............................Ngành:.................................................................... Tên đề tài: ................................................................................................. .................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. .................................................................................................. 3 Nhiệm vụ đề tài 1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ). …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Địa điểm thực tập tốt nghiệp. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 4 CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất: Họ và tên: ............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị: ................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Người hướng dẫn thứ hai: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày 12 tháng 04 năm 2010 Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày 10 tháng 07 năm 2010 Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Người hướng dẫn Sinh viên Hải Phòng, ngày tháng năm 2010 HIỆU TRƯỞNG GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị 5 PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN 1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp: …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán số liệu…): …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn (ghi bằng cả số và chữ): …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. Hải Phòng, ngày ….. tháng ..… năm 2010 Cán bộ hướng dẫn (họ tên và chữ ký) 6 NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP 1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài. 2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện : (Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ) Ngày.......... tháng......... năm 2010 Người chấm phản biện 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the process of completing this graduation paper, I have received a great deal of help, guidance and encouragement from my teachers and friends. I would like to express my thanks to my supervisor, Mrs. Dao Thi Lan Huong, M.A and my teachers in Foreign Language Department of Hai Phong Private University for helping me through this challenging process. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to all teachers of Foreign Language Department for their supportive lectures during four years that provide me with good background to complete my graduation paper. Finally, I would like to thank my family, my friends who have offered continuous support, encouraged, and helped me to complete this paper. Hai phong, July 2010 Dang Thi Huong 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PART I. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1 1. Reason of the study ................................................................................... 1 2. Scope of the study ..................................................................................... 2 3. Aim of the study ........................................................................................ 2 4. Methods of the study ................................................................................. 2 5. Design of the study. .................................................................................. 3 PART II. DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................... 4 CHAPTER ONE: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ............................. 4 I. TRANSLATION THEORY. .................................................................. 4 I.1 Definitions of translation ........................................................................... 4 I.2. Types of translation .................................................................................. 5 I.3. Translation equivalence: ........................................................................... 7 I.3.1. Definitions of equivalence in translation: .............................................. 7 I.3.2. Types of equivalence in translation ....................................................... 8 II. TRANSLATION OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION TERMS. ............... 8 II.1. ESP in translation. ................................................................................... 8 II.1.1. Definition of ESP ................................................................................. 8 II.1.2.Types of ESP ......................................................................................... 9 II.2. TERM ..................................................................................................... 10 II.2.1. Definitions of term ............................................................................... 10 II.2.2.The characteristics of term .................................................................... 11 II.2.2.1.Business Administration EBE terms translation ................................ 12 CHAPTER TWO: AN INVESTIGATION ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION TERMS AND THEIR VIETNAMESE EQUIVALENCES .............................................14 I. Typical Terms related to company and types of business: ................... 14 I.1. Company ................................................................................................... 14 I.2. Types of a business ................................................................................... 14 II. Typical terms related to personnel management ................................ 18 II.1. People and position ................................................................................. 18 II.2.Power in Business Administration ........................................................... 23 9 II.3 Personnel advertisement and recruiting ................................................. 24 II.4. Training and developing personnel ......................................................... 26 II.5. Salary and benefit policies ..................................................................... 28 III .Typical terms related to production ..................................................... 30 III.1. Production ............................................................................................. 30 III.2. Cost of product ....................................................................................... 31 IV .Typical terms related to business finance policy ................................. 34 IV.1 Asset and capital ..................................................................................... 34 IV.2. Income and expenditure ......................................................................... 35 V .Abbreviations ............................................................................................ 37 VI .Exercises for applying the translation of terms related to BA from English into Vietnamese ............................................................................... 41 CHAPTER THREE: MAIN FINDINGS .................................................... 48 I. Difficulties in translation of BA term .................................................... 48 II. Suggestions for better translation.......................................................... 48 PART III: CONCLUSION ........................................................................... 50 APPENDIX .................................................................................................... 