A study on extra-activities to improve english speaking skill of qttn class at hpu

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BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG ------------------------------- ISO 9001 : 2008 KHÓA LUẬN TỐT NGHIỆP NGÀNH: NGOẠI NGỮ HẢI PHÒNG – 2012 1 HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVESITY FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT ----------------------------------- GRADUATION PAPER A STUDY ON EXTRA-ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILL OF QTTN CLASS AT HAIPHONG PRIVATE UNIVERSITY By: Ta Thi Minh Phuong Class: NA1202 Supervisor: Mrs. Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa HAI PHONG – 2012 2 BỘ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC DÂN LẬP HẢI PHÒNG -------------------------------------- Nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp Sinh viên: ..............................Mã số:..................................................... Lớp: ............................ …….Ngành:...................................................... Tên đề tài: ........................................................................................... .................................................................................................. ...................................................................................... 3 Nhiệm vụ đề tài 1. Nội dung và các yêu cầu cần giải quyết trong nhiệm vụ đề tài tốt nghiệp ( về lý luận, thực tiễn, các số liệu cần tính toán và các bản vẽ). …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Các số liệu cần thiết để thiết kế, tính toán. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……………..……………………………………..………………………….. ………………..…………………………………………………………….. …………….………………………………………………………………….. ………………….…………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ………………..…………………………………………………………….. 3. Địa điểm thực tập. ………….…………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………….. ……..………………………………………………………..……………….. ……………………………………………………………..…………………… …………………………………………………………..……………………… ………………………………………………………..………………… 4 CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỀ TÀI Người hướng dẫn thứ nhất: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Người hướng dẫn thứ hai: Họ và tên:............................................................................................. Học hàm, học vị:................................................................................... Cơ quan công tác:................................................................................. Nội dung hướng dẫn:............................................................................ Đề tài tốt nghiệp được giao ngày…….. tháng …… năm 20…… Yêu cầu phải hoàn thành xong trước ngày…… tháng …… năm 20…. Đã nhận nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Đã giao nhiệm vụ ĐTTN Người hướng dẫn Sinh viên Hải Phòng, ngày…. Tháng….. năm 20…. HIỆU TRƯỞNG 5 GS.TS.NGƯT Trần Hữu Nghị PHẦN NHẬN XÉT TÓM TẮT CỦA CÁN BỘ HƯỚNG DẪN 1. Tinh thần thái độ của sinh viên trong quá trình làm đề tài tốt nghiệp: …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. Đánh giá chất lượng của khóa luận (so với nội dung yêu cầu đã đề ra trong nhiệm vụ Đ.T. T.N trên các mặt lý luận, thực tiễn, tính toán giá trị sử dụng, chất lượng các bản vẽ) …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Cho điểm của cán bộ hướng dẫn : (ghi bằng cả số và chữ) Hải Phòng, ngày ….. tháng ..… năm 20… Cán bộ hướng dẫn (họ tên và chữ ký) 6 NHẬN XÉT ĐÁNH GIÁ CỦA NGƯỜI CHẤM PHẢN BIỆN ĐỀ TÀI TỐT NGHIỆP 1. Đánh giá chất lượng đề tài tốt nghiệp về các mặt thu thập và phân tích tài liệu, số liệu ban đầu, giá trị lí luận và thực tiễn của đề tài. 2. Cho điểm của người chấm phản biện : (Điểm ghi bằng số và chữ) Ngày.......... tháng......... năm 20… Người chấm phản biện 7 8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the process of completing this graduation paper, I have received a great deal of help, guidance, and encouragement from many teachers, friends and my family. I have faced to many difficulties, but thank to your help, I overcame all troubles and completed my graduation paper. First of all, I would like to express my grateful thanks to Ms. Nguyen Thi Quynh Hoa, M.A – my supervisor – for her constant and tireless support throughout this study. During my studying process, she has willingly and readily, suggested and given me valuable advice and detailed comments about my study. Furthermore, my sincere thanks also go to other teachers in foreign language department for their teaching which helps me much in completing this study. Especially, I am profoundly grateful to all the members in my family and friends, who always beside me, supporting time to complete this study. Finally, I would like to thank all those who have kindly given their advice and helped me with source material during the writing of this graduation paper. Hai Phong, December, 2012 Ta Thi Minh Phuong 9 TABLE OF CONTENT PART I : Introduction ……………………………………………….……….1 1. Rationale …………………………………………………….……..……1 2. Aims of the study …………………………………………….…….……2 3. Scope of the study…………………………………………….….………2 4. Methods of the study………………………………………………….…2 5. Design of the study………………………………………………………3 PART II: Development………………………….……………………………4 Chapter1: Theoretical background………………………………………….…4 1. Speaking ……………………………………………………………..…4 1.1. Definition of speaking……………………………………………4 2. Factors affecting learners’ speaking skill…………………………….…5 2.1. Listening ……………………………………………………...…5 2.2. Grammatical accuracy………………………………………...…6 2.3. Understanding pronunciation……………………………….……7 2.4. Accent neutralization………………………………………….…9 2.5. Organization ideas……………………………………………...11 2.6. English fluency…………………………………………………14 2.7. Enthusiasm ……………………………………………………….15 2.8. Self-confidence……………………………………………………16 2.9. Paralinguistic communication skills……………………………17 2.10. Length of answers………………………………………………18 3. Extra –activities ……………………………………………………...…18 3.1. Definition of extra-activities……………………………………18 3.2. Some form of extra-activities………………………………….. 19 Chapter 2: Research Methodology ……………………………………….…40 1. Introduction …………………………………………………………….....40 2. The Objective of the Survey…………………………………………….