52 REFERENCES .............................................................................................. 57 10 PART I: INTRODUCTION 1. Reasons of the study: In the development history of human beings, the economic development has been considered the most important factor. It shows power and status of a country over the world. Therefore, economic development is the central concern in all countries including Vietnam. To achieve a strong and stable economy, it is very necessary to get good leaders of business in each country. Apart from their own experiences in business, the leaders also need to equip themselves with the knowledge of management. The translating Business Administration terms from English into Vietnamese helps learners and researchers easily approach the useful foreign documents of the Business Administration in particular as well as the economics in general. The study on translating Business Administration terms helps learners of economics major easily approach the useful foreign economics documents. Business Administration is not a quite new field in Vietnam; nowadays, it becomes a main major in many universities. However, in comparison to the developed countries such as English, America, ect; in Vietnam, Business Administration is at younger age in both skills and experience of management. Therefore, it is essential to research and learn Business Administration. Many people encounter troubles in researching documents related to Business Administration because all the useful documents are written in foreign language (mainly English). In the integration with global economy, English is used broadly in companies to serve for activities of business such as transaction, marketing, ect. Therefore, study of translating Business Administration terms is more important. Besides, it also helps me get the basic knowledge of Business Administration in particular as well as 11 economics in general and makes me more confident and helps me have more chance to choose and find a good job in the future. In conclusion, study on translating of BA terms from English into Vietnamese is very important. Moreover, I could have more thorough knowledge and understanding about English for Business and Economic translation in general and translation of Business Administration in particular. 2. Scope of the study: BA terms lie in a system of English for specific purposes (ESP) of English for Business and economic. To translate and study these terms, it requires the learners to have to invest a great volume of time. However, due to the limitation of time and knowledge of BA, I could not cover all aspects of this theme. I only focus on studying on translating of BA terms by referring terms related to BA, its concepts and its equivalence meaning in Vietnamese. I hope that this study partly provides readers with overall comprehension about translating terms related to BA and helps the students as well as researchers of BA major translate it effectively. 3. Aim of the study: This graduation paper is studied to help learners widen their knowledge of vocabulary in Business Administration, especially in deeply understanding the concept of Business Administration terms. From that, the learners could have general understanding about translating these terms. 4. Methods of the study: During the research process I did some works to serve for writing this theme such as: o Collecting and presenting the Basic English terms in Business Administration. o Analyzing and classifying these terms into groups. o Finding the concepts of these terms and their equivalence meaning in Vietnamese. 12 o Giving some exercises to apply for translating these terms. To get the exactly information, I also used the reference books, internet, and Oxford business English dictionary. I hope that this study partly helps learners deal with the problem of translating BA terms. 5. Design of the study: My graduation paper is divided into three parts, of which the second part is the most important.  Part I is the introduction. This part includes reasons of the study, aim of the study, scope of the study, methods of the study, design of the study.  Part II is the development. This part includes three chapters: Chapter one is the theoretical background which focuses on definitions, methods, procedures of translation in general and ESP translation in particular, EBE (English for Business and economic) terms translation. Chapter two is the investigation on business administration terms and their Vietnamese equivalences and exercises are given to apply for translating BA terms. Chapter three: Main findings  Part three: Conclusion. 13 PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER ONE: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND I. TRANSLATION THEORY. I.1 Definitions of translation: First of all, we can realize that translation has an important role in the developing process of each country. Through translating, people could selectively learn and absorb the quintessences of other countries in all cultural, economic, scientific, technological fields. Therefore, translation has great contribution to human civilization. Awareness of translation importance, many writers has written about the definitions of translation. In this paper, the concepts of translation have been collected as follows: “Translation is the expression in another language (target language) of what has been expressed in one language (source language), preserving semantic and stylistic equivalencies.” (By Bell R.T. ,1991). “Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language.” (By Bell, R.T. ,1991). “Translation is rending a written text into another language in a way that the author intended the text.” (By Bui Tien Bao-Hanoi National University). All above definitions also show that translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Translation consists of studying the lexicon, grammar structure, communication situation, and cultural context of a source language text, analyzing it to determine its meaning, then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon, grammar structure which is appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. I.2. Types of translation: 14 A. Word-for-word translation: in which the SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of this method is to understand the mechanic of source language. For example: The students like to study translation (In Vietnamese: các sinh viên thích học dịch). B. Literal translation: This is a broader form of translation, each source language word has a corresponding TL word, but their primary meaning may differ. The SL grammatical forms are converted to their nearest target language equivalents. However, the lexical words are again translated out of context. Literal translation is considered the basic translation step, both in communication and semantic translation. For example: John found the book on mathematics. (In Vietnamese: John tìm thấy cuốn sách viết về môn toán) C. Faithful translation: This method tries to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of original within constrain of the TL grammatical structure. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical derivation from the SL norms. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions of the SL writer. For example: a) Equal pay for equal work (In Vietnamese: Tiền lương phải tương xứng với công việc). b) As light as feather (In Vietnamese: Nhẹ như lông hồng) D. Semantic translation: It differed from faithful translation only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, 15 compromising on meaning where is appropriate so that no assonance, word play, or repetition jars in the finished version. For example: Love me, love my dog (In Vietnamese: Làm dâu trăm họ) E. Adaptation translation: This method is freest form of translation. It is frequently used for plays and poetries, SL culture is converted to TL culture and text is rewritten. For example: “Ahmed and Ahmee, two little boys, were returning home and should have been back long ago.” (In Vietnamese: Ahmed và Ahmee hai cậu bé đang trở về nhà và lẽ ra hai cậu đã phải trở về nhà từ lâu lắm rồi). (Quách Thu Nguyệt, 2002: 28) F. Free translation: Free translation is the translation which is not close to the original, but the translator transmits meaning of the SL in her/his own words. It reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. Although translation by this way makes the text in TL sounds more natural, translating is too casual to understand the original because of its freedom. For example: “Phía trên ngọn cây có một ngôi sao toả ra vô số những tia sáng kỳ ảo giống như ngôi sao đã từng toả sáng ở bethlehem trư ớc đây”. (In English: On the top, looking down on the tree with its myriads of tiny fairy lights is a Christmas star-shining and silvery as the star in Bethlehem shone so long ago (Quách Thu Nguyệt. 2001: 12). 16 G. Idiomatic translation: Idiomatic translation reproduces the “message“ of the original but tends to distort nuance of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and the idioms where the idioms do not exist in the original. For example: Still water runs deep. (In Vietnamese: tẩm ngẩm tầm ngầm mà đá chết voi) H. Communication translation: Communication translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both language and content are readily acceptable and comprehensive to the readership. For example: Hey, where are you going? (InVietnamese: chào anh/chị) I.3. Translation equivalence: I.3.1. Definitions of equivalence in translation: The problem of equivalence is one of the most important issues in the field of translating. It is a question of finding suitable counterparts in target language for expressions in the SL. Here are some definitions of equivalence in translation: According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary (1984), equivalence is the same, similar or interchangeable with something else. In translation terms, equivalence is a term used to refer to the nature and extent of the relationships between SL and TL texts or smaller linguistic units. According to Leonardo, V. (2000), translation equivalence is the similarity between a word in one language and its translation in another. This similarity results from overlapping ranges of reference. 17 I.3.2. Types of equivalence in translation: In the second edition by Nida and Taber (1982), Nida argues that there are two different types of equivalence, namely formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence. She distinguishes that: The formal equivalence (or formal correspondence): focuses attention on the message itself in both form and content” The dynamic equivalence: based upon “the principle of equivalent effect”. According to Koller, W. (1979), equivalence translation is considered five types: Denotative equivalence: The SL and the TL words refer to the same thing in the real world. It is an equivalence of the extra linguistic content of a text. Connotative equivalence: This type of equivalence provides additional value and is achieved by the translator‟s choice of synonymous words or expressions Text-normative equivalence: The SL and the TL words are used in the same or the similar context in their respective languages. Pragmatic equivalence: With the readership orientation, the SL and the TL words have the same effect on their respective readers. Formal equivalence: This type of equivalence produces an analogy of form in the translation by either exploiting formal possibilities of TL, or creating new forms in TL. In conclusion, definitions and types of equivalence translation are referred by theorists in different ways, but it is the same effective equivalence between SL and TL. II. TRANSLATION OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION TERMS. II.1. ESP in translation II.1.1. Definition of ESP ESP (English for Specific Purposes) nowadays becomes popular in all fields. Since post world war, the economic power of United States has distributed to 18 global economy, thank to applying the achievement of unprecedented expression in scientific, technical and economic. Therefore, English has become the international language, and the demand of learning English is more essential. Some people described ESP as simply being the teaching of English for any purpose that could be specified. Other, however, described it as the teaching of English for vocational or professional purposes. According to Huchinson and Waters (1987), ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner‟s reason for learning”. II.1.2.Types of ESP According to Carver, D. (1983), English for Specific Purpose is identified into three types of ESP: English as a restricted language English for Academic and Occupational Purposes English with specific topics. a. English as a restricted language: According to Mackay and Mountford (1978), this type of ESP is only used in the vocational environment, and would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment (pp.4-5). We can realize that this type of ESP is used by traffic controllers or by waiters. b. English for Academic and Occupational Purposes: In the “Tree of ELT” (Hutchinson & Water, 1987), ESP is broken into three branches: a) English for Science and Technology (EST) b) English for Business and Economics (EBE) c) English for Social Studies (ESS) Each of these subject areas is further divided into two branches: 19 English for Academic Purposes (EAP) English for Occupational Purposes (EOP) An example of EOP for the ESP branch is “English for Technicians” whereas an example of EAP for the EST branch is “English for Medical Studies”. c. English with specific topics: According to Carver, D. (1983), he notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts from purpose to topic. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in the foreign institutions. During the research process of definition and types of ESP, it shows that Business Administration terms belong to EBE (English for Business and Economics). II.2. TERM II.2.1. Definitions of term Linguists have proposed up to hundred definitions of terminology. In “Dictionary of Linguistic Terminology” (1997), there are different definitions of terminology. In the word of Nguyen Van Tu (1960:176), “Terminology is a word or combination of words that is used in particular activity, job, profession… It has specific meaning, denotes precise concepts and name of the abovementioned scientific areas”. In “Russian encyclopedia” (1976:473-474), “Terminology is a word or combination of words that denotes the concept precisely and its relationship with other concept in a specific area. Terminology is a specialized and restricted expression on things, phenomena, characteristic and the relationships in a specific profession”. According to Nguyen Thien Giap (1985:309-309), he claimed that terminology, which is understood as a specific linguistic unit of a language, 20
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