… 40 10 3. Subjects…………………………………………………………………… 40 4. Methodology and Method of the Survey ………………..…………………41 4.1. Methodology ……………………………………….……………………41 4.2. Method …………………………………………………..………………41 5. Procedures …………………………………………………………………41 Chapter 3: finding and discussion ……………………………………………42 3.1. Students’ English ability…………………………………………………42 3.2.Students’ attitude towards how speaking important to them ….…………43 3.3.Students’ taking part in extra-activities ……………………………….…43 3.4. Taken Forms of extra-activities……………………………………….…44 3.5. Students’ opinion about extra-activities……………………………….…44 PART III: Conclusion …………………………………………….…..……46 1. Conclusion…………………………………………….……..……..… 46 2. Suggested techniques…………………………….……………….……47 3. Suggestions for further study………………………….………….……51 References Appendixes Student’s questionaire 11 PART ONE : INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Speaking skill is one of the important factor for judging a person‟s English ability. In the international relationship, English speaking ability is very important to be able to participate in the wider world of work. The speaking skill is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language. This reality makes teachers and parents think that speaking ability should be mastered by students As a master of fact, it is not easy to study well a foreign language like English. Almost students have difficulties in communication. In fact, communication well is one of the key which helps learners step by step discover this interesting language. To the non-major students especially business administration students, speaking English is increasingly is important factor, plays an essential role in integrating new flat working environment. However, not all people are aware of this. From my point of view , there is a need for business administration students to be prepared for more business related communication in addition to the more social and casual day- to -day communication skills that the majority of the business administration students can master. With this graduation paper, the writer wishes to stress the importance of extraactivities to improve English communication of business administration students, especially QTTN‟ students All the above reasons have inspired the writer to choose the subject “ A study on extra-activities to improve English speaking skill of QTTN class at HPU” to do research 12 2. Aims of the study With the hope of helping the business administration students make progress in studying English speaking through extra-activities, the graduation paper aims at finding out problems and expectations in English speaking study. Moreover, some suggestions on appreciate techniques to study English speaking have been given. Hopefully, students will be interested in learning English speaking. So that they will pay much attention to the lectures and get better results/ 3. Scope of the study In fact, there are lots of various techniques to study English communication. It requires much of time and effort. However, due to the limitation of time, resources and knowledge of mine, this study con only focus on study some effective techniques in studying English speaking for the business administration students. 4. Methods of the study English speaking is a big theme; however, because of the limited time and my knowledge, in this paper, the writer only focuses on note taking skill problems in listening faced by business administration students and some techniques for teaching English to solve these problems. The study limits itself at finding out the difficulties in learning speaking skill of QTTN students. Moreover, the researcher concentrates on improving note taking skill in speaking class accessed in the view of both students and lecturers 13 5. Design of the study The study contains 3 parts Part I: Introduction presents the rationales, aims, research questions, scope, method and design of the study. Part II: Development consists of three chapters Chapter 1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND - deals with the concepts including speaking and factors effected to speaking skill. Chapter 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - gives the situation analysis, subjects, and data collection instruments. Chapter 3: FINDING AND DISCUSSION – shows the results of the survey and a comprehensive analysis on the data collected. Part III: Conclusion presenting an overview of the study, suggestions for further research and limitations of the study. 14 PART TWO: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS 1. Speaking 1.1. Definition of speaking In Oxford Advanced Dictionary the definition of speaking is to express or communicate opinions, feelings, ideas, etc, by or as talking and it involves the activities in the part of the speaker as psychological, physiological (articulator) and physical (acoustic) stages. According to Chaney, speaking is the process of building and sharingmeaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts. While another expert, Theodore Huebner said “Language is essentially speech, and speech is basically communication by sounds” And according to him, speaking is a skill used by someone in daily life communication whether at school or outside. The skill is acquired by much repetition; it primarily a Oxford Advanced Dictionary, p. 13 A. L. Chaney and T. L. Burke, Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8 (Boston: Allyn &Bacon, 1998), p. 13 From the above definition, it can be inferred that speaking is expressing ideas, opinions, or feelings to others by using words or sounds of articulation in order to inform, to persuade, and to entertain that can be learnt by using some teaching learning methodologies. 15 1.2. Learning speaking Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's world requires that the goal of studying speaking should improve students' communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance 2. Factors effecting learners’ speaking 2.1. Listening Listening comprehension is a very basic skill one must have in order to be a good English speaker. One of the most common and critical mistakes non-native speakers of English make is focusing their time and effort in improving their English speaking skills without first assessing and practicing their English listening comprehension skills. A lot of them actually know grammar rules pretty well and can construct even complex sentences. Surprisingly, just when you thought they can communicate well in English, they suddenly come to a halt when asked questions. Some non-native speakers cannot understand the question/s, because the one asking speaks too fast or because of the speaker‟s accent (in case of an Australian or a British speaker for example). They would often ask the speaker to repeat the question several times or request the speaker to speak more slowly, before they finally understand the question. Some, on the other hand, answer the question/s impressively (with not many mistakes in grammar and pronunciation; good explanations and examples; 16 amazing fluency) just to find out in the end that he or she misunderstood the question, and therefore gave an inappropriate answer. 2.2 Grammartical Acurracy Some people wonder why there is a need to have grammatical accuracy in English, when even some native English speakers commit grammatical mistakes themselves. Native English speakers can say what they want without much difficulty due to their familiarity of the language. If they have difficulty expressing a certain concept/thought in a certain way, they can just use other ways of saying those things. They may commit some mistakes in grammar, but the mistakes do not distort or change the meaning of the sentences they want to convey, thus, it doesn‟t give the listener much of a problem understanding them. On the other hand, the mistakes many non-native speakers of English commit are those that often change the meaning of sentences they want to express, and thus create a misunderstanding. That‟s exactly the reason why non-native speakers have to study grammar more than native speakers. Example : . Pronouns Ex. Everybody have their work to do. (The indefinite pronouns each, anyone, anybody, , everybody and everyone are referred to by singular pronouns. The sentence should have read “Everybody has his work to do.) Ex. I watched a movie with my wife last night. He liked it very much. (He‟s talking about his wife and then he used “he” to refer to her afterwards.) • Adjectives Ex. She is the most fairest girl I have ever seen. Ex. He is worst than my ex-husband. 17 (If only two things/people are being compared, “worse” should be used instead of “worst”.) Ex. I met little people in the conference. (“Little” is used to refer to noncount nouns. “Few” should have been used in the sentence above, unless of course the writer/speaker was referring to midgets or dwarfs, or if he used the word little “figuratively”.) • Verbs Ex. Few is expected to fail the test. (The indefinite pronouns both, many, several and few take a plural verb.) Ex. They hanged the old fiddle in the woodshed. (Some are confused with hanged and hung. “Hanged” means to kill somebody or yourself by fastening a rope around the neck and removing any other support for the body. “Hung”, on the other hand, means to suspend or fasten something so that it is held up from above. In this sentence, it seems as if the old fiddle was killed, which of course doesn‟t make any sense.) Ex. I go to school yesterday. (The word “yesterday” indicates a past event, so the verb used should have been “went”.) Ex. She swimmed very fast the last time we were at the beach. (“Swam” should have been used instead of “swimmed.”) Ex. He don‟t know anything about it. (“Doesn‟t” should be used instead of “don‟t” because the subject “he” is singular.) 2.3. Understanding pronunciation It is quite common for non-native speakers of English to mispronounce English words. However, it is not something we have to be ashamed of, but something learners ought to understand. They have to get to the root/s of the problems, in order for us to improve our pronunciation. English is not phonetic Unlike other languages, English is not phonetic. What does that mean? It means 18 we don‟t always say English words the way we spell them. Let‟s compare two languages as an example. Ex. The Japanese word “honto” (really) is pronounced the way it is spelled. The English word “really” is not pronounced as "re-a-li" or "re-a-lai", nor is the word “really” spelled as “rili”. Ex. Another example is the word “read”. At times it is pronounced as [red] and at times as [ri:d]. Although the spelling may not change, the way it is pronounced changes depending on the tense you are using. That‟s one of the main reasons non-native speakers of English get confused in pronouncing many English words, especially if their native tongue is phonetic. The Sounds of -ed The past simple tense and past participle of all regular English verbs end in “ed”. However, the “ed” added to the verbs may have different sounds which depends if the base verb‟s sound is voiceless or voiced. What is the difference between voiced and voiceless sounds? VOICED -A consonant is voiced when it makes the vocal cords vibrate. VOICELESS -When a consonant is pronounced without vibrating the vocal cords, it‟s voiceless. There are three ways of pronouncing the –ed sound. / Id/ or / t/ or / d/ 19 Keep in mind that it is not the spelling but the sound that is important. For instance, „wax” ends in x but the sound is /s/. There are some exceptions though. The following words used as adjectives are pronounced with / Id/. blessed, aged, ragged, wretched, naked, crooked Two ways of pronouncing “the” hen used before a vowel sound, we say “the” as “thee”. Keep in mind that it is the sound we should listen to, not the letters themselves. Ex. The apple is pronounced as “thee apple”. The hour is pronounced as “thee hour”. (hour sounds like our) When used before a consonant sound, we say “the” as “thuh”. Ex. The graduates is pronounced as “thuh graduates”. The university is pronounced as “thuh university”. (university sounds like yuniversity) 2.4 Accent neutralization What is accent? Who has an accent? What do we do to neutralize our accent? These questions and more will be answered by this post. Everyone has an accent. So, when listeners hear some people say, “She‟s good 20